• Tayassu pecari;
  • Tayassu tajacu;
  • Panthera onca;
  • Puma concolor;
  • niche separation;
  • predator–prey relationships;
  • movements;
  • Brazilian Amazonia


As part of a study on the ecology of a community of middle-sized and larger mammals in a seasonally dry forest in the far north of the Brazilian Amazonia, peccaries (the white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari and the collared peccary Tayassu tajacu) and large cats (the jaguar Panthera onca and the puma Puma concolor) were regularly surveyed for 1 year. Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were carried out by the line-transect method, in five different forest types along a 10 km transect, and data were collected on their use of the forest types. The peccary herds and the large cats were sighted regularly throughout the study period, but more frequently over the dry season in the high-ground forests in eastern Maracá. Over the dry season, when food was scarce except in the Buritizals, T. pecari, closely followed by a P. onca, monopolized the Buritizal forests, whereas T. tajacu, followed by a P. concolor, exploited the other available high-ground forest types. Fluctuations in food supply regulated the dynamics of the two species of peccaries, which ultimately determined the whereabouts of the large cat predators. This may be a counter-strategy to survive in an extremely seasonal environment where food, more than any other variable, is the key determinant of the survival of both peccaries and large cats.