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Relationships between nutrition, body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS) and fertility were explored in 11 captive female muskoxen between 1988–1994. In 1987, six adult female muskoxen were allocated to high plane (HP) or low plane (LP) nutritional treatments (HP n= 3; LP n= 3), which were maintained year-round through spring 1995 (HP n= 6; LP n= 5). Treatment group size fluctuated annually. Age, lactation status, calving date and calf birth weight were recorded for each cow. Body weight was measured weekly and BCS measured bi-weekly throughout the mating season from 1 August to 31 October. Sixty-one complete observations of BW and BCS in autumn, lactation status and calving success were collected. Body weight and BCS differed significantly (t-test) with pregnancy (P < 0.001) and nutritional treatment (P < 0.001). A significant logistic regression model was generated for the relationship between BW in October and pregnancy (P < 0.001). When BCS each month was combined with BW in October, BCS in September was the most significant variable (P < 0.001) and the only one to enter the model. Neither lactational status nor year, in combination or alone, was significant. Both BW in autumn (176 kg provides a 50% probability of a female calving the following spring) and BCS (score of six provides a 50% probability of successful calving) can be useful predictors of fertility in muskoxen. The ability of muskoxen to make significant gains in weight and body condition in autumn may represent a nutritional control point regulating reproduction in this species.