• acoustic community;
  • amphibian;
  • subtropical anuran


We recorded anuran vocalizations in each of four habitats at Lien Hua Chih Field Station, Taiwan, between July 2000 and July 2001. For each 27 biweekly sample, eight recorders taped calls for 1 min out of every 11 between the hours of 17:00 and 07:00. We obtained 11 481 recordings with calls, and identified 21 503 frogs or groups of frogs. These included 20 species, with an average of 10.4±3.5 species calling each night. Some species called year round, others called in the spring and summer, and a third group called only in the fall and winter. The number of species calling and the maximum calling intensity were correlated with both rainfall and air temperature. The nightly pattern of calling varied among species. Most species called continuously throughout the night, whereas some had a peak right after dusk. A few species had different nightly calling patterns in different habitats. Both Rana limnocharis and Rana kuhlii changed their calling pattern in the presence of large choruses of other anuran species.