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Keywords:

  • aging;
  • avian longevity;
  • avian senescence;
  • avian body mass;
  • bird life span;
  • longevity;
  • maximum life span;
  • senescence;
  • sociality

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. References
  9. Appendix
  10. Supporting Information

We comprehensively reviewed information on maximum life spans of wild birds (based on banding recoveries) and nine ecological, physiological and behavioral variables that have been hypothesized to affect the evolution of avian life spans. Data on maximum longevities and body masses were available for 936 species, and data on all variables were available for 470 species in 40 families from 15 orders. The Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos), Psittaciformes (parrots) and Procellariiformes (petrels and shearwaters) had the longest mean maximum life spans (>30 years), and the Passeriformes (perching birds), Podicipediformes (grebes) and Piciformes (woodpeckers) had the shortest mean maximum life spans (<10 years). Other orders were intermediate, with the Gruiformes (cranes and rails), Anseriformes (waterfowl), Ciconiiformes (herons and egrets) and Pelecaniformes (pelicans) living a mean maximum of 20–30 years, and the Columbiformes (pigeons), Strigiformes (owls), Falconiformes (hawks), Sphenisciformes (penguins) and Charadriiformes (shorebirds) living a mean maximum of 10–20 years. Within the speciose order Passeriformes, the Corvidae (crows) had longest mean maximum life spans (>17 years), and the Tyrannidae (flycatchers) and Parulidae (wood warblers) had the shortest mean maximum life spans (6 years). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that the independent variables together explained 80.3% of the variation in maximum longevities among 40 avian families, and 69.6% of the variation among 17 families of Passeriformes. In the comprehensive analysis four variables significantly affected maximum longevities, namely body mass, diet, sociality and breeding insularity (mainland vs. island), whereas breeding latitude, breeding habitat, nest-site location and migratory behavior did not have significant effects. These results are consistent with evolutionary theories of senescence, which predict that morphological and behavioral attributes that reduce extrinsic mortality should select for mechanisms that postpone physical deterioration, resulting in longer life spans and extended breeding opportunities.


Introduction

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. References
  9. Appendix
  10. Supporting Information

Senescence is ‘a persistent decline in age-specific fitness components of an organism due to internal physiological deterioration’ (Rose, 1991). Senescence is progressive, irreversible, endogenous, and ubiquitous (Strehler, 1962). The occurrence of senescence poses an important puzzle for evolutionary biology (Williams, 1957; Hamilton, 1966; Austad, 1997) because, all else being equal, longer-lived individuals have more opportunities to reproduce than shorter-lived conspecifics, so natural selection should consistently favor greater longevities. Surprisingly, therefore, in all major taxonomic groups of plants and animals life lengths exhibit negative binomial distributions, with far more short-lived than long-lived species (e.g. Finch, 1990; Hulbert et al., 2007; de Magalhaes, Costa & Church, 2007; Ricklefs, 2008).

There are three, closely related evolutionary explanations for senescence (Medawar, 1952; Williams, 1957; Kirkwood, 1977, 2002). All of them propose that senescence is an outcome of population demography that is affected by natural selection only indirectly, rather than something that natural selection on individuals and their genes has favored directly. The core idea is that when rates of extrinsic mortality are high enough that most individuals in any population do not survive very long, natural selection will be relatively ineffective in promoting physiological mechanisms that repair damage and defects among the few surviving elderly, resulting inevitably in the creeping in of senescent decline. Genes that have beneficial effects early in life will be favored even if they promote or fail to prevent late-life deterioration (reviewed by Ricklefs, 1998, 2008; Kirkwood & Austad, 2000; Monaghan et al., 2008). As expected, rates of senescence are positively correlated with rates of extrinsic mortality in many vertebrates (Ricklefs, 1998, 2000, 2008; Ricklefs & Scheuerlein, 2001). Of course, selection consistently favors traits that reduce susceptibility to extrinsic mortality, but because it can be stochastic (e.g. food shortage, bad weather) or co-evolutionary (competition, parasitism, predation), extrinsic mortality can never be eliminated.

Evolutionary hypotheses predict that when rates of extrinsic mortality are low, so that many individuals in a population can live to old age, physiological mechanisms of damage control and repair among the aged frequently will be selected and mortality will be postponed. Consistent with this prediction, preliminary studies showed that maximum life spans of mammals and birds were inversely related to extrinsic mortality (Holmes & Austad, 1994, 1995). Factors that reduce extrinsic mortality, especially due to predation, and that are associated with increased longevity include living deep underground (e.g. naked mole-rats: Sherman & Jarvis, 2002; Buffenstein, 2008; queen ants and termites: Keller & Genoud, 1997) or underwater (rock fishes: Finch, 2009), chemical protection (fishes, reptiles and amphibians: Blanco & Sherman, 2005) physical protection (shells of turtles and molluscs, spines of porcupines: Heller, 1990; Sherman and Jarvis, 2002; Finch, 2009), large body size (mammals and birds: Promislow, 1991; Holmes & Austad, 1995; Ricklefs, 2000; Hulbert et al., 2007; de Magalhaes et al., 2007) and abilities to fly, glide or leap (Austad & Fischer, 1991; Wilkinson & South, 2002).

Birds can live considerably longer than similar-sized, non-flying mammals, presumably because flight enables them to escape many predators (Brunet-Rossinni & Austad, 2006; Hulbert et al., 2007). Long life spans of birds are especially interesting because of their apparently higher ‘rates of living.’ Relative to mammals, birds have significantly higher mass-specific metabolic rates, consume an average of five times as much oxygen per gram of body mass, and have body temperatures 6–7° higher and blood sugars two to 10 times higher (Holmes & Austad, 1995; Speakman, 2005; Hulbert et al., 2007; Costantini, 2008). On the proximate level of analysis, Haussmann, Winkler & Vleck (2005a), Haussmann et al. (2005b), Vleck, Haussmann & Vleck (2007), Hulbert et al. (2007), Palacios et al. (2007), Costantini (2008), Ricklefs (2008) and Holmes & Martin (2009) have discussed physiological mechanisms that help protect birds from oxidative damage (e.g. uric acid, cell membrane fatty acid composition and uncoupling proteins), and from telomere shortening (maintenance of telomerase activity) and immunosenescence. On the ultimate level, Holmes & Austad (1994, 1995), Ricklefs (2000, 2006), Ricklefs & Scheuerlein (2001) and Møller (2006, 2007) have highlighted aspects of avian behavior and life histories that reduce rates of extrinsic mortality relative to similar-sized mammals.

However, not all birds have long life spans. Indeed even among flighted birds longevities are known to differ considerably, but the data have not been synthesized or analyzed. We therefore collected all available information on maximum life lengths of free-living and captive birds, and then used multivariate statistical techniques to investigate the effects of nine extrinsic variables that have been hypothesized to affect avian senescence and longevity (e.g. Brawn, Karr & Nichols, 1995; Finch & Ricklefs, 1995; Martin, 1995; Böhning-Gaese et al., 2000; Martin et al., 2006; Møller, 2006, 2007; Fontaine et al., 2007). Our results indicate that maximum life spans are affected by multiple attributes, all of which tend to reduce extrinsic mortality, as predicted by evolutionary theories of senescence.

Methods

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. References
  9. Appendix
  10. Supporting Information

Data collection – continuous variables

We compiled information on mean masses and maximum longevities of birds using information in eleven sources: Cramp & Perrins (1977–1994), Animal Diversity Web (1995–2006), del Hoyo, Elliot & Sargatal (1997), Juniper (1998), Brouwer et al. (2000), Longevity Records (2002), Birds in Backyards (2005), Birds of North America Online (2005), European Longevity Records (2006), The Longevity List (2006) and NatureServe (2008). Mass and longevity data were available for 936 species in 74 genera, 40 families and 15 orders (Appendix 1). For each species, when a range of masses was given we used the midpoint between the greatest and least, and when there were multiple longevity records we used the greatest value.

Maximum recorded age at death is somewhat problematic as a measure of senescence (Botkin & Miller, 1974). However, in laboratory experiments (on fruit flies) maximum life span responded to artificial manipulations of extrinsic mortality in the directions predicted by senescence theory (Rose, 1984, 1991; Kirkwood & Austad, 2000; Stearns et al., 2000), implying a close link between maximum longevity and senescence. In the field, relative longevities and survival rates of birds are correlated (Møller, 2006), and gradual increases in mortality and declines in reproduction consistent with senescence have been documented for many species (e.g. Ricklefs, 1998; Holmes, Fluckinger & Austad, 2001; Ricklefs & Scheuerlein, 2003; Brunet-Rossinni & Austad, 2006; Jones et al., 2008). Moreover, we found data on maximum longevities in nature for nearly 10% of the world's avifauna, whereas information required to calculate rates of senescence in nature (actuarial, reproductive or behavioral) is available for only a handful of species (e.g. Ricklefs, 1998, 2000; Jones et al., 2008; Keller, Reid & Arcese, 2008; Nussey et al., 2008; Bouwhuis et al., 2009). At present, there are no definitive physiological markers for quantifying senescence (Sherman et al., 1985; Partridge & Barton, 1996; Austad, 1997; Monaghan et al., 2008; Nussey et al., 2008; Ricklefs, 2008; Holmes & Martin, 2009), although cell membrane fatty acid composition (Hulbert et al., 2007) and rates of telomere shortening (Criscuolo et al., 2009; Salomons et al., 2009) appear promising. Until the accuracy of such markers has been established, differences in maximum longevities are the best available surrogates for relative senescence rates in cross-species comparisons.

Maximum longevity data were available for many birds in the wild (based on banding recoveries) and for some in captivity (based on zoo records). To see whether these two types of data yielded similar results, we compared them for 98 species with both types of information. There was a significant positive relationship between longevities in the wild and in captivity (F=88.4, d.f.=1,97, P<0.0001), and there were no significant differences between maximum longevities in captivity and in the wild for the six avian families that included at least three species with both data types (Wilcoxon's signed rank tests: Table 1). Similarly, Ricklefs (2000) reported that rates of actuarial senescence (quantified using the Weibull aging function) did not differ between captive and wild bird populations. In light of the much larger sample size and greater ecological validity of field data we focused our analyses on banding recoveries with one exception, the order Psittaciformes (parrots). In these long-lived birds, only data on maximum longevities in captivity are available for 45 of 47 species (in the families Cacatuidae and Psittacidae). In view of the parallel between maximum longevities in the wild and in captivity, it seemed unlikely that the mix of banding recoveries (for 425 species) and zoo records (45 species) that we analyzed would yield misleading results.

Table 1.   Tests of the equivalence of maximum longevities in the wild (banding recoveries) and in captivity among six avian families with species for which both types of information were available (Wilcoxon's signed rank tests)
FamilyNumber of speciesWilcoxon valueP-value
  1. Data are from Appendix 2.

Anatidae16−140.25
Ciconidae320.75
Accipitridae1019.50.99
Gruidae610.40.98
Corvidae7−40.29
Pelecanidae300.50

Our data base contains a single mean mass and maximum longevity for each species, regardless of sex. The quality of these data varied considerably among species due to differences in sample sizes (often <20 individuals) and lengths of studies relative to maximum life spans. For some families, especially those that are regularly hunted (e.g. the Anatidae), accurate information on maximum longevities of both sexes exists for many species, but for most families such information exists for only a few species. Longevity records for species in poorly sampled families will undoubtedly be superseded by results of ongoing and future long-term studies. To partially address these problems, Møller (2006, 2007) recommended controlling for sampling effort statistically. Unfortunately, we were unable to do so because for most species in our data base (Appendix 1) the information was not reported. There also is considerable intra-specific variability in life spans within species of birds (e.g. Fox et al., 2006; Nussey et al., 2008), and some are sexually dimorphic in size (reviewed by Shine, 1989) and also exhibit sexual dimorphisms in extrinsic mortality, senescence rates and maximum longevities (Promislow, 2003; Carranza et al., 2004; Christe, Keller & Roulin, 2006; Clutton-Brock & Isvaran, 2007; Bonduriansky et al., 2008). Moreover, both captive and wild data probably underestimate actual maximum life spans because in the field the recovery of very old, banded birds requires considerable luck, and in captivity mortality can result from accidents, animal care practices and inappropriate living conditions rather than senescence (e.g. Sherman & Jarvis, 2002). We were forced to use a single mass and longevity datum per species by lack of other information: intra-specific variation in life spans has been quantified for only a few birds (e.g. Fox et al., 2006; Jones et al., 2008; Keller et al., 2008), and in the 11 data bases we consulted (Appendices 1 and 2) body masses of males and females typically were not separated and the sex of the longest-lived individual usually was not specified. All our analyses assume that, like noise in a signal, deficiencies in the quality and quantity of maximum longevity data for individual species would increase variance and mask associations with ecological, physiological and behavioral variables that actually exist, but they would not generate associations that do not in fact occur.

Data collection – categorical variables

For each species in our longevity data base we sought information on eight categorical variables that have been hypothesized to affect extrinsic mortality and senescence, using the following nine data sources: Cramp & Perrins (1977–1994), Animal Diversity Web (1995–2006), del Hoyo et al. (1997), Juniper (1998), Global Raptor Information Network (1999–2007), Longevity Records (2002), Birds in Backyards (2005), Birds of North America Online (2005) and NatureServe (2008). These variables were:

  • (A)
    Diet– Each species was categorized based on its typical diet as being a: (1) Carnivore; (2) Herbivore; (3) Omnivore.
  • (B)
    Breeding latitude– Each species was categorized based on its typical breeding latitude: (1) 0° to ±30°; (2) ±31° to ±60°; (3) ±61° to ±90°. No distinction was made between the northern and southern hemispheres. Large increments were used (30° which equals 3333.69 km) because many species breed over broad latitudinal gradients.
  • (C)
    Breeding insularity– Each species was categorized based on whether it typically nests on: (1) Islands; (2) the Mainland.
  • (D)
    Age at first reproduction– Each species was categorized based on the number of years after hatching when individuals typically first mate.
  • (E)
    Breeding habitat– Each species was categorized based on whether its typical breeding habitat is (1) Grassland; (2) Scrubland; (3) Wetland; (4) Woodland.
  • (F)
    Nest location– Each species was categorized based on whether its typical nest-site location within its breeding habitat is (1) Aquatic (floating on water); (2) Cavity; (3) Ground; (4) Shrub; (5) Tree Branch.
  • (G)
    Migratory behavior– Each species was categorized based on whether it is typically: (1) Migratory; (2) Sedentary Year-Round. Migration was defined as the seasonal movement of a complete population. Species were not ranked based on their average migration distance because there often is so much variability among populations of the same species.
  • (H)
    Sociality– Each species was categorized based on its breeding social behavior: (1) Social; (2) Non-Social. Social breeding was defined broadly to include colonial nesting and cooperative breeding.

Ultimately, information on both continuous variables (maximum longevity and mean mass) and all eight categorical variables was available for 470 species (Appendix 2). This represents almost 5% of the world's avifauna, and we believe it is the largest data base of its kind available. The Passeriformes was the most speciose order in our data base, containing complete information on 179 species in 17 families. We included this order in our comprehensive analysis and also analyzed the Passeriformes separately, to see if intra- and inter-order results corresponded; no other orders could be analyzed separately due to insufficient sample sizes.

