• puncturing;
  • indenters;
  • canine teeth;
  • odontology;
  • crack propagation


Idealized edged and non-edged indenters, mimicking canine teeth, were used to puncture thin materials and thick materials. Less force was needed for the edged (triangular in cross section) indenter to penetrate thin Mylar, paper, leather, beetle elytra and turkey skin than the non-edged (circular in cross-section) indenter. Oak, grass and magnolia leaves responded equally to both indenters. In thick materials, the edged indenter punctured beetles, shrimp, bananas, and chicken flesh more easily than the non-edged indenter. Apple, tomato and avocado were punctured equally well. The edged indenter directs cracks at the corners so that the material can fold away in the direction of puncture, whereas cracks form unpredictably with the non-edged indenter. Edged indenters have the advantage in many of the materials tested.