The relationship between reproductive status and reproductive physiology was investigated in male Damaraland mole-rats Cryptomys damarensis, an eusocial rodent that exhibits a marked reproductive division of labour. Testicular anatomical and histological morphometrics, selected sperm motion parameters and measurements of circulating plasma testosterone were studied in 44 males (17 reproductive and 27 non-reproductive). Reproductive males were significantly larger than non-reproductive males. Testicular mass of reproductive males, corrected for body mass, was significantly larger than in non-reproductives. However, corrected testicular volume did not vary significantly between the two groups. Circulating plasma testosterone concentrations of reproductives and non-reproductives were not significantly different (reproductive males 201.5 ± 56.5 pg/l vs 187.5 + 91 pg/l for non-reproductive males). The quality of sperm was measured by the percentage of spermatozoa produced and the amount of immature sperm, and differed between the two groups. Reproductive males produced a greater proportion of motile sperm (77.8%) than non-reproductives (56.3%). Non-reproductive males were characterized by a greater proportion of immature sperm in the epididymis (79%) than the reproductives (25%). Interestingly, the spermatozoa of reproductive males were characterized by a greater percentage of head and tail defects. Oligospermia may be the result of a reduction in circulating follicle stimulating hormone, which acts upon the Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules, that in turn may be due to a lack of an opportunity to mate while in the confines of the colony in this obligate outbreeder.