Initially we had planned to include ‘age at first reproduction’ in our multivariate analyses. However, we decided not to do so for two reasons. First, preliminary exploration of our data base revealed that age at first reproduction was so tightly correlated with mean mass (F=11.1727, d.f.=1314, P<1.29E−24) that the two variables could not be treated as independent. Second, age at first reproduction is more appropriately considered an effect rather than a primary cause of the environmental factors generally hypothesized to underlie variations in life spans and senescence rates. Age at first reproduction is a life-history trade-off between advantages of early sexual maturation (e.g. shortening the vulnerable juvenile period and increasing the likelihood of realizing reproduction) versus advantages of continued growth and social maturation (e.g. larger body size, reduced predation and enhanced reproductive output) (Charnov, 1993; Roff, 2002). Although Ricklefs & Cadena (2007) reported that age at first reproduction did not strongly influence avian life spans (in captivity), de Magalhaes et al. (2007) found that time to reproductive maturity was correlated with adult life span in mammals and birds.

We also considered including ‘chemical protection’ as an additional independent variable in our analyses (see Blanco & Sherman, 2005). Edibility scores, based mostly on responses of ‘unnatural’ predators (e.g. insects, humans), have been published for 105 species of birds from southern Africa (Cott & Benson, 1970; Götmark, 1994); in addition, nine species in the New Guinean family Pachycephalidae (especially the genus Pitohui) have been found to contain defensive neurotoxins (batrachotoxins) in their skin and feathers (Dumbacher et al., 2008; Jønsson et al., 2008). Unfortunately, however, information on maximum life spans in nature is not available for most of these 114 species.

Statistical analysis

Related species cannot be regarded as completely independent data points in comparative analyses of adaptations, and phylogenetic independent contrast analyses (PICs) are often employed to ‘control’ for effects of shared evolutionary ancestry (Felsenstein, 1985, 2008; Brooks & McLennan, 1991; Harvey & Pagel, 1991). However, use of PICs requires detailed phylogenetic information, and fine-scale trees that encompass the diversity of birds in our data base either do not exist or are controversial. Different techniques of phylogenetic reconstruction can yield conflicting phylogenies, often depending on whether they are based on comparative anatomy (Cracraft, 2001; Livezey & Zusi, 2007), DNA–DNA hybridization (Sibley & Ahlquist, 1990), mtDNA (Mindell, Sorenson & Dimcheff, 1998; Braun & Kimball, 2002; Gibb et al., 2007; Slack et al., 2007; Brown et al., 2008) and various nuclear exons, rRNA and intron sequences (Groth & Barrowclough, 1999; Shapiro & Dumbacher, 2001; van Tuinen & Hedges, 2001; Chubb, 2004; Fain & Houde, 2004; Ericson et al., 2006; Chojnowski, Kimball & Braun, 2008). Recently, Hackett et al. (2008) published a comprehensive phylogenomic study of birds based on sequences of non-coding introns. However, the adequacy of this technique for detecting deep divergences has already been questioned (e.g. Pratt et al., 2009). Given these ongoing controversies, we were not comfortable picking a single phylogeny for conducting contrast analysis on the diversity of birds in our data base (Appendices 1 and 2). In addition to phylogenetic uncertainties, sole reliance on PICs to ‘control’ for shared ancestry has been questioned on theoretical (Westoby, Leishman & Lord, 1995; Björklund, 1997; Losos, 1999; Reeve & Sherman, 2001; Rohlf, 2006) and empirical grounds (Weathers & Siegel, 1995; Ricklefs & Starck, 1996; Mazer, 1998; Carvalho, Diniz-Filho & Bini, 2006). Price (1997, p. 519) concluded that ‘contrasts may be more useful as a means of investigating past history, rather than current utility of traits.’

In light of these uncertainties about avian phylogenies and analytical techniques, we chose an alternative approach to minimize possible effects of non-independence of species: testing for hypothesized relationships at higher taxonomic levels (families), as suggested by Reeve & Pfennig (2003). Thus we computed mean values for each continuous and discrete variable for all the species in each avian family, and entered these mean family values in our multivariate models. To try to ensure that families had been sampled adequately to yield meaningful results, we included only those for which data on body masses and maximum longevities were available for >5 species. To reveal the details of the variables that were significant predictors in the multivariate analyses, we conducted a posteriori univariate analyses using all species that were included in each continuous and discrete variable category.

Before analysis, data on maximum longevities and mean masses were log transformed to adjust for unequal variances among families. The composite data base was then entered into a multivariate regression model using jmp® 7.0 statistical software (SAS Institute Inc., 2007). Mean maximum longevities of 40 avian families and, separately, 17 passerine families was the dependent variable, Y, and mean masses and means of the eight categorical variables were the independent variables, Xi, i=1, …, p, with ɛ defined as the error term representing the unpredicted variation in the response variable. The data were modeled with the following equation:

  • image

Results

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. References
  9. Appendix
  10. Supporting Information

Longevities of free-living birds

Maximum longevities in nature differed markedly among 15 avian orders (Fig. 2a). The Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos), Psittaciformes (parrots) and Procellariiformes (petrels and shearwaters) had the longest mean maximum life spans (>30 years), whereas the Passeriformes (perching birds), Podicipediformes (grebes) and Piciformes (woodpeckers) had the shortest mean maximum life spans (<10 years). Other orders were intermediate, with the Gruiformes (cranes and rails), Anseriformes (waterfowl), Ciconiiformes (herons and egrets) and Pelecaniformes (pelicans) living a mean maximum of 20–30 years, and the Columbiformes (pigeons), Strigiformes (owls), Falconiformes (hawks), Sphenisciformes (penguins) and Charadriiformes (shorebirds) living a mean maximum of 10–20 years.

image

Figure 2.  (a) Bivariate plot of mean masses (g) and mean maximum longevities (years) for 470 species of birds [425 in the wild; 45 in captivity (all Psittaciformes)] from 40 families. Before analyses, both variables were log-transformed to normalize variances (ANOVA, d.f.=1, 470; F=354.128; P<.0001). The best-fit line is shown. (b) Bivariate plot of mean masses (g) and mean longevities in the wild (years) for 179 species of Passeriformes. Before analyses, both variables were log-transformed to normalize variances (ANOVA, d.f.=1, 178; F=67.9061; P<.0001). The best-fit line is shown.

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Sample sizes of families of Passeriformes were large enough to enable a separate analysis of 17 families in this order (Fig. 1b). The longest-lived Passeriformes were the Corvidae (crows: mean maximum of >17 years) and the shortest-lived were the Tyrannidae (flycatchers) and Parulidae (wood warblers: both c. 6 years). Among other families, the Hirundinidae (swallows), Paridae (titmice), Passeridae (sparrows) and Turdidae (thrushes) lived a mean maximum of 10–13 years, the Sittidae (nuthatches), Motacillidae (motmots), Fringillidae (finches), Sylviidae (old-world warblers), Cardinalidae (grosbeaks) and Emberizidae (buntings) lived a mean maximum of 8–9 years, and the Laniidae (shrikes), Mimidae (mockingbirds), Vereonidae (vereos) and Icteridae (blackbirds) lived a mean maximum of 7–8 years.

image

Figure 1.  (a) Mean maximum longevities (±sd) of 15 orders of birds (n=40 families, 470 species; Appendix 2). For visual clarity, these data were not log-transformed. (b) Mean maximum longevities (±sd) of 17 families in the order Passeriformes (n=179 species; Appendix 2). For visual clarity, these data were not log-transformed.

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Multivariate model

Our comprehensive multivariate regression model, which included mean maximum longevities of 40 families as the dependent variable and family-level means for the eight independent variables, explained 80.3% of the variance in maximum life spans (Table 2). Details of the results are presented in Appendix 3. Among the independent variables, mean mass, diet and sociality were highly significant predictors, and breeding insularity was marginally significant (P=0.053). The multivariate regression model of the Passeriformes dataset, which included mean maximum longevities of 17 families as the dependent variable and family-level means for the eight independent variables, explained 69.6% of the variance in maximum life spans (Appendix 3, F=2.2898, d.f.=8, 16, r2=69.6%, P=0.13). However, none of the independent variables significantly predicted mean maximum longevities of passeriform families, probably due to large inter-family variability and small sample sizes (i.e. ≤10 species for nine of the 17 passerine families).

Table 2.   Results of the multivariate analysis of the comprehensive dataset, to explore sources of variation in mean maximum longevities of 40 avian families (F=15.8028, d.f.=8, 39, r2=80.3%, P<.0001)
Sourced.f.Sum of squaresF ratioP-value
  1. Details of parameter estimates and effects tests are presented in Appendix 3.

Log(mass)12.470801334.5823<.0001
Diet10.49718966.95890.0129
Sociality10.38048835.32550.0279
Breeding Insularity10.28770634.02680.0536
Nest location10.15247932.13420.1541
Breeding latitude10.03278710.45890.5032
Breeding habitat10.02875990.40250.5304
Migratory behavior10.01903050.26640.6094

Maximum longevities of several species in our data base (Appendix 2) were anomalously low relative to congeners, for example, Puffinus auricularis, Puffinus gravis, Anas diazi, Anas fulvigula and Anas laysanensis. Longevity records for these species at least likely are artifacts of inadequate sampling. We therefore removed them and re-ran the model. The significance of the overall results was unchanged and, as before, mass, diet and sociality were significant predictors and breeding insularity was marginally significant. Apparently longevities of these ‘questionable’ species did not have a major influence on the results, especially since we analyzed family-level mean values. Of course data deficiencies and biases may have existed for other species as well, but we were unable to identify them a priori. Our ‘total evidence’ approach (Sherman, Holland & Shellman Sherman, 2008) assumes that any unknown data shortcomings were more likely to obfuscate associations with extrinsic variables that actually exist than to falsely create relationships that do not occur.

To explore the details of the relationships revealed by the multivariate model we conducted a posteriori analyses of each significant variable individually, using species-level data. Maximum longevities were significantly related to body masses in the comprehensive dataset (Fig. 2a) and in the family Passeriformes (Fig. 2b). Regarding diets, in the comprehensive dataset (Fig. 3a) mean maximum longevities of herbivorous species (c. 27 years) were significantly longer than those of carnivores (17 years) and omnivores (14 years). Among the Passeriformes (Fig. 3b), herbivores and omnivores had similar mean maximum life spans (c 10 years), which were longer than maximum life spans of carnivores (7 years). Regarding sociality, in the comprehensive dataset (Fig. 4a) mean maximum longevities of social species (24 years) were considerably longer than non-social species (13 years). Among Passeriformes (Fig. 4b) social species also had greater mean maximum longevities than non-social species (13 vs. 9 years). Regarding breeding insularity, in the comprehensive dataset (Fig. 5) mean maximum longevities of island-breeders (26 years) were considerably longer than those of mainland breeders (15 years). It was not possible to perform the parallel analysis of the effects of insularity within the Passeriformes because there were only three island-breeding species.

image

Figure 3.  (a) A posteriori analyses of mean maximum longevities (±sd) of all birds based on their diets. These data were not log-transformed. Sample sizes (numbers of species) are indicated (*P<0.0004, t=3.52, two-sample t-test; **P<.0003, t=3.6). (b) A posteriori analyses of mean maximum longevities (±sd) of passeriform birds based on their diets. These data were not log-transformed. Sample sizes (numbers of species) are indicated.

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image

Figure 4.  (a) A posteriori analyses of mean maximum longevities (±sd) of all birds based on whether or not they breed socially (colonial or cooperative breeders). These data were not log-transformed. Sample sizes (numbers of species) are indicated (*P<0.0001, t=7.88, two-sample t-test). (b) A posteriori analyses of mean maximum longevities (±sd) of passeriform birds based on their breeding sociality. These data were not log-transformed. Sample sizes (numbers of species) are indicated (*P<0.0014, t=3.21, two-sample t-test).

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Figure 5. A posteriori analyses of mean maximum longevities (±sd) of birds that breed primarily on islands and on mainlands. These data were not log-transformed. Sample sizes (numbers of species) are indicated (*P<0.0032, t=2.8, two-sample t-test). Parallel analyses of passeriform birds was not possible due to small sample sizes (there were only three island-breeding species).

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Discussion

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. References
  9. Appendix
  10. Supporting Information

Our review and analysis of maximum life spans of free-living birds revealed considerable variability among 40 families of birds from 15 orders (Fig. 1a) and among 17 families in the order Passeriformes (Fig. 1b; Appendices 1 and 2). Multivariate analyses of the comprehensive dataset indicated that mean maximum longevities were significantly influenced by body mass, diet, sociality, and breeding insularity (marginally) (Figs 2–5, Table 2, Appendix 3), but not by breeding latitude, breeding habitat, nest location or migratory behavior. Separate analyses of families of Passeriformes yielded quantitatively similar, but generally non-significant results, likely due to variability associated with the smaller number of families and small sample sizes for many families.

Among the significant variables, body mass had the strongest effect on maximum longevities of avian families (Table 2; Appendix 3). A posteriori analyses revealed that heavier (i.e. larger) species lived longer than lighter (smaller) species (Fig. 2). These results confirm and extend (i.e. with much larger sample sizes) those of previous authors including Holmes & Austad (1995), Bennett & Owens (2002), Møller (2006), Hulbert et al. (2007) and Blumstein & Møller (2008). Body mass also has been positively related to maximum life spans in mammals (Finch, 1990; Promislow, 1991; Finch & Ricklefs, 1995; Speakman, 2005), and fishes, reptiles and amphibians (Blanco & Sherman, 2005; de Magalhaes et al., 2007). Presumably the evolutionary reasons for the ubiquity of these relationships are that (1) maximum longevities are inversely related to rates of extrinsic mortality (Austad, 1997; Ricklefs, 1998, 2000), especially due to predation, because fewer predatory species can successfully attack larger animals (e.g. Götmark & Post, 1996); (2) in order to grow large, organisms delay reproduction, thus postponing the onset of senescence (i.e. larger-bodied organisms have longer generation times and ‘slower’ life histories: Jones et al., 2008). On a proximate level of analysis, larger species generally have lower metabolic rates and thus they might experience lower rates of oxidative damage. However, the concept that metabolic rate and ROS production are directly correlated has been called into question (Hulbert et al., 2007; Costantini, 2008), and low metabolic rates are not necessarily associated with greater longevities in mammals or birds (de Magalhaes et al., 2007; Hulbert et al., 2007).

There is an interesting reversal of the body mass–longevity correlation in a mammal that further clarifies the evolutionary forces molding senescence patterns in general. Usually extrinsic mortality is inversely related to body size, but in domestic dogs Canis familiaris the small-bodied breeds live longer than large-bodied breeds (Li et al., 1996; Speakman, Acker & Harper, 2003; Galis et al., 2007). This anomaly is illuminating because larger breeds of dogs were artificially selected for participation in dangerous activities such as hunting large game, fighting and protecting their owners, all of which carry high mortality risks, and for rapid growth and early maturation (rather than somatic maintenance and repair) to facilitate these activities. By contrast, smaller dog breeds were selected to serve as companion animals and lap dogs or to capture vermin (rats and mice), so they lived in more protected environments, suffered lower extrinsic mortality and matured more slowly. As a result, the onset of senescence occurs later in small-bodied breeds than large-bodied breeds.

