Appendix S1 The change in body mass of female hedgehogs first weighed at dusk and weighed again between 1 and 6?h later the same night. The equation for the curve is y?=?19.7?ln(x)?+?18.6. Appendix S2 Examples of the seasonal changes in female hedgehog body mass in relation to their reproductive state; (a) a non-breeding sub-adult and (b) an adult that successfully reared a late-season litter after first rearing an early-season litter. Appendix S3 Four methods used to distinguish between adult and sub-adult hedgehogs. Appendix S4 Growth curves showing 1 sd for juvenile hedgehogs based on multiple recapture of 26?female and 23?male individuals. Birth dates were known to within 1-4?days accuracy. (a) Females, sample sizes (30-day sample first) 15, 16, 12, 10, 8, 7, 7, 7 and 7. (b) Males, sample sizes (30-day sample first) 11, 12, 11, 9, 8, 7, 7, 6 and 4. For the practical purposes of ageing juveniles the curve for females is linear (y?=?52.2?x?+?53) and the curve for males is linear up to 90 days (y?=?62.1?x?+?30).

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