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Keywords:

  • reproduction;
  • parity;
  • progestogen;
  • resource availability;
  • rodent;
  • Xerus

Abstract

The reproductive output of iteroparous females is influenced by parity and resource availability. To gain a better understanding of the reproductive decisions made when animals are faced with potential trade-offs between current and future reproduction; we investigated the relationship of parity and resources availability on reproductive intervals and success by comparing the performance of primiparous and multiparous female Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris from two study sites that differed in resource availability. Our study included the correlation of reproductive behavioral data with fecal hormonal information to establish a normative endocrine profile for pregnancy and lactation. Parity had a major influence on juvenile emergence with multiparous females having more juveniles emerge successfully. Resource availability did not influence reproductive output, either because of an interaction among multiple resource components including quantity, predictability and length of time those resources were available or because other factors (such as predation or parasitism) have a greater impact on reproductive success.