The C57BL/6J (B6) inbred mouse strain is commonly used in biomedical researches. However, some unexpected inconsistency was reported compared with previous studies, and in most cases, it can be attributed to environmental, epigenetic or stochastic differences. The goal of this study was to investigate the genetic stability of the B6 strain maintained in different breeders. B6 mice purchased from five Chinese commercial breeders were examined, and mitochondrial D-loop sequence and 18 microsatellite loci were genotyped. There is no difference in the D-loop sequences, but variations exist in the nucleic microsatellite markers. Combining the data from MGI_4.01, a significant divergence is observed among those mice. The present study indicates that different B6 mice share the common maternal lineage and are still inbred in each breeder, but subline divergence occurs.