Among families of birds, diet significantly affected maximum longevities (Table 2, Appendix 3). Follow-up analyses indicated that among all birds, herbivores lived significantly longer than carnivores or omnivores (Fig. 3a), and that among passerine families herbivores and omnivores lived longer than carnivores (Fig. 3). There are several reasons to hypothesize that herbivores generally experience lower rates of extrinsic mortality than carnivores, all else being equal. First, carnivorous (and some omnivorous) species can be injured or killed during chases and attacks on prey, whereas herbivores experience no direct danger from their food. Second, herbivores are less likely to contract parasites or pathogens from their food than carnivorous or omnivorous species. Third, the food supply of herbivores is more stable, consistently available and evenly distributed than the prey of carnivores. To further examine these possibilities, we tried to separate herbivores into grass/leaf eaters and frugivores, and to separate carnivores into meat, fish and insect eaters. However, small sample sizes and high intra-category variances thwarted statistical analyses of these sub-categories.

Overall, our dietary results parallel those of Munshi-South & Wilkinson (2006), who found that diet explained a significant amount of the variance in maximum life spans of parrots, and that granivorous species lived longer than omnivorous and fruit-eating/insectivorous species. Granivory combines the effects of a low risk, low parasite/pathogen diet (Brittingham, Temple & Duncan, 1988; Lombardo et al., 1996) with a readily available, evenly distributed and relatively stable food source (Dostine & Franklin, 2002), all of which could presumably reduce extrinsic mortality.

In our comprehensive multivariate analysis, breeding sociality significantly affected mean maximum longevities of avian families (Table 2; Appendix 3). A posteriori analyses revealed that social species lived longer than non-social species (Fig. 4). These results agree with those of Arnold & Owens (1998), who reported that cooperative breeding was correlated with low annual mortality and long life spans, as predicted by kin selection theory and life-history theory (Bourke, 2007). However, subsequent analyses by Møller (2006) and Blumstein & Møller (2008) called into question the role of sociality in the evolution of avian longevities and senescence patterns. The reasons for the difference between our results and theirs probably lie in differences in both sample sizes and definitions of sociality. Whereas Møller (2006) defined sociality as ‘colonial nesting’ and Blumstein & Møller (2008) defined it as ‘cooperative breeding,’ our definition included both. We took the broader approach because both colonial nesting and cooperative breeding have often been linked to reduced predation rates on adult birds, chicks and eggs, due to shared vigilance, sentinels, alarm calling, cooperative group defense, safety in numbers and selfish herd effects (e.g. Hoogland & Sherman, 1976; Hoogland, 1981; Hailman, McGowan & Woolfenden, 1994; Clutton-Brock et al., 1999; Hatchwell & Komdeur, 2000; reviewed by Safran et al., 2007).

The link between sociality and longevity is illustrated by the characteristics of the four longest and shortest-lived avian orders (Fig. 1). All four species of Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos) in our data base (Appendix 2) breed in colonies and crèche their chicks, all 25 Procellariiformes (petrels and shearwaters) and all 16 Pelecaniformes (pelicans) nest colonially, and 25 of 47 species (54%) of Psittaciformes (parrots) nest colonially or breed cooperatively. By contrast, only 38 of 179 (21%) Passeriformes (perching birds) and only two of nine (22%) Columbiformes (pigeons) in our data base nest colonially or breed cooperatively, only one of four (25%) Podicipediformes (grebes) breeds colonially, and only three of 15 (20%) Piciformes (woodpeckers) breed cooperatively. There are no consistent differences in diets, nest locations or breeding insularity between the four longest- and shortest-lived orders: the Phoenicopteriformes are omnivorous, mainland, aquatic nesters, the Psittaciformes are herbivorous, mainland, cavity nesters and the Procellariiformes and the Pelecaniformes are carnivorous, insular, ground nesters; the Podicipediformes are carnivorous, mainland, aquatic nesters, the Piciformes are carnivorous, mainland, hole-nesters, the Columbiformes are herbivorous and nest in various locations on mainlands, and the Passeriformes are highly variable in diets and nest-site locations (Appendix 1). Of course, it is possible that the effects of sociality are confounded by other factors. For example species in the family Corvidae are especially long-lived (Fig. 1b). Although this probably relates to their sociality, an intriguing additional possibility is that the defensive neurotoxins and aposematism that occur in the basal family Pachycephalidae actually are more widespread in corvids (Jønsson et al., 2008).

Colonial breeding represents a dynamic evolutionary balance between anti-predator benefits and costs of predator attraction due to increased conspicuousness of groups. To evaluate the relative importance of these antagonistic effects in the evolutionary history of the Ciconiiformes, Varela, Danchin & Wagner (2007) used a character-mapping approach. Their analyses led them to infer that predator avoidance was not the primary selective force that originally favored coloniality in ciconiiform history. However, as Varela et al. (2007) were careful to point out, their results do not mean that breeding in colonies provides no anti-predator benefits. Rather, once breeding colonies formed for any ecological reason (e.g. limited breeding habitat, locally concentrated food sources, or advantages of social foraging on ephemeral food patches), individuals living in those colonies also could have benefited from reductions in per capita predation (i.e. reductions in rates of extrinsic mortality).

In our comprehensive multivariate model, breeding insularity had a marginally significant effect on mean maximum longevities of avian families (Table 2; Appendix 3). Follow-up analyses indicated that birds which breed on islands can live almost twice as long as mainland breeders (Fig. 5). Presumably this is because island-breeding species experience lower mortality due to the relative lack of predators, parasites and pathogens on islands compared with the mainland (Blondel, 2000; Goüy de Bellocq et al., 2003; Zoellick et al., 2004). For example, Austad (1993) found that island-dwelling opossums Didelphis virginiana senesced more slowly and lived longer than conspecifics on the mainland, and he attributed the difference to lower rates of extrinsic mortality due to absence of predators.

Given the magnitude of the longevity differences between island and mainland breeding birds, it is surprising that breeding insularity did not more strongly affect mean maximum life spans in our comprehensive analysis (Table 2; Appendix 3). This was probably due to sample-sizes because our dataset was heavily skewed toward mainland-breeding species (n=318 of 470 species), with a limited number of island-breeding ducks and petrels. Moreover, there was considerable variability in maximum longevities (and body masses) among the island-breeding species (Fig. 5), perhaps due to differences in degrees of contact these birds have with mainland predators, parasites, and pathogens. Some islands are close to a mainland, and birds that breed there regularly forage on or migrate to the mainland and so are exposed to continental biotic enemies; other islands are far out in the ocean, and birds that breed there and spend the rest of their lives at sea are rarely exposed to mainland-dwelling biotic enemies.

Four variables that did not significantly affect maximum longevities in our multivariate analyses were nest location, breeding habitat, breeding latitude and migratory behavior (Table 2; Appendix 3). We originally included these variables because previous investigators had called attention to their possible effects on rates of extrinsic mortality and thus senescence. For example, predation on eggs and nestlings varies with nest location in many bird species (Schaub, Mumme & Woolfenden, 1992; Martin, 1995; Owens & Bennett, 1995; Martin & Ghalambor, 1999; Doerr, Doerr & Jenkins, 2006; Fontaine et al., 2007). However, which nesting locations are most and least susceptible to predation varies across species and habitats, and nest location has less impact on survival of adults and post-fledging juveniles than on eggs and nestlings in most species (Martin & Li, 1992). This is important because, theoretically, the onset of senescence is not expected to occur until reproduction commences (Williams, 1957; Hamilton, 1966), a prediction that has been supported empirically for birds and mammals (Charmantier et al., 2006; Møller, 2006; Jones et al., 2008). In addition, in many avian families nesting locations are variable among species, resulting in intermediate mean values in our family-level analyses that may have obscured any effects of nest location on mean maximum longevities.

Breeding habitat type also can affect the likelihood of predation, especially on eggs and nestlings (Martin, 1995; Doerr et al., 2006; Fontaine et al., 2007). However, within breeding habitats rates of extrinsic adult mortality due to predation often depend on breeding density. Breeding density also can increase reproductive costs (e.g. competition for food, mates and nest sites, parasitism, etc.), and thus affect life-history characteristics including senescence (Mysterud et al., 2001; Wilkin et al., 2006; Williams et al., 2006). Unfortunately, data on breeding densities and adult survival rates within and among nesting habitats were not available for the populations of the species whose maximum longevities appear our data base, so we were unable to investigate whether breeding habitat type affects maximum longevity while controlling for breeding densities.

We also did not find significant effects of breeding latitude or migratory behavior on maximum longevities (Appendix 3). By contrast, Møller (2007) reported that breeding latitude and migration distance explained, respectively, 3.7 and 2.3% of the variation in avian maximum longevities. He hypothesized that longevities decreased with increasing latitude due to ‘slow life histories’ at low latitudes (Jones et al., 2008), and that longevities increased with increasing migratory distance because migrants spend more time per year in benign abiotic environments and also possess special physiological adaptations for reducing oxidative stress (which were selected for in the context of enabling long-distance flights; see also Hulbert et al., 2007; Costantini, 2008).

Our failure to corroborate Møller's (2007) results may have been due to: (1) differences in sample sizes and analytical techniques [he conducted independent contrast analyses on 169 species of European birds, whereas we analyzed means of 40 avian families (470 species) world-wide]; (2) differences in the quantification of breeding latitude (he analyzed breeding latitude as a continuous variable, calculated as the mean of the northernmost and southernmost breeding season latitude for each species, whereas we analyzed breeding latitude more conservatively as a categorical variable, with three ±30° increments, due to considerable intra-specific variability in breeding locales); (3) differences in quantification of migration (Møller analyzed mean migratory distances of entire species as a continuous variable, whereas we considered migration as a categorical variable, again due to intra-specific variability in migration distances); (4) the relatively small amount of variation in longevities (<4%) that Møller explained by considering either breeding latitudes or migration distances.

The puzzle of senescence is being actively investigated at multiple levels of analysis (Sherman, 1988; Jenkins, 2004; Monaghan et al., 2008; Ricklefs, 2008), especially in birds (reviewed by Holmes & Martin, 2009). Our results indicate that much of the variation in avian longevities can be explained by differences in body mass, diet, breeding sociality and breeding insularity. The longest-lived species were large, herbivorous, social, island-dwellers, which is consistent with evolutionary theories of senescence (Medawar, 1952; Williams, 1957; Kirkwood, 1977, 2002) because all four traits can contribute to reducing rates of extrinsic mortality. In general, birds live longer than similar-sized mammals because flight facilitates escape from predators. Among avian families, behavioral and life-history characteristics that further reduce extrinsic mortality underlie much of the variability in maximum longevities and, probably, rates of senescence.

Acknowledgments

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. References
  9. Appendix
  10. Supporting Information

For helpful commentaries on preliminary versions of the manuscript we thank Ronald Booker, Walter D. Koenig, John W. Fitzpatrick, H. Kern Reeve, Kaitlin Stanmyer, the anonymous reviewers and, especially, Robert E. Ricklefs and Janet Shellman Sherman. Francoise Vermeylen and Sherry Weitzen provided statistical advice; Richard Wrangham suggested the aposematism hypothesis. For financial support, we thank the US Fish and Wildlife Service, and the College of Arts and Sciences, the Agricultural Experiment Station (Hatch Grant Program), and the S.H. Weiss Presidential Fellowship Fund at Cornell University.

References

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. References
  9. Appendix
  10. Supporting Information

Appendix

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. References
  9. Appendix
  10. Supporting Information
Table Appendix 1.   Data base containing information on mean masses and maximum longevities of 936 species of birds, along with all available information on seven ecological, behavioral, and physiological variables that have been hypothesized to affect avian senescence and longevity (Wasser and Sherman, Avian Longevity and Senescence)
OrderFamilyScientific nameCommon nameMax longevity in wildMax longevity in captivityMean massBreeding habitatNest locationDietBreeding insularityBreeding latitudeMigratory behaviorSocialityReference sources
  1. Decimals in the longevity data refer to months (e.g. 27.083=27 years, 1 month).

  2. Abbreviations are as follows: breeding habitat: grass (grassland), scrub (scrubland), wet (wetland), wood (woodland); nest location: 1 (ground), 2 (shrub), 3 (tree branch), 4 (cavity), 5 (aquatic – floating on water); diet: omni (omnivore), herbi (herbivore), carni (carnivore); breeding insularity: M (mainland), I (island); breeding latitude: 1 (0° to ± 30°), 2 (30° to ± 60°), 3 (60° to ± 90°); migratory behavior: Y (yes), N (no); sociality: S (colonial or cooperative breeder), N (non-social breeder).

AnseriformesAnatidaeAix galericulataMandarin duck810600Wood HerbiM Y 3, 5
AnseriformesAnatidaeAix sponsaWood duck22.5 700Wood OmniM2N 1, 3, 5
AnseriformesAnatidaeAlopochen aegyptiacusEgyptian goose 25.51900Wet HerbiM N 3, 5
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas acutaNorthern pintail27.417 839Wet1OmniM2YN1, 2, 5
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas americanaAmerican wigeon21.3 780Grass1HerbiM2YN1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas clypeataNorthern shoveler22.34 647Wet1OmniM2YN1
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas creccaCommon teal27.083 338Wet1OmniM2YN1,5, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas cyanopteraCinnamon teal12.917 370.5Wet1OmniM2YN1, 2
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas diaziMexican duck5.5 1150Wet1OmniM2YN2, 3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas discorsBlue-winged teal22.320334Wet1OmniM2YN1, 2, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas gracilisGray teal31.7 650Wet1OmniI2YN7, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas fulvigulaMottled duck1320988.5Wet1OmniM1NN1, 3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas laysanensisLaysan duck12 459.35Grass1CarniI1NN1, 3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas penelopeEurasian wigeon34.676.4719Wet1OmniM3YN2, 3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas platyrhynchosMallard29.08 1105Wet1OmniM2YN2, 3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas querquedulaGarganey14.5 361Wet1OmniM2YN2, 4, 5, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas rubripesAmerican black duck26.6 1203.5Wet3OmniM2YN1, 2, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas streperaGadwall22.3428858Wet1HerbiM2YN1, 2, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas wyvillianaHawaiian duck3.7 532.75Wet1OmniI1NN1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnser albifronsGreater white-fronted goose25.25472019Wet3OmniM3YS1, 2, 5, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnser anserGreylag goose23.583283481.5Wet1HerbiM2YS2, 3, 5
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnser brachyrhynchusPink-footed goose39.7539.82645Wet1HerbiM3YS2, 5, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnser caerulescensSnow goose26.6132500Grass1HerbiM2YS2, 3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnser canagicaEmperor goose9 2100Grass1OmniM2YS3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnser fabalisBean goose22.34232315Grass1HerbiM3YS2, 5, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnser rossiiRoss's goose21.5 1410Wet1HerbiM3YS3, 6, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeAythya affinisLesser scaup18.3 741Wet2HerbiM2YN1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAythya americanaRedhead duck21.4161145Wet1OmniM2YN1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAythya collarisRing-necked duck20.4 807.95Wet1OmniM2YN1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAythya ferinaCommon pochard22.259857Wet1OmniM2YN2, 5, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeAythya fuligulaTufted duck20.34 701.5Wet1OmniM2YN2, 5, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeAythya marilaGreater scaup22.083 969.4Wet1HerbiM2YN1, 2, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAythya valisineriaCanvasback22.4 1415Wet1OmniM2YN1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeBranta berniclaAtlantic brant25.821.81400Wet OmniM Y 1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeBranta canadensisCanada goose24.3425000Grass HerbiM2Y 1, 3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeBranta leucopsisBarnacle goose26.92 1300Wet HerbiI3Y 2, 4
AnseriformesAnatidaeBucephala albeolaBufflehead14.9 400Grass OmniM2Y 3, 6, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeBucephala clangulaCommon goldeneye14.3 900Wet OmniM2Y 3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeBucephala islandicaBarrow's goldeneye15.3 1000Wet OmniM2Y 1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeCereopsis novaehollandiaeCape barren goose 28.12200Grass OmniI2N 6, 7
AnseriformesAnatidaeClangula hyemalisOldsquaw15.6 750Wet OmniM Y 1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeCygnus atratusBlack swan40306225Wet1HerbiI2NN3, 7
AnseriformesAnatidaeCygnus buccinatorTrumpeter swan23.832.510 800Wet1OmniM2YN1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeCygnus columbianusTundra swan24.083116750Wet1OmniM3YN1, 5, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeCygnus cygnusWhooper swan26.5179575Grass1OmniM2YN2, 5, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeCygnus olorMute swan28.583409300Wet1OmniM2YN1, 2, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeDendrocygna autumnalisBlack-bellied whistling duck8.2 825Wet OmniM1N 1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeDendrocygna bicolorFulvous whistling duck6.5 750Wet HerbiM1N 1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeLophodytes cucullatusHooded merganser11.3  Wet CarniM2Y 1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeMelanitta fuscaWhite-winged scoter15.6 1500Wet CarniM Y 1, 6, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeMelanitta nigraBlack scoter16.75 1100Wet CarniM Y 1, 4, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeMergus merganserCommon merganser13.813.41480Wood CarniM2Y 3
AnseriformesAnatidaeMergus serratorRed-breasted merganser9.33 1025Wet CarniM2Y 1, 3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeOxyura australisAustralian blue-billed duck 16850Wet CarniM   6, 7
AnseriformesAnatidaeOxyura jamaicensisRuddy duck13.6 550Wet OmniM2Y 3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaePlectropterus gambensisSpur-winged goose 11.3        6
AnseriformesAnatidaePolysticta stelleriStellar's eider14.3 860Grass OmniM Y 1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeSomateria mollissimaCommon eider23 2050Grass CarniI3Y 1, 3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeSomateria spectabilisKing eider18.9 1650Grass OmniM Y 1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeTachyeres cinereusSteamer duck 10.2        6
AnseriformesAnatidaeTadorna tadornaShelduck24.67 1100Wet OmniM Y 4, 9
AnseriformesAnseranatidaeAnseranas semipalmataMagpie goose32 2000Wet CarniI N 3
ApodiformesApodidaeAeronautes saxatilisWhite-throated swift5.7 32Grass CarniM2N 1, 6
ApodiformesApodidaeApus apusSwift 2140.5Wood CarniM Y 3, 6
ApodiformesApodidaeChaetura vauxiVaux's swift5.1 18.5Wood CarniM2Y 1, 6
ApodiformesApodidaeChaetura pelagicaChimney swift14 21.33  CarniM2Y 1, 6
ApodiformesApodidaeCypseloides nigerBlack swift6 45Wood CarniM2Y 1, 6
CaprimulgiformesCaprimulgidaeCaprimulgus carolinensisChuck-will's widdow14.83 110Wood CarniM2Y 1
CaprimulgiformesCaprimulgidaeCaprimulgus vociferusWhippoorwill4 53Wood CarniM2Y 1, 3, 6
CaprimulgiformesCaprimulgidaeChordeiles minorCommon nighthawk9 82Grass1CarniM2Y 1, 3, 6
CaprimulgiformesCaprimulgidaePhalaenoptilus nuttalliiCommon poorwill3 40Scrub CarniM2Y 1, 6
CasuariiformesCasuariidaeCasuarius bennettiDwarf cassowary 2625 000Wood OmniI1N 3
CasuariiformesCasuariidaeCasuarius casuariusSouthern cassowary 1265 000Wood HerbiI1N 3, 7
CasuariiformesCasuariidaeCasuarius unappendiculatusNorthern cassowary 22        6
CasuariiformesDromiceidaeDromaius novaehollandiaeEmu 16.65500Grass OmniI1N 3, 6, 7
CharadriiformesAlcidaeAethia cristatellaCrested auklet7.6 260Scrub CarniI3Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesAlcidaeAethia pusillaLeast auklet4.4 85Scrub CarniI Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesAlcidaeAlca tordaRazorbill6.4 700Scrub CarniI Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesAlcidaeAlle alleDovekie16 160Scrub1Carni 3YY1, 3
CharadriiformesAlcidaeCepphus columbaPigeon guillemot14 500Scrub CarniI N 1, 6
CharadriiformesAlcidaeCepphus grylleBlack guillemot12.1 400Scrub CarniI Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesAlcidaeCerorhinca monocerataRhinoceros auklet7.4  Scrub CarniI N 1, 6
CharadriiformesAlcidaeFratercula articaAtlantic puffin20 380Scrub CarniM Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesAlcidaeFratercula cirrhataTufted puffin6 775Scrub CarniI Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesAlcidaeFratercula corniculataHorned puffin20 500 1Carni  YY1, 3
CharadriiformesAlcidaePtychoramphus aleuticusCassin's auklet10.2 175Scrub CarniI N 1, 6
CharadriiformesAlcidaeSynthliboramphus antiquusAncient murrelet5 201Scrub CarniI N 1, 6
CharadriiformesAlcidaeSynthliboramphus hypoleucusXantus' murrelet15 157Grass CarniI N 1, 6
CharadriiformesAlcidaeUria aalgeCommon murre / guillemot26.4 960Grass CarniI Y 1, 3, 6
CharadriiformesAlcidaeUria lomviaThick-billed murre22.7 1000Grass CarniI   1, 6
CharadriiformesBurnidaeBurhinus oedicnemusStone-curlew17.83         5
CharadriiformesCharadriidaeCharadrius alexandrinusKentish plover18 41.2Scrub1CarniM1YN1, 5, 6
CharadriiformesCharadriidaeCharadrius dubiusLittle ringed plover12.083 38.75Grass1CarniM1YN2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesCharadriidaeCharadrius hiaticulaRinged plover19.917 54.8Grass1CarniM3YN2, 5
CharadriiformesCharadriidaeCharadrius melodusPiping plover14 53Scrub1CarniM2YN1, 6
CharadriiformesCharadriidaeCharadrius montanusMountain plover10 101.42Scrub2CarniM2YN1
CharadriiformesCharadriidaeCharadrius morinellusEurasian dotterel11.83  Grass CarniM Y 4, 10
CharadriiformesCharadriidaeCharadrius semipalmatusSemipalmated plover9 46.95Scrub2CarniM3YN1
CharadriiformesCharadriidaeCharadrius vociferusKilldeer10.9 79Grass1OmniM2YN1, 2
CharadriiformesCharadriidaePluvialis dominicaLesser golden plover4.8 150Grass OmniM Y 3, 6
CharadriiformesCharadriidaePluvialis squatarolaBlack-bellied/gray plover20.3 180Grass CarniM Y 6, 10
CharadriiformesHaematopodidaeHaematopus bachmaniBlack oystercatcher16 600Wet CarniM Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesHaematopodidaeHaematopus ostralegusEuropean oystercatcher36  Wet CarniM Y 2, 6
CharadriiformesHaematopodidaeHaematopus palliatusAmerican oystercatcher17 550Wet CarniM Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesLaridaeAnous minutusBlack noddy21.8 110Wood CarniI N 1, 6
CharadriiformesLaridaeAnous stolidusBrown noddy24.9 180Wood CarniI Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesLaridaeChlidonias nigerBlack tern17.2 55Wood CarniM Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesLaridaeGygis albaWhite tern17.8 120Wood CarniI N 1, 6
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus argentatusHerring gull32.083441085Wet1OmniM2YS1, 5, 6
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus atricillaLaughing gull19 308Wet1CarniM1YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus californicusCalifornia gull30 606.5Wet1OmniI2YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus canusCommon gull31.67 388.5Wet3OmniM2YS1, 5
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus cirrocephalusGray-headed gull7.92 322.5Wet1CarniM1NS2, 10
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus delawarensisRing-billed gull31.75 518.5Wet1OmniM2YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus fuscusLesser black-backed gull32.75 817.5Grass1OmniM2YS2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus geneiSlender-billed gull31.67 249Wet1CarniM2NS2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus glaucescensGlaucous winged gull32 1063.05Wet1OmniI2NS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus hyperboreusGlaucous gull21.083 1685.5Grass1OmniI3YN1
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus ichthyaetusGreat black-headed gull9 1598.5Wet1OmniI2YS2, 10
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus marinusGreat black-backed gull26.083 1658.5Wet1CarniM2YS1, 5
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus melanocephalusMediterranean gull15 320Wet1CarniM2YS2, 10
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus minutusLittle gull20.834 125.3Wet2CarniM2YS1, 5
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus occidentalisWestern gull27.8 1007.5Wet1OmniM2NS1, 6
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus pacificusPacific gull 14.5 Wet OmniI Y 6, 7
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus pipixcanFranklin's gull9.4 280Wet2OmniM2YS1, 6
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus ridibundusBlack-headed gull30.583 238Wet1CarniM2YS2, 3, 4
CharadriiformesLaridaePagophila eburneaIvory gull17 550Grass CarniM Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesLaridaeProcelsterna ceruleaBlue-gray noddy14 228Grass OmniI N 6, 10
CharadriiformesLaridaeRissa brevirostrisRed-legged kittiwake4 377Wet CarniM N 1, 6
CharadriiformesLaridaeRissa tridactylaBlack-legged kittiwake28.5 382Grass CarniM Y 1, 4
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna albifronsLittle tern23.917 57.5Scrub1CarniM1YS1, 5, 10
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna anaethetusBridled tern17.917 133.3Scrub4CarniI1YS1, 2
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna antillarumLeast tern24.083 49.55Grass1CarniI1YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna bergiiGreater crested tern20.34 337.5Wet1CarniI1YS2, 10
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna caspiaCaspian tern30 655.5Wet1CarniM2YS1, 5
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna dougalliiRoseate tern25.6 107.6Scrub1CarniM2YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna elegansElegant tern8.9 259.6Wet1CarniI1YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna forsteriForster's tern12 158Wet1CarniM2YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna fuscataSooty tern34 184Wet1CarniI1YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna hirundoCommon tern33 36.25Scrub1CarniM2YS1, 3, 5
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna lunataGray-backed tern25.75 129.6Scrub2CarniI1YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna maximaRoyal tern27 445Scrub1CarniM1YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna niloticaGull-billed tern16 181.5Scrub1CarniM1YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna paradisaeaArtic tern34 111.5Wet1CarniI3YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna sandvicensisSandwich tern30.75 191.5Scrub1CarniM1YS1, 5
CharadriiformesRecurvirostridaeHimantopus mexicanusBlack-necked (Hawaiian) stilt5.2  Wet CarniI2N 1, 6
CharadriiformesRecurvirostridaeRecurvirostra americanaAmerican avocet9 183Wet CarniM2Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesRynchopidaeRhynchops nigerBlack skimmer20 270Wet CarniM1Y 3, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeActitis hypoleucosCommon sandpiper14.5  Wet CarniM Y 4, 10
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeActitis maculariaSpotted sandpiper12 44Wet CarniM2Y 1, 3
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeArenaria interpresRuddy turnstone14.3 137Scrub CarniM Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeBartramia longicaudaUpland sandpiper5.2 135Grass OmniM2Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris albaSanderling18.5 63.7Grass1CarniM3YN1, 5
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris alpinaDunlin28.834 54.6Grass1CarniM3YS1, 5, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris canutusRed knot25.083 137Grass1OmniM3YS1, 2, 5
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris ferrugineaCurlew sandpiper17 63.25Wet1CarniM3YN2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris fuscicollisWhite-rumped sandpiper7 44.55Grass1OmniI3YN1, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris himantopusStilt sandpiper11.1 57.35Grass1OmniM3YN1, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris maritimaPurple sandpiper20 77.75Grass1OmniI3YN1
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris mauriWestern sandpiper9.167 27.5Grass1CarniM3YN1
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris melanotosPectoral sandpiper5.9 80.25Grass1OmniM3YN1, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris minutillaLeast sandpiper16 23.45Grass2CarniM3YN1, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris ptilocnemisRock sandpiper7.34 96.2Grass2CarniM3YN1
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris pusillaSemipalmated sandpiper12 26Grass2CarniM3YN1
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCatoptrophorus semipalmatusWillet8.9 265Wet CarniM2Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris temminckiiTemminck's stint9.917 26.05Grass1CarniM3YN2, 5
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeGallinago gallinagoCommon snipe9.3 100Wet OmniM2Y 3, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeLimnodromus griseusShort-billed dowitcher7.6 105Wet OmniM Y 6, 10
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeLimnodromus scolopaceusLong-billed dowitcher8.3 110Grass OmniM Y 6, 10
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeLimosa fedoaMarbled godwit8.6 370Wet OmniM2Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeLimosa lapponicaBar-tailed godwit3.9 435Grass CarniM Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeNumenius americanusLong-billed curlew10 699.35Grass1CarniM2YN1, 9
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeNumenius arquataEurasian curlew31.5 805.5Wet1OmniM2YN2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeNumenius phaeopusWhimbrel16.0838.8379.35Grass1OmniM3YN1, 5, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeNumenius tahitiensisBristle-thighed curlew23.834 375.85Grass1OmniI3YN1
CharadriiformesScolopacidaePhalaropus lobatusRed-necked phalarope9.917 35Grass OmniM3Y 1, 3, 4
CharadriiformesScolopacidaePhalaropus tricolorWilson's phalarope10 55Wet OmniM2Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeScolopax minorAmerican woodcock8 195Wood CarniM2Y 1
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeTringa erythropusSpotted redshank8.583 151.5Grass1CarniM3YN2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeTringa flavipesLesser yellowlegs4.75 84.05Wood2CarniM3YN1
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeTringa glareolaWood sandpiper11.583 67.5Wood2CarniM3YN2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeTringa nebulariaGreenshank24.417 173.5Grass1CarniM3YN2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeTringa ochropusGreen sandpiper11.5 78.5Wet1CarniM2YN2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeTringa stagnatilisMarsh sandpiper7.083 71.55Wet1CarniM2YS2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeTringa totanusCommon redshank20.34 112Grass1CarniM2YN2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesStercorariidaeStercorarius longicaudusLong-tailed jaeger8.1 295Grass CarniM Y 1, 6
CharadriiformesStercorariidaeStercorarius parasiticusParasitic jaeger18 450Grass3CarniM Y 1
CharadriiformesStercorariidaeStercorarius skuaGreat skua32.92 1600Scrub CarniM Y 4, 10
CiconiiformesArdeidaeArdea albaGreat egret22.834 873.5Wet3CarniM1YS1
CiconiiformesArdeidaeArdea cinereaGray heron35.083241433Wet3CarniM2YS2, 5, 10
CiconiiformesArdeidaeArdea cocoiCocoi heron2224.41000Wet1CarniM2YS6, 9
CiconiiformesArdeidaeArdea goliathGoliath heron2222.94300Wet1CarniM1NN2, 6, 9
CiconiiformesArdeidaeArdea herodiasGreat blue heron23.392300Wet3CarniM2YS1, 3, 6
CiconiiformesArdeidaeArdea purpureaPurple heron25.417 873.75Wet3CarniM1YS2, 5
CiconiiformesArdeidaeBotaurus lentiginosusAmerican bittern8.3 435Wet CarniM2Y 1, 6
CiconiiformesArdeidaeBotaurus stellarisEuropean bittern11.3 1000Wet CarniM Y 4, 9
CiconiiformesArdeidaeBubulcus ibisCattle egret23 391Wet CarniM2Y 1, 6
CiconiiformesArdeidaeButorides virescensGreen heron7.9 241Wet CarniM2Y 1, 6
CiconiiformesArdeidaeEgretta albaCommon egret22.8322995Wet2CarniM1YS2
CiconiiformesArdeidaeEgretta caeruleaLittle blue heron13.91710339.5Wet2CarniM1YS1, 3
CiconiiformesArdeidaeEgretta garzettaLittle egret22.34 532Wet2CarniM1YS2, 4, 10
CiconiiformesArdeidaeEgretta rufescensReddish egret12.2522613.5Wet1CarniM1YS1
CiconiiformesArdeidaeEgretta thulaSnowy egret22.83422.8369Wet3CarniM1YS1
CiconiiformesArdeidaeEgretta tricolorTricolored heron17.67 262.5Wet2CarniM1YS1
CiconiiformesArdeidaeNycticorax nycticoraxBlack-crowned night heron21 875Wet CarniM2Y 6, 10
CiconiiformesArdeidaeNycticorax violaceusYellow-crowned night heron6.3 725Wet CarniM2N 6, 10
CiconiiformesBalaenicipitidaeBalaeniceps rexShoebill 36 Wet CarniM N 3, 6
CiconiiformesCathartidaeCathartes auraTurkey vulture16.8 2000Wood CarniM2N 1, 6
CiconiiformesCathartidaeCoragyps atratusBlack vulture25.5 1900Scrub CarniM2N 1, 6
CiconiiformesCathartidaeGymnogyps californianusCalifornia condor15.545110 000Scrub CarniM N 1, 6
CiconiiformesCathartidaeSarcorhamphus papaKing vulture 403750Wood CarniM N 3, 6
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeCiconia abdimiiAbdim's stork21.6211300Grass3CarniM2YS6, 9
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeCiconia boycianaOriental white stork 48        6
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeCiconia ciconiaWhite stork39483448Wet3CarniM2YS2, 3, 4
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeCiconia episcopusWoolly necked stork 30        6
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeCiconia maguariMaguari stork 20        6
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeCiconia nigraBlack stork18.583313000Wood3CarniM2YN2, 3, 4
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeEphippiorhynchus asiaticusBlack-necked stork 34        6
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeEphippiorhynchus senegalensisSaddle-billed stork 36        6
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeJabiru mycteriaJabiru 36281.6Wet CarniM1N 6
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeLeptoptilos crumeniferusMarabou stork25418900Wet CarniM Y 3, 6
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeLeptoptilos dubiusGreater adjutant 43        6
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeLeptoptilos javanicusLesser adjutant 30        6
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeMycteria americanaWood stork6.527 Wet CarniM2Y 3, 6
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeMycteria ibisYellow-billed stork 19        6
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeMycteria leucocephalaPainted stork 28        6
CiconiiformesThreskiornithidaeAjaia ajajaRoseate spoonbill7.8 1500Wet CarniM1Y 1, 6
CiconiiformesThreskiornithidaeEudocimus albusWhite ibis16.320900Wet CarniM2N 1, 6
CiconiiformesThreskiornithidaeNipponia nipponJapanese crested ibis 171800Wood CarniM Y 3, 6
CiconiiformesThreskiornithidaePlatalea leucorodiaEurasian spoonbill28  Wet CarniI Y 6, 9
CiconiiformesThreskiornithidaePlegadis chihiWhite-faced ibis14.514487.5Wet CarniI2Y 1, 6
CiconiiformesThreskiornithidaePlegadis falcinellusGlossy ibis14.314650Wet CarniI2N 1, 6
CiconiiformesThreskiornithidaeThreskiornis aethiopicusSacred ibis2129.21500Wet CarniM Y 3, 6
ColumbiformesColumbidaeColumba fasciataBand-tailed pigeon18.529.2340Wood1HerbiM2NN3, 6
ColumbiformesColumbidaeColumba leucocephalaWhite-crowned pigeon14.4 150Wood3HerbiI1NS1, 6, 9
ColumbiformesColumbidaeColumba liviaRock pigeon6.3435354.4Wood4OmniM2NN1, 2, 6
ColumbiformesColumbidaeColumbina incaInca dove7.813.344Wood HerbiM2N 3, 6
ColumbiformesColumbidaeColumba oenasStock pigeon12.58 308.5Wood4OmniM2NS2, 5
ColumbiformesColumbidaeColumba palumbusWood pigeon16.33 489.5Wood3OmniM2NN2
ColumbiformesColumbidaeColumbina passerinaCommon ground dove7.2 34Scrub OmniM2N 1, 6
ColumbiformesColumbidaeEctopistes migratoriusPassenger pigeon 15300Wood HerbiM2Y 1
ColumbiformesColumbidaeGeopelia striataBarred ground dove 14 Wood HerbiI N 6, 10
ColumbiformesColumbidaeLeptotila verreauxiWhite-tipped dove8.6 187.5Wood HerbiM N 1, 6
ColumbiformesColumbidaeLeucosarcia melanoleucaWonga-wonga pigeon 16.3250Scrub HerbiI Y 6, 7
ColumbiformesColumbidaePatagioenas fasciataBand-tailed pigeon18 350Wood HerbiM2Y 1
ColumbiformesColumbidaeStreptopelia chinensisSpotted dove7.7 158Wood3OmniM2NN1, 6, 7
ColumbiformesColumbidaeStreptopelia decaoctoEurasian collared dove13.6717.9193Wood3HerbiM2NN1, 2, 6
ColumbiformesColumbidaeStreptopelia senegalensisLaughing dove5.75 101Scrub3OmniM1NN2
ColumbiformesColumbidaeStreptopelia turturTurtle dove13.17 148Wood3HerbiM2YN2
ColumbiformesColumbidaeZenaida asiaticaWhite-winged dove21.8 150Scrub HerbiM2N 1, 6
ColumbiformesColumbidaeZenaida macrouraMourning dove19.3 120Scrub OmniM2N 1, 6
CoraciiformesBucerotidaeBycanistes subcylindricusGray-cheeked hornbill 31.81250Wood HerbiM  3 
CoraciiformesBucerotidaeCeratogymna atrataAfrican black-wattled hornbill 19.3        6
CoraciiformesBucerotidaeDidioceros bicornisGreat Indian hornbill 33.4        6
CoraciiformesBucorvidaeBucorvus abyssinicusNorthern ground hornbill 404000Grass  M   3
CoraciiformesBucorvidaeBucorvus cafer (leadbeateri)Southern ground hornbill 70        6
CoraciiformesBucorvidaeCoracias affinisBurmese roller 8.9        6
CoraciiformesBucorvidaeCoracias gamilusEuropean roller 8.9        6
CoraciiformesMeropidaeMerops apiasterEuropean bee-eater5.91         4
CoraciiformesMeropidaeMerops bullockoidesWhite-fronted bee-eater7         6
CoraciiformesMomotusMomotus momotaBlue-crowned motmot 10.4145Wood OmniM Y 3, 6
CuculiformesCoccyzidaeCoccyzus americanusYellow-billed cuckoo5 60Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
CuculiformesCoccyzidaeCoccyzus erythropthalmusBlack-billed cuckoo5 50Wood CarniM2Y 1, 6
CuculiformesCuculidaeGeococcyx californianusGreater roadrunner3.8 310Scrub OmniM2N 1, 6
DinornithiformesApterygidaeApteryx australisBrown kiwi 353000Wood OmniI2N 3, 6
DinornithiformesApterygidaeApteryx mantelliKiwi 20        6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAccipiter cooperiiCooper's hawk12 452Wood3CarniM2YN1, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAccipiter gentilisGoshawk19.759.4844.5Wood3CarniM2NN1, 2, 5, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAccipiter heliacaEastern imperial eagle5556        6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAccipiter nipalensisSteppe eagle 41 Scrub CarniM Y 2, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAccipiter nisusEurasian sparrowhawk20.25 204Wood3CarniM2YN2, 4
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAccipiter striatusSharp-shinned hawk1313138.5Wood3CarniM2YN1, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAegypius monachusEurasian black vulture25.5398200Wood CarniM Y 2, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAquila adalbertiSpanish imperial eagle21443000Wood3CarniM2NN9
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAquila audaxWedge-tailed eagle11403775Wood3CarniI2NN3, 7
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAquila chrysaetosGolden eagle32464195Wet4CarniM2YN1, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAquila pomarinaLesser spotted eagle26.1 1410Wood3CarniM2YN2
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAquila rapaxTawny eagle1842.52723Scrub1CarniM1NN2, 3
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAquila wahlbergiWahlberg's eagle11.822.3680Wood3CarniM1NN9
FalconiformesAccipitridaeButeo buteoCommon buzzard25.34 940Wood3CarniM2YN2
FalconiformesAccipitridaeButeo jamaicensisRed-tailed hawk21.529.51126Wood3CarniM2NN1
FalconiformesAccipitridaeButeo lagopusRough-legged buzzard18 951Wood3CarniM3YN1, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeButeo lineatusRed-shouldered hawk20 625Wood3CarniM2NN1, 3
FalconiformesAccipitridaeButeo platypterusBroad-winged hawk14.34 397Wood3CarniM2YN1
FalconiformesAccipitridaeButeo regalisFerruginous hawk20 1469.5Grass3CarniM2YN1
FalconiformesAccipitridaeButeo swainsoniSwainson's hawk16 958.5Grass3CarniM2YN1
FalconiformesAccipitridaeButeogallus anthracinusCommon black hawk13.5 1000Wood CarniM N 3, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeCircaetus cinereusBrown snake eagle6.8         6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeCircaetus gallicusShort-toed snake eagle17.3         6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeCircus aeruginosusWestern marsh harrier20.083 584.5Wet1CarniM1YN2, 4
FalconiformesAccipitridaeCircus approximansSwamp harrier16.5 750Wet1CarniI2YN7
FalconiformesAccipitridaeCircus cyaneusHen harrier17.083 436.5Wet1CarniM2YN1, 2, 4
FalconiformesAccipitridaeCircus macrourusPallid harrier13.417 367.5Grass1CarniM2YS2, 4
FalconiformesAccipitridaeCircus pygargusMontagu's harrier16.3 315.5Grass1CarniM2YS2, 4
FalconiformesAccipitridaeElanus caeruleusSwallow-tailed kite6         6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeElanus leucurusWhite-tailed kite5.9 420Grass CarniM2N 1, 6, 10
FalconiformesAccipitridaeGeranoaetus melanoleucusChilean eagle 42        6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeGypaetus barbatusBearded vulture 40        6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeGypohierax angolensisSea eagle vulture 27.1        6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeGyps africanusWhite-backed vulture 19.7        6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeGyps bengalensisBengal vulture 17.25500Scrub CarniM   3
FalconiformesAccipitridaeGyps coprotheresCape vulture11.2519.79100Scrub4CarniM2NS6, 9
FalconiformesAccipitridaeGyps fulvusGriffon vulture9.91741.49250Grass4CarniM2NS2, 4, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeHaliaeetus albicillaWhite-tailed sea eagle27424500Wood CarniM N 2, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeHaliaeetus leucocephalusBald eagle21.9475000Grass CarniM2Y 3, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeHaliaeetus pelagicusSteller's sea eagle25 6500  Carni    3
FalconiformesAccipitridaeHaliastur sphenurusWhistling kite10.9 770Wood CarniI1Y 6, 7
FalconiformesAccipitridaeHarpia harpyjaHarpy eagle 16.8        6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeHarpyopsis novaeguineaeNew Guinea eagle 30        6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeHieraaetus fasciatusBonelli's eagle 20        6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeHieraaetus morphnoidesLittle eagle10.3  Wood CarniI1N 6, 7
FalconiformesAccipitridaeIctinia mississippiensisMississippi kite8 300Wood CarniM2Y 3, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeKaupifalco monogrammicusLizard buzzard8.6         6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeLophoictinia isuraSquare-tailed kite17         6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeMilvus migransBlack kite23.7         6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeMilvus milvusRed kite26381100Wood CarniM N 3, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeNeophron percnopterusEgyptian vulture 371900Scrub CarniM N 3, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeParabuteo unicinctusHarris' hawk15251020Wood CarniM2N 3, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaePernis apivorusWestern honey-buzzard29         6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeRostrhamus sociabilisSnail kite17 460Wet CarniM N 3, 6
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco berigoraBrown falcon10.524530Grass3CarniI1NN6, 7
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco columbariusMerlin12.6716188.15Wood3CarniM2YN1, 3, 5, 6
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco cherrugSaker falcon1025987.5Wood3CarniM2YN2, 3
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco eleonoraeEleonora's falcon11.167 369Scrub4CarniI2YS2, 3, 5
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco longipennisAustralian hobby10.5 210Wood3CarniI1YN6, 9
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco mexicanusPrairie falcon1320648.35Scrub4CarniM2YN1, 3, 6
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco naumanniLesser kestrel6.17 159.5Grass4CarniM2YS2, 3, 6
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco peregrinusPeregrine falcon17.3425814.5Grass4CarniM2YN1, 5
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco rupicoloidesGreater kestrel6.5 275Grass3CarniM2NN9
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco rusticolusGyrfalcon12.917121181.75Grass4CarniM3YN1, 5
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco sparveriusAmerican kestrel11.614115.5Scrub4CarniI2YN1, 6
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco subbuteoEurasian hobby10.814210.5Scrub3CarniM2YN2, 6
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco tinnunculusCommon kestrel23.834 214Grass4CarniM2YN2, 5
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco vespertinusRed-footed falcon13.2518155Scrub3CarniM2YS5, 9
FalconiformesFalconidaePolyborus cheriwayCheriway caracara 25.8810Grass CarniM N 3, 6
FalconiformesFalconidaePolyborus plancusCommon caracara8.910        6
FalconiformesFalconidaePolyborus tharusBrazilian caracara 37.6        6
FalconiformesPandionidaePandion haliaetusOsprey25 1700Wet CarniM2Y 3, 6
FalconiformesSagittariidaeSagittarius serpentariusSecretary bird 18.63629Scrub CarniM N 3, 6
GalliformesCracidaeCrax globulosaWattled curassow 20        6
GalliformesCracidaeCrax rubraGreat curassow 24        6
GalliformesCracidaeMita tuberosaRazor-billed curassow 23        6
GalliformesCracidaeOrtalis vetulaPlain chachalaca0.2 560Wood OmniM N 1, 6
GalliformesMegapodiidaeAlectura lathamiBrush turkey 112274Wood OmniI1N 7
GalliformesMegapodiidaeMacrocephalon maleoMaleo 23        6
GalliformesOdontophoridaeCallipepla gambeliiGambel's quail7.4 180Scrub HerbiM2N 3, 6
GalliformesOdontophoridaeCallipepla californicaCalifornia quail6.9 170Scrub HerbiM2N 3, 6
GalliformesOdontophoridaeColinus virginianusCommon bobwhite6.4 155Grass OmniM2N 3, 6
GalliformesPhasianidaeAlectoris rufaRed-legged partridge 6.25        6
GalliformesPhasianidaeBonasa umbellusRuffed grouse8.5 600Wood OmniM2N 1, 6
GalliformesPhasianidaeCoturnix chinensisBlue-breasted quail  34Wet HerbiM N 3
GalliformesPhasianidaeDendragapus canadensisSpruce grouse13 476Wood OmniM N 1, 6
GalliformesPhasianidaeDendragapus obscurusBlue grouse14 1247Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
GalliformesPhasianidaeFrancolinus francolinusBlack francolinus 6.51250Grass Omni  N 1
GalliformesPhasianidaeFrancolinus pondicerianusGray francolinus 6.51250Grass Omni  N 1
GalliformesPhasianidaeGallus gallusRed junglefowl 303400Wood OmniM N 3, 6
GalliformesPhasianidaeLagopus lagopusWillow grouse8.583 600Scrub HerbiM N 1, 4
GalliformesPhasianidaeLagopus leucuraWhite-tailed ptarmigan15 382Scrub HerbiM N 1, 6
GalliformesPhasianidaeMeleagris gallopavoWild turkey1312.37500Grass OmniM2N 1, 6
GalliformesPhasianidaePavo cristatusPeafowl 23.24500Grass OmniM N 1, 6
GalliformesPhasianidaePavo muticusGreen peafowl 8 Wood OmniM N 6
GalliformesPhasianidaePerdix perdixGray partridge5.175442Grass HerbiM2N 1, 6
GalliformesPhasianidaePhasianus colchicusCommon pheasant 271000Wood HerbiM2Y 1, 6
GalliformesPhasianidaeTetrae tetrixBlack grouse12.25         4
GalliformesPhasianidaeTetrao urogallusWestern capercaillie 18        6
GalliformesPhasianidaeTympanuchus cupidoGreater prairie chicken1.5 800Grass OmniM2N 1, 6
GalliformesPhasianidaeTympanuchus pallidicinctusLesser prairie chicken13.5 730Grass OmniM N 1, 6
GalliformesPhasianidaeTympanuchus phasianellusSharp-tailed grouse6.3 800Grass OmniM2Y 1, 6
GaviiformesGaviidaeGavia arcticaBlack-throated diver28 3500Wet CarniM Y 6, 10
GaviiformesGaviidaeGavia immerCommon loon20 4400Wet CarniM2Y 1, 6
GaviiformesGaviidaeGavia stellataRed-throated diver23 1900Wet CarniM Y 1, 6
GruiformesGruidaeAnthropoides virgoDemoiselle crane27672400Wet OmniM Y 3
GruiformesGruidaeBalearica pavoninaBlack crowned crane 133600Wet OmniM N 2
GruiformesGruidaeBalearica regalorumGray crowned crane 2135 000Wet OmniM N 2
GruiformesGruidaeGrus americanaWhooping crane30406800Wet OmniM Y 1, 6
GruiformesGruidaeGrus antigoneSarus crane 267600Grass OmniM Y 2, 6
GruiformesGruidaeGrus canadensisSandhill crane21.5 3500Wet OmniM2Y 3, 6
GruiformesGruidaeGrus grusCommon crane 39.4        3, 6
GruiformesGruidaeGrus japonensisRed-crowned crane30406800Wet5OmniM3YN1, 3, 6
GruiformesGruidaeGrus leucauchenWhite-necked crane25267600Grass5OmniM1YN6, 7
GruiformesGruidaeGrus monachusHooded crane21.5403705Wet5OmniM3YN1, 6
GruiformesGruidaeGrus leucogeranusAsiatic white crane17.2539.44797.5Wet1OmniM2YN2, 5, 6
GruiformesGruidaeGrus rubicundaBrolga30659500Wet5OmniM2YS3, 6, 7
Ardeotis koriKori bustard 261250Grass OmniM   3
GruiformesOtididaeOtis tardaGreat bustard 28.3        6
GruiformesRallidaeFulica americanaAmerican coot22.3 640Wet OmniM2Y 1, 6
GruiformesRallidaeFulica atraEurasian coot932.35600Wet5OmniM2YS9
GruiformesRallidaeGallinula chloropusCommon moorhen10.5 380Wet OmniM1Y 1, 6
GruiformesRallidaeGallirallus australisWeka 13.8        6
GruiformesRallidaeGallirallus brachypterusNew Zealand weka rail 12.3        6
GruiformesRallidaeLaterallus jamaicensisBlack rail2.4 32Wet OmniM Y 1, 6
GruiformesRallidaeLaterallus ruberRuddy-breasted crake 9 Wet OmniM N 2, 3
GruiformesRallidaePorphyrio porphyrioPurple swamphen 9950Wet OmniI2N 3
GruiformesRallidaeRallus aquaticusWater rail8.75 120Wet CarniM Y 2
GruiformesRallidaeRallus longirostrisClapper rail7.5 280Wet OmniM2N 1, 6
MusophagiformesMusophagidaeTuracus leucotis donaldsoniDonaldson Smith's touraco 12.4        6
PasseriformesAegithalidaePsaltriparus minimusBushtit8.4 5.3Wood HerbiM2N 3, 6
PasseriformesAlaudidaeEremophila alpestrisHorned lark8 35Grass OmniM2N 3, 6
PasseriformesArtamidaeGymnorhina tibicenAustralian magpie 21317Wood CarniI1N 7
PasseriformesBombycillidaeBombycilla cedrorumCedar waxwing7 32Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesBombycillidaeBombycilla garrulusBohemian waxwing5.8 56Wood OmniM Y 1, 6
PasseriformesCardinalidaeCardinalis cardinalisNorthern cardinal15.8 45Wood OmniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesCardinalidaeCardinalis sinuatusPyrrhuloxia5.8 35Scrub OmniM1N 1, 6
PasseriformesCardinalidaeGuiraca caeruleaBlue grosbeak5.9         6
PasseriformesCardinalidaePasserina amoenaLazuli bunting8.9 8.65Scrub1OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesCardinalidaePasserina caeruleaBlue grosbeak5.917 28.4Grass3OmniM1YN1
PasseriformesCardinalidaePasserina cirisPainted bunting12 15.6Scrub2OmniM1YN1, 6
PasseriformesCardinalidaePasserina cyaneaIndigo bunting11 14.675Grass3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesCardinalidaePheucticus ludovicianusRose-breasted grosbeak7.3 47Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesCardinalidaePheucticus melanocephalusBlack-headed grosbeak9.12545Grass OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesCardinalidaeSpiza americanaDickcissel4 26Grass OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesCerthiidaeCerthia americanaBrown creeper4.6 8Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesCinclidaeCinclus mexicanusAmerican dipper5.1 55Wood OmniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesCorcoracidaeCorcorax melanorhamphosWhite-winged chough 16.3        6
PasseriformesCorcoracidaeStruthidea cinereaApostlebird 25128Wood OmniI1N 1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeAphelocoma californicaWestern scrub jay15.75 90.4Scrub3OmniM2NS1
PasseriformesCorvidaeAphelocoma coerulescensFlorida scrub jay15.816.374.925Wood2OmniM1NS1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeAphelocoma insularisIsland scrub jay16 117.95Wood3OmniI2NN1
PasseriformesCorvidaeAphelocoma ultramarinaMexican jay1925124.45Wood3OmniM1NS1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus brachyrhynchosAmerican crow14.6 506Wood3OmniM2YS1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus caurinusNorthwestern crow16.75 381Wood3OmniM2NS1
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus coraxCommon raven20.41724.7782.5Wood3OmniM2NS1, 5, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus cornixHooded crow 16.8        6
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus coroneCarrion crow17.08313542Scrub3CarniM2NS2, 5, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus coronoidesAustralian raven12.521.8534Scrub3OmniM2NS1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus cryptoleucusChihuahuan raven20.511457.55Wood3OmniM2NS2, 5, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus frugilegusRook19.91714244Grass3OmniM2NS2, 5
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus monedulaJackdaw14.59285.05Wood3OmniM2NS1
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus ossifragusFish crow14.5 262.5Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeCyanocitta cristataBlue jay18.3 85Wood OmniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeCyanocitta stelleriSteller's jay16.1 120Wood OmniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeCyanocorax caeruleusAzure jay 36        6
PasseriformesCorvidaeCyanocorax yncasGreen jay10.7 79Wood OmniM N 1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeGarrulus glandariusEurasian jay16.7517153Wood OmniM N 1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeGymnorhinus cyanocephalusPinyon jay11 105Wood OmniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeNucifraga columbianaClark's nutcracker17.412153Wood OmniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaePerisoreus canadensisGray jay19.2 70Wood OmniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaePica hudsonicaAmerican magpie 7178Wood OmniM N 6, 10
PasseriformesCorvidaePica nuttalliYellow-billed magpie10 141Wood OmniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaePica picaBlack-billed magpie5.9 170Wood OmniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaePyrrhocorax graculus himalayanusHimalayan chough 16        6
PasseriformesCorvidaePyrrhocorax pyrrhocoraxCornish chough 20.3        6
PasseriformesCotingidaeRupicola rupicolaCock-of-the-rock 775Wood OmniM1N 6, 10
PasseriformesDrepanididaeHemignathus virensCommon amakihi7.7 13Wood OmniI1N 6, 10
PasseriformesDrepanididaeHimatione sanguineaApapane6.4 15Wood OmniI1Y 6, 10
PasseriformesDrepanididaeTelespyza cantansLaysan finch101233Wood OmniI1N 6, 10
PasseriformesDrepanididaeTelespyza ultimaNihoa finch11 24Wood OmniI1N 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeAimophila aestivalisBachman's sparrow3 20Wood OmniM1Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeAimophila quinquestriataFive-striped sparrow4 20Scrub OmniM Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeAimophila ruficepsRufous-crowned sparrow3.2 18.8Scrub OmniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeAmmodramus caudacutusSharp-tailed sparrow10 16.5Wet OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeAmmodramus henslowiiHenslow's sparrow2    OmniM2  1
PasseriformesEmberizidaeAmmodramus maritimusSeaside sparrow9 24.2Wet OmniM N 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeAmmodramus savannarumGrasshopper sparrow3.1 18Grass OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeAmphispiza bilineataBlack-throated sparrow6 13.5Grass OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeCalamospiza melanocorysLark bunting4 40Grass OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeCalcarius lapponicusLapland longspur5 28Grass OmniM Y 1, 6
Calcarius ornatusChesnut-collared longspur4    OmniM  Y1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeCalcarius pictusSmith's longspur5 26Wood OmniM Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeChondestes grammacusLark sparrow7.8 28.7Scrub OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeCyanerpes caeruleusPurple sugar bird 17        6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeEmberiza aureolaYellow-breasted bunting7 21.6Wood1OmniM3YN2, 4
PasseriformesEmberizidaeEmberiza cirlusCirl bunting6.083 23.75Scrub3OmniM2NN2
PasseriformesEmberizidaeEmberiza citrinellaYellowhammer13 26.75Wood1OmniM2NN2, 5
PasseriformesEmberizidaeEmberiza hortulanaOrtolan bunting5.834 22.85Wood1OmniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesEmberizidaeEmberiza melanocephalaBlack-headed bunting11 27.9Scrub2OmniM2YN2, 4
PasseriformesEmberizidaeEmberiza schoeniclusReed bunting11.25 18.8Grass1OmniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesEmberizidaeJunco hyemalisDark-eyed/slate-colored junco10.8 20Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeJunco phaeonotusYellow-eyed junco6.6 122.5Grass OmniM Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeMelospiza georgianaSwamp sparrow4.8 18Wet CarniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeMelospiza lincolniiLincoln's sparrow7.6 19Grass OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeMelospiza melodiaSong sparrow11.3 32Grass HerbiM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaePasserculus sandwichensisSavannah sparrow6.1 21Grass CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaePasserella iliacaFox sparrow9.7 32Wood CarniM2Y 3, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaePipilo abertiAbert's towhee8.6 48.49Scrub2OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaePipilo chlorurusGreen-tailed towhee7.7 29.2Scrub2OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaePipilo crissalisCalifornia towhee12.834 54.5Wood2OmniM2NN1
PasseriformesEmberizidaePipilo erythrophthalmusEastern towhee12.3 40.5Wood1OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaePipilo fuscusCanyon towhee12.8 45.55Grass3HerbiM1NN1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaePiranga ludovicianaWestern tanager7.9 30Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaePiranga olivaceaScarlet tanager10.1 30Wood CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaePiranga rubraSummer tanager7.3 30Wood CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaePlectrophenax hyperboreusMckay's bunting4.8 43Grass HerbiI2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaePlectrophenax nivalisSnow bunting8.8 35Grass HerbiM Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaePooecetes gramineusVesper sparrow7.9 24.7Grass OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeSpizella arboreaAmerican tree sparrow10.75 17.85Grass1OmniM3YN1
PasseriformesEmberizidaeSpizella breweriBrewer's sparrow5.2 10.85Grass2CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeSpizella pallidaClay-colored sparrow5.1 11.95Grass2OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeSpizella passerinaChipping sparrow9.8 12.15Wood3HerbiM2YS1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeSpizella pusillaField sparrow8.8 13.1Grass2OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeSporophila torqueolaWhite-collared seedeater11.7 8.7Grass OmniM N 1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeZonotrichia albicollisWhite-throated sparrow9.7 26.3Wood1OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeZonotrichia atricapillaGolden-crowned sparrow10.5 31.55Wood1HerbiM3YN1
PasseriformesEmberizidaeZonotrichia leucophrysWhite-crowned sparrow13.34 26.87Wood1OmniM3YN1
PasseriformesEmberizidaeZonotrichia querulaHarris's sparrow11.7 35.55Wood1OmniM3YN1, 6
PasseriformesEstrildidaeLonchura cantansAfrican silverbill 10 Grass HerbiM N 7
PasseriformesEstrildidaeLonchura oryzioraJava finch 6 Grass HerbiI1N 10
PasseriformesEstrildidaeLonchura punctulataScaly-breasted minia 10 Grass HerbiM N 7
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis cannabinaLinnet9.417 18.95Grass3HerbiM2YS2, 5
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis carduelisEuropean goldfinch11.75 15.6Grass3OmniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis chlorisEuropean greenfinch13 27.65Wood3OmniM2YS2, 5, 7
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis flammeaCommon redpoll10.672513.75Wood3OmniM3YN1, 5, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis flavirostrisTwite6.083 16.2Grass2OmniM2NS2, 5
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis hornemanniArtic redpoll4.583 8.8Scrub3OmniM3YS1
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis pinusPine siskin9.4 16.3Scrub3OmniM2YS1, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis psaltriaLesser goldfinch5.7 9Wood3HerbiM1NN1, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis spinusEurasian siskin13.5 12.8Wood2OmniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis tristisAmerican goldfinch11 12.12Grass2HerbiM2YN1
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarpodacus cassiniiCassin's finch7 27.45Wood3OmniM2YS1, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarpodacus erythrinusCommon rosefinch9 22.95Wood2OmniM2YN2
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarpodacus mexicanusHouse finch11.6 19.3Grass3HerbiM2NS1, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarpodacus purpureusPurple finch11.8 25.23Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaeCoccothraustes vespertinusEvening grosbeak15.3 63Wood OmniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaeFringilla coelebsChaffinch 29        6
PasseriformesFringillidaeLeucosticte atrataRosy finch6.6 27Scrub OmniM Y 1, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaeLeucosticte tephrocotisGray-crowned rosy-finch6.518324 Scrub OmniM   1
PasseriformesFringillidaeLoxia curvirostraRed crossbill4.2 33Wood HerbiM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaeLoxia leucopteraWhite-winged crossbill 425Wood HerbiM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaePinicola enucleatorPine grosbeak9.7 62Wood HerbiM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaeSerinus canariaCanary7.22415.25Wood3OmniI2NN2, 6, 10
PasseriformesFringillidaeSerinus citrinellaCitril finch5.67 12.5Wood3HerbiM2YN2, 9
PasseriformesFringillidaeSerinus serinusEuropean serin8.583 11.95Grass3OmniM2NN2
PasseriformesFringillidaeSerinus syriacusSyrian serin6.917 12.5Grass3HerbiM2NN2, 5
PasseriformesHirundinidaeHirundo dauricaRed-rumped swallow9 22.25Grass4CarniM1NN2, 5
PasseriformesHirundinidaeHirundo fulvaCave swallow9.32419Grass4CarniM2YS1, 6, 9
PasseriformesHirundinidaeHirundo pyrrhonotaCliff swallow11 22.7Grass4CarniM2YS1, 6, 9
PasseriformesHirundinidaeHirundo rusticaBarn swallow15.92 19.1Wet3CarniM2YS1, 2, 6
PasseriformesHirundinidaeProgne subisPurple martin13.8 59Wet CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesHirundinidaeRiparia ripariaBank swallow8 14.6Wet CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesHirundinidaeStelgidopteryx ruficollisRough-winged swallow5.9 14.3Wet CarniM Y 1, 6
PasseriformesHirundinidaeTachycineta bicolorTree swallow11 20.5Wet CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesHirundinidaeTachycineta thalassinaViolet-green swallow6.8 14Wood CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeAgelaius phoeniceusRed-winged blackbird15.8 54Wet OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeAgelaius tricolorTri-colored blackbird12 52Wet OmniM2Y 1
PasseriformesIcteridaeDolichonyx oryzivorusBobolink9 40Grass OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeEuphagus carolinusRusty blackbird8.8 60Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeEuphagus cyanocephalusBrewer's blackbird12.5 62.5Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeIcterus bullockiiBullock's oriole8 37.85Wood3OmniM2YN1
PasseriformesIcteridaeIcterus cucullatusHooded oriole6 24.3Scrub3OmniM1YN1, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeIcterus galbulaBaltimore oriole11.6 34.2Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeIcterus parisorumScott's oriole6.417 35.7Scrub3OmniM1YN1, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeIcterus pectoralisSpot-breasted oriole11.6 50Wood OmniM N 6, 10
PasseriformesIcteridaeIcterus spuriusOrchard oriole9.6 20.05Wood3OmniM2YS1, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeMolothrus aeneusBronzed cowbird3.6 70Grass OmniM1N 1, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeMolothrus aterBrown-headed cowbird16.9 45Grass OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeMolothrus bonariensisShiny/silky cowbird5 50Grass OmniM Y 1, 10
PasseriformesIcteridaeQuiscalus majorBoat-tailed grackle12.83 166Wet OmniM1N 1, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeQuiscalus mexicanusGreat-tailed grackle12.5 190Grass OmniM2Y 3, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeQuiscalus quisculaCommon grackle20.9 108Wood OmniM2Y 3, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeSturnella magnaEastern meadowlark12.58 120Grass OmniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeSturnella neglectaWestern meadowlark 10120Grass OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeXanthocephalus xanthocephalusYellow-headed blackbird11.671680Wet OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesIrenidaeIrena puellaAsian fairy bluebird 16.1        6
PasseriformesLaniidaeLanius collurioRed-backed shrike7.75 30.7Scrub2CarniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesLaniidaeLanius excubitorNorthern shrike6.516.168Grass3CarniM3YN1, 6
PasseriformesLaniidaeLanius ludovicianusLoggerhead shrike12.5 47.7Grass3CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesLaniidaeLanius nubicusMasked shrike4.34 22.8Wood3CarniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesLaniidaeLanius senatorWoodchat shrike5.67 36Wood3CarniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesMimidaeDumetella carolinensisGray catbird10.9 34Wood OmniM2Y 3, 6
PasseriformesMimidaeMimus polyglottosNorthern mockingbird20 50Grass OmniM2N 3, 6
PasseriformesMimidaeToxostoma bendireiBendire's thrasher4.2 62.2Scrub2OmniM1NN1, 6
PasseriformesMimidaeToxostoma crissaleCrissal thrasher4.34 62.7Scrub2OmniM1NN1
PasseriformesMimidaeToxostoma curvirostreCurve-billed thrasher10.8 78.36Grass2CarniM1NN1, 6
PasseriformesMimidaeToxostoma dorsaleCrissal thrasher4.4         6
PasseriformesMimidaeToxostoma leconteiLe Conte's thrasher5.87 61.82Scrub2OmniM2NN1, 6
PasseriformesMimidaeToxostoma longirostreLong billed thrasher7.3 67.65Wood2OmniM1NN1, 6
PasseriformesMimidaeToxostoma redivivumCalifornia thrasher6.9 84.4Scrub2OmniM2NN1, 6
PasseriformesMimidaeToxostoma rufumBrown thrasher12.8341268.5Wood2OmniM2YN1
PasseriformesMotacillidaeAnthus cervinusRed-throated pipit4.5 20.4Wet1OmniM3YS2, 5
PasseriformesMotacillidaeAnthus rubescensBuff-bellied pipit5.1 20.565Grass1OmniM3YN1, 6
PasseriformesMotacillidaeAnthus spinolettaWater pipit8.834 22.95Wet4OmniM2YN1, 2, 6
PasseriformesMotacillidaeAnthus pratensisMeadow pipit7.67 19.25Grass1OmniM2NN2, 5
PasseriformesMotacillidaeAnthus petrosusRock pipit10.9 23Scrub1CarniM2NN5, 9
PasseriformesMotacillidaeAnthus trivialisTree pipit8.167 23.4Wood1OmniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesMotacillidaeMotacilla albaWhite wagtail12.25 24.4Grass4OmniM3YN1, 5
PasseriformesMotacillidaeMotacilla flavaYellow wagtail8.834 17.25Grass1CarniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesMotacillidaeMotacilla lugensBlack-backed wagtail12.25 26.65Grass4OmniM3YN1, 7
PasseriformesMotacillidaeMotacilla tschutschensisEastern yellow wagtail8.417 16.55Grass1CarniM3YN1
PasseriformesNectariniidaeNectarinia asiaticaPurple sunbird 22        6
PasseriformesOriolidaeOrioles xanthornusBlack-hooded oriole (hang-nest) 15.5        6
PasseriformesOriolidaeSphecotheres viridisGreen figbird (hang-nest) 18        6
PasseriformesParadisaeidaeParadisea apodaGreater bird of paradise 12.1275.5Wood OmniIslands1N 6, 9
PasseriformesParidaeParus aterCoal Tit9.5 9.25Wood4OmniM2NN2
PasseriformesParidaeParus atricapillusBlack-capped chickadee12.4 12Wood4OmniM2NN1, 3, 6
PasseriformesParidaeParus bicolorTufted titmouse13.3 25.5Wood4OmniM2NS3, 6
PasseriformesParidaeParus caeruleusBlue tit14.583 11.75Wood4OmniM2NN2, 5
PasseriformesParidaeParus carolinensisCarolina chickadee10.9 10.5Wood4OmniM2NN1, 3, 6
PasseriformesParidaeParus cinctusSiberian tit7         6
PasseriformesParidaeParus cristatusCrested tit11.583 11.15Wood4OmniM2NN2, 5
PasseriformesParidaeParus gambeliMountain chickadee10.1 10.5Wood4OmniM2NN1, 3, 6
PasseriformesParidaeParus hudsonicusBoreal chickadee4.7         6
PasseriformesParidaeParus inornatusPlain titmouse8         6
PasseriformesParidaeParus majorGreat tit15.417918.3Wood4CarniM2NS2, 5
PasseriformesParidaeParus rufescensChesnut-backed chickadee7.8910.5Wood4OmniM2NN1, 3, 6
PasseriformesParidaeParus sclateriMexican chickadee5         6
PasseriformesParidaeParus wollweberiBridled titmouse6.6         6
PasseriformesParulidaeCardellina rubrifronsRed-faced warbler3 9.8Wood CarniM Y 1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica caerulescensBlack-throated blue warbler9.7 9.95Wood1OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica castaneaBay-breasted warbler3.4 12.15Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica chrysopariaGolden-cheeked warbler8 9.895Wood3CarniM2YN1
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica coronataYellow-rumped warbler7 12.55Wood3OmniM2YN1
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica discolorPrarie warbler10.34 7.05Wood3CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica dominicaYellow-throated warbler5.1 9.7Wood3CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica fuscaBlackburnian warbler8.2 10.2Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica kirtlandiiKirtland's warbler9 13.95Wood1CarniM2YS1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica magnoliaMagnolia warbler6.917 8.735Wood3CarniM2YN1
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica palmarum hypochryseaYellow palm-warbler5.834 10Wood2OmniM2YN1
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica palmarum palmarumWestern palm-warbler6.6 10Wood2OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica pensylvanicaChestnut-sided warbler6.917 12.4Wood2OmniM2YN1
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica petechiaYellow warbler8.917 9.8Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica pinusPine warbler6.8 11.9Wood3OmniM2NN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica striataBlackpoll warbler5 12.3Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica tigrinaCape May warbler4.34 10.15Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica townsendiTownsend's warbler3.6 8.85Wood3CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica virensBlack-throated green warbler5.917 9.2Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeGeothlypis trichasCommon yellowthroat9.9 9.5Wet CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeHelmitheros vermivorusWorm-eating warbler7.1 13Wood CarniM2Y 6, 10
PasseriformesParulidaeIcteria virensYellow-breasted chat8.9 25Wood CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeLimnothlypis swainsoniiSwainson's warbler7.8 15Wood CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeMniotilta variaBlack and white warbler11.3 12Wood CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeMyioborus pictusPainted redstart6.6 9.8Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeOporornis agilisConnecticut warbler4.34 15.32Wood2CarniM2YN1
PasseriformesParulidaeOporornis formosusKentucky warbler7 14.45Wood1OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeOporornis philadelphiaMourning warbler7.9 12.3Wood2CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeOporornis tolmieiMacGillivray's warbler4.1 10.4Wood2CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeParula americanaNorthern parula4.9 11.6Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeProtonotaria citreaProthonotary warbler4.9 15Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeSeiurus aurocapillusOvenbird9 21Wood CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeSeiurus motacillaLouisiana waterthrush8 21Wood CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeSeiurus noveboracensisNorthern waterthrush8.9 17Wet CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeSetophaga ruticillaAmerican redstart10 7.5Wood CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeVermivora celataOrange-crowned warbler6.86.89.3Wood1CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeVermivora chrysopteraGolden-winged warbler7.97.99.3Scrub1CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeVermivora luciaeLucy's warbler5.8 6.6Wood4CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeVermivora peregrinaTennessee warbler6.417 7.92Wood1OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeVermivora pinusBlue-winged warbler7.917 8.965Grass1CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeVermivora ruficapillaNashville warbler7.3 8.75Wood1CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeVermivora virginiaeVirginia's warbler4.1 8.2Wood2CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeWilsonia canadensisCanada warbler8 11Wood CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeWilsonia citrinaHooded warbler8 11Wood CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeWilsonia pusillaWilson's warbler6.8 8Scrub CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesPasseridaeBubalornis albirostrisBuffalo-weaver 20        6
PasseriformesPasseridaePasser domesticusHouse sparrow19.67 28.5Wood3OmniM2NS1, 5, 7
PasseriformesPasseridaePasser hispaniolensisSpanish sparrow11.25 26.6Wood3OmniM2YS2
PasseriformesPasseridaePasser italiaeItalian sparrow 20        6
PasseriformesPasseridaePasser moabiticusDead sea sparrow7.25 18.15Scrub3HerbiM2YS2, 5
PasseriformesPasseridaePasser montanusTree sparrow13.083 21.7Grass4HerbiM2NS1, 2, 5
PasseriformesPrunellidaePrunella modularis occidentalusHedge sparrow11.758.3        4, 5
PasseriformesPtilonorhynchidaeAiluroedus crassirostrisGreen catbird4 207Wood OmniI1N 2, 3, 7
PasseriformesPtilonorhynchidaePtilonorhynchus violaceusSatin bowerbird 21204Wood OmniI1N 2, 7
PasseriformesPycnonotidaePycnontus jocosusRed-whiskered bulbul4         6
PasseriformesRegulidaeRegulus calendulaRuby-crowned kinglet5.6 7Wood OmniM Y 1, 6
PasseriformesRegulidaeRegulus satrapaGolden-crowned kinglet5.3  Wood OmniM   1, 6
PasseriformesRemizidaeAuriparus flavicepsVerdin5.6 7Scrub OmniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesSittidaeSitta canadensisRed-breasted nuthatch7.5610.5Wood3OmniM2NN1, 3, 6
PasseriformesSittidaeSitta carolinensisWhite-breasted nuthatch9.834 21.1Wood4OmniM2NN1, 3
PasseriformesSittidaeSitta europaeaEurasian nuthatch12.917 23.9Wood4OmniM2NN2, 5
PasseriformesSittidaeSitta neumayerWestern rock nuthatch6 31Scrub4OmniM2NN2, 5
PasseriformesSittidaeSitta pusillaBrown-headed nuthatch5.8 10.35Wood3OmniM2NS1, 6
PasseriformesSittidaeSitta pygmaeaPygmy nuthatch8.2 10.4Wood4OmniM2NS1, 3, 6
PasseriformesSturnidaeAcridotheres cristatellusCrested myna11.213111Grass OmniM N 1, 6
PasseriformesSturnidaeAcridotheres tristisCommon myna4 16Wood OmniM N 1, 3
PasseriformesSturnidaeLamprotornis caudatusLong-tailed glossy starling 17.8        6
PasseriformesSturnidaeSpreo hildebrandtiHildebrandt's starling 16.9        6
PasseriformesSturnidaeSturnus vulgarisEuropean starling21.315.8        6
PasseriformesSylviidaeAcrocephalus arundinaceusGreat reed warbler10 30.35Wet2OmniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesSylviidaeAcrocephalus dumetorumBlyth's reed warbler7.75 11.7Wet2CarniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesSylviidaeAcrocephalus familiarisMillerbird5 18.25Scrub2CarniI1NN1
PasseriformesSylviidaeAcrocephalus melanopogonMoustached warbler9.8 12.9Grass2CarniM2NN2, 4
PasseriformesSylviidaeAcrocephalus palustrisMarsh warbler9.083 12Wet2CarniM2YN2, 4
PasseriformesSylviidaeAcrocephalus schoenobaenusSedge warbler10.083 11.9Grass2OmniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesSylviidaeAcrocephalus scirpaceusReed warbler12 11.8Wet2OmniM2YN2
PasseriformesSylviidaeAcrocephalus stentoreusClamorous reed warbler10.5836.626.9Wet2CarniM1NN2, 5, 6, 7
PasseriformesSylviidaeChamaea fasciataWrentit12.6 14.5Scrub OmniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesSylviidaePhylloscopus borealisArctic warbler3.1 10Wood CarniM Y 1, 6
PasseriformesSylviidaeSylvia atricapillaBlackcap8 18.6Wood2OmniM2NN2
PasseriformesSylviidaeSylvia borinGarden warbler14.1672420.05Scrub3OmniM2YN2, 4, 6
PasseriformesSylviidaeSylvia communisWhitethroat8.676.315.35Grass2OmniM2YN2, 5, 6
PasseriformesSylviidaeSylvia currucaLesser whitethroat7.583 12.4Grass2OmniM2YN2, 4
PasseriformesThraupidaePiranga ludovicianaWestern tanager7.915.330Wood OmniM Y 1
PasseriformesThraupidaePiranga olivaceaScarlet tanager10.083 30Wood OmniM Y 1
Piranga rubraSummer tanager5 30Wood OmniM Y 1
PasseriformesThraupidaeRamphocelus carboSilver-beaked tanager 925Wood OmniM N 1
PasseriformesThraupidaeThraupis episcopusBlue-gray tanager 935Wood OmniM N 2
PasseriformesThraupidaeGarrulax pectoralisGreater Necklaced Laughingthrush 8 Wood OmniM N 2
PasseriformesTimaliidaeLeiothrix luteaRed-billed leothrix 15        6
PasseriformesTimaliidaeTurdoides temicolorBengal jungle babbler 16.5        6
PasseriformesTroglodytidaeCampylorhynchus brunneicapillusCactus wren6.3 40Scrub CarniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesTroglodytidaeThryomanes bewickiiBewick's wren8 11Scrub CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesTroglodytidaeThryothorus ludovicianusCarolina wren6.1 20Wood CarniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesTroglodytidaeTroglodytes aedonHouse wren7.1 11Wood CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesTroglodytidaeTroglodytes troglodytesWinter wren4.1 10Wood CarniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesTurdidaeCatharus bicknelliBicknell's thrush8 30.075Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesTurdidaeCatharus fuscescensVeery10.1 35Wood1OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesTurdidaeCatharus guttatusHermit thrush8.7 31.2Wood1OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesTurdidaeCatharus minimusGray-cheeked thrush7.34 29.3Wood3CarniM3YN1
PasseriformesTurdidaeCatharus ustulatusSwainson's thrush11 29.8Wood2OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesTurdidaeHylocichla mustelinaWood thrush8.9 45Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesTurdidaeIxoreus naeviusVaried thrush4.8 82Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesTurdidaeMuscicapa striataSpotted flycatcher 11.8        6
PasseriformesTurdidaePolioptila caeruleaBlue-gray gnatcatcher4.2 6Wood CarniM2Y 3, 6
PasseriformesTurdidaeSialia currucoidesMountain bluebird4.8 30Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesTurdidaeSialia mexicanaWestern bluebird4.3 27Wood OmniM2Y 3, 6
PasseriformesTurdidaeSialia sialisEastern bluebird8 30Grass OmniM2N 3, 6
PasseriformesTurdidaeTurdus iliacusRedwing18.75 64.1Wood1OmniM3YS2
PasseriformesTurdidaeTurdus merulaBlackbird20.25 100.15Wood3OmniM2NS2
PasseriformesTurdidaeTurdus migratoriusAmerican robin13.91712.879.9Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesTurdidaeTurdus philomelosSong thrush17.417 68.6Grass3OmniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesTurdidaeTurdus pilarisFieldfare18 92.1Grass3OmniM2YS2
PasseriformesTurdidaeTurdus torquatusRing ouzel9.083 98Grass1OmniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesTurdidaeTurdus viscivorusMistle thrush12.34 117.8Grass3OmniM2NN2, 5
PasseriformesTyrannidaeCamptostoma imberbeNorthern beardless tyrannulet4.8 7.5Wood OmniM N 1, 6
PasseriformesTyrannidaeContopus cooperiOlive-sided flycatcher7.1 33.2Wood3CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesTyrannidaeContopus pertinaxGreater pewee7 27.2Wood3OmniM1YN1
PasseriformesTyrannidaeContopus sordidulusWestern wood pewee6.1 12.85Wood3CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesTyrannidaeContopus virensEastern wood pewee7.1 14.1Wood3CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesTyrannidaeEmpidonax alnorumAlder flycatcher3.167 13.5Wet2CarniM2YN1
PasseriformesTyrannidaeEmpidonax difficilisPacific-slope flycatcher6 10.7Wood3CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesTyrannidaeEmpidonax flaviventrisYellow-bellied flycatcher4 10.95Wood2CarniM2YN1
PasseriformesTyrannidaeEmpidonax fulvifronsBuff-breasted flycatcher2 7.9Wood3CarniM1NS1
PasseriformesTyrannidaeEmpidonax minimusLeast flycatcher8 10.25Wood3OmniM2YS1, 6
PasseriformesTyrannidaeEmpidonax oberholseriDusky flycatcher9 10.4Scrub3CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesTyrannidaeEmpidonax trailliiWillow flycatcher7 12.6Wood2OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesTyrannidaeEmpidonax virescensAcadian flycatcher10.917 12.95Wood3CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesTyrannidaeMyiarchus cinerascensAsh-throated flycatcher9 28.2Scrub OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesTyrannidaeMyiarchus crinitusGreat-crested flycatcher13.9 33.5Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesTyrannidaeMyiarchus tyrannulusBrown-crested/Wied's flycatcher9.9 44Wood OmniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesTyrannidaePyrocephalus rubinusVermilion flycatcher5.5 14Scrub CarniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesTyrannidaeSayornis nigricansBlack phoebe8 18Wet CarniM2N 1, 6
PasseriformesTyrannidaeSayornis phoebeEastern phoebe9.1 18.5Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
Sayornis sayaSay's phoebe5 21Grass OmniM27 1
PasseriformesTyrannidaeTyrannus tyrannusEastern kingbird9.9 44Grass OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesTyrannidaeTyrannus verticalisWestern kingbird6.9 41Grass OmniM2Y 1, 6
PasseriformesVireonidaeVireo atricapillaBlack-capped vireo7 9Scrub3OmniM1YN1
PasseriformesVireonidaeVireo belliiBell's vireo6.917 8.5Scrub3CarniM2YN1
PasseriformesVireonidaeVireo flavifronsYellow-throated vireo6.1 16.8Wood3CarniM2YN1, 2, 6
PasseriformesVireonidaeVireo gilvusWarbling vireo13.1 13.495Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesVireonidaeVireo griseusWhite-eyed vireo7.3 12.25Scrub3CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesVireonidaeVireo huttoniHutton's vireo6.5 10.9Wood3CarniM2NN1, 6
PasseriformesVireonidaeVireo olivaceusRed-eyed vireo10 20.3Wood3OmniM2YN1
PasseriformesVireonidaeVireo philadelphicusPhiladelphia vireo8.834 12.05Wood3OmniM2YN1
PasseriformesVireonidaeVireo solitariusBlue-headed vireo7.417 15.35Wood2OmniM2YN1
PasseriformesVireonidaeVireo viciniorGray vireo6 12.4Scrub3CarniM2YN1
PasseriformesZosteropidaeZosterops japonicusJapanese white-eye5.1         6
PelecaniformesAnhingidaeAnhinga anhingaAmerican anhinga11.916.41337Wet CarniM1Y 1, 6
PelecaniformesAnhingidaeAnhinga melanogasterOriental darter 16        6
PelecaniformesFregatidaeFregata andrewsiChristmas Island frigatebird25.6 1550  CarniI   3
PelecaniformesFregatidaeFregata arielLesser frigatebird27.58  Scrub CarniI1N 2, 6
PelecaniformesFregatidaeFregata magnificensMagnificent frigatebird14.5101450Scrub CarniM1N 3, 6
PelecaniformesFregatidaeFregata minorGreat frigatebird38.17 1400Wood CarniI1N 3, 6
PelecaniformesPelecanidaePelecanus crispusDalmation pelican 35.311 000Wet CarniM Y 2, 6
PelecaniformesPelecanidaePelecanus erythrorhynchosAmerican white pelican26.4546130Wet1CarniM2YS1, 6
PelecaniformesPelecanidaePelecanus occidentalisBrown pelican43313057Wet3CarniM1NS1, 3, 6
PelecaniformesPelecanidaePelecanus onocrotalusWhite pelican 5110 000Wet CarniM Y 3, 6
PelecaniformesPelecanidaePelecanus philippensisSpot-billed pelican31294900Wet1CarniM1YS3
PelecaniformesPhaethontidaePhaethon aethereusRed-billed tropicbird10 680Scrub CarniI1Y 6, 10
PelecaniformesPhaethontidaePhaethon rubricaudaRed-tailed tropicbird23.8 715Scrub CarniI1Y 6, 10
PelecaniformesPhalacrocoracidaePhalacrocorax aristotelisEuropean shag30.58315.81769Scrub1CarniM2YS2, 4
PelecaniformesPhalacrocoracidaePhalacrocorax auritusDouble-crested cormorant17.8 2254.5Scrub3CarniM2YS1
PelecaniformesPhalacrocoracidaePhalacrocorax brasilianusNeotropic cormorant12.6 1137.5Wet3CarniM1NS1
PelecaniformesPhalacrocoracidaePhalacrocorax carboGreat cormorant23.519.72254Scrub3CarniM1YS1, 2
PelecaniformesPhalacrocoracidaePhalacrocorax pelagicusPelagic cormorant17.8 1868Scrub4CarniI2NS1
PelecaniformesPhalacrocoracidaePhalacrocorax penicillatusBrandt's cormorant9.4 2250Wet3CarniM2YS1, 9
PelecaniformesPhalacrocoracidaePhalacrocorax purpurascensImperial shag13 7500Scrub3CarniI3NS2, 6
PelecaniformesSulidaeSula bassanaNorthern gannet37.417 2999.5Scrub1CarniI2YS2, 5
PelecaniformesSulidaeSula dactylatraMasked booby25.3 1987.5Scrub1CarniI1NS1, 2
PelecaniformesSulidaeSula leucogasterBrown booby24.6 1125Grass1CarniI1YS1, 2, 6
PelecaniformesSulidaeSula nebouxiiBlue-footed booby17 1600Scrub1CarniI1YS3
PelecaniformesSulidaeSula serratorAustralasian gannet33 2000Grass1CarniI2YS9
PelecaniformesSulidaeSula sulaRed-footed booby23 1123Wood3CarniI1YS1
PhoenicopteriformesPhoenicopteridaePhoenicopterus andinusAndean flamingo25602800Wet1OmniM1YS3, 9
PhoenicopteriformesPhoenicopteridaePhoenicopterus chilensisChilean flamingo50443000Wet1OmniM1YS3, 9
PhoenicopteriformesPhoenicopteridaePhoenicopterus minorLesser flamingo50451700Wet1OmniM1YS2, 9
PhoenicopteriformesPhoenicopteridaePhoenicopterus ruberCaribbean flamingo33443052Wet1OmniM1YS2, 6
PiciformesPicidaeColaptes auratusNorthern flicker12.5 135Wood OmniM2N 1, 6
PiciformesPicidaeDryocopus pileatusPileated woodpecker9.99.4300Wood OmniM2N 1, 6
PiciformesPicidaeDendrocopos leucotosWhite-backed woodpecker10.92 106Wood4OmniM2NN2, 3, 5
PiciformesPicidaeDendrocopos majorGreat spotted woodpecker11.7 89.65Wood4OmniM2NN2, 5
PiciformesPicidaeDendrocopos mediusMiddle spotted woodpecker8 59Wood4CarniM2NN2
PiciformesPicidaeDendrocopos minorLesser spotted woodpecker7.25 21.5Wood4OmniM2NN2, 5
PiciformesPicidaeMelanerpes aurifronsGolden-fronted woodpecker5.7 82.05Wood4OmniM1NN1, 6
PiciformesPicidaeMelanerpes carolinusRed-bellied woodpecker12.19.459.5Wood4OmniM2NN1, 6
PiciformesPicidaeMelanerpes erythrocephalusRed-headed woodpecker9.917 71.6Wood4OmniM2NN1
PiciformesPicidaeMelanerpes formicivorusAcorn woodpecker16 79.05Wood4OmniM1NS1, 6
PiciformesPicidaeMelanerpes uropygialisGila woodpecker7.8 67.8Scrub4OmniM1NN1, 6
PiciformesPicidaePicoides borealisRed-cockaded woodpecker13.81347.7Wood4OmniM2NS1, 6
PiciformesPicidaePicoides dorsalisAmerican three-toed woodpecker6 55.15Wood4OmniM2NN1
PiciformesPicidaePicoides pubescensDowny woodpecker11.4 26.45Wood4OmniM2NS1, 3, 6
PiciformesPicidaePicoides scalarisLadder-backed woodpecker4.5 22.35Scrub4CarniM1NN1, 3, 6
PiciformesPicidaePicoides tridactylusEurasian three-toed woodpecker6.25 65.65Wood4CarniM2NN1, 2, 5, 10
PiciformesPicidaePicoides villosusHairy woodpecker15.834 66.25Wood4OmniM2NN1, 6
PodicipediformesPodicipedidaeAechmophorus occidentalisWestern grebe14  Wet5CarniM2Y 6
PodicipediformesPodicipedidaePodiceps auritusSlavonian grebe713394Wet5CarniM2YN1, 2
PodicipediformesPodicipedidaePodiceps cristatusGreat crested grebe14.5 875Wet5CarniM2YN2, 5, 7
PodicipediformesPodicipedidaePodiceps grisegenaRed-necked grebe4.8 886.5Wet5CarniM2YN1, 2
PodicipediformesPodicipedidaePodiceps nigricollisBlack-necked grebe12 315.5Wet5CarniM2YS1, 2
PodicipediformesPodicipedidaeTachybaptus ruficollisLittle grebe13         6
ProcellariiformesDiomedeidaeDiomedea albatrusShort-tailed albatross17.3 4000Scrub1CarniI2YS6
ProcellariiformesDiomedeidaeDiomedea amsterdamensisAmsterdam albatross40 6400Wet1CarniI2YS6, 7
ProcellariiformesDiomedeidaeDiomedea antipodensisAntipodean albatross30.3 1000Scrub1CarniI2YS7
ProcellariiformesDiomedeidaeDiomedea bulleriBuller's albatross30 3000Scrub1CarniI2YS6
ProcellariiformesDiomedeidaeDiomedea chlororhynchosAtlantic yellow-nosed albatross37 3890Scrub1CarniI2YS2, 6
ProcellariiformesDiomedeidaeDiomedea chrysostomaGray-headed albatross30 3250Scrub1CarniI2YS2, 6
ProcellariiformesDiomedeidaeDiomedea epomophoraSouthern royal albatross58 9000Scrub1CarniI2YS2, 3, 9
ProcellariiformesDiomedeidaeDiomedea exulansWandering albatross60 8727Scrub1CarniI2YS2, 3
ProcellariiformesDiomedeidaeDiomedea immutabilisLayan albatross53 2400Scrub1CarniI1YS3, 6, 9
ProcellariiformesDiomedeidaeDiomedea irrorataWaved albatross40 4082Grass1CarniI1YS6, 9
ProcellariiformesDiomedeidaeDiomedea melanophrisBlack-browed albatross34 3595Grass1CarniI2YS2, 6, 7
ProcellariiformesDiomedeidaeDiomedea nigripesBlack-footed albatross40.67 2800Scrub1CarniI2YS2, 6
ProcellariiformesHydrobatidaeHydrobates pelagicusEuropean storm petrel20         6
ProcellariiformesHydrobatidaeOceanodroma castroMadeiran storm petrel36 41.7Scrub4CarniI1YS1, 2
ProcellariiformesHydrobatidaeOceanodroma furcataFork-tailed storm petrel14 58.9Scrub4CarniI3YS1, 6
ProcellariiformesHydrobatidaeOceanodroma homochroaAshy storm petrel8 39.6Scrub4CarniI2YS1
ProcellariiformesHydrobatidaeOceanodroma leucorhoaLeach's storm petrel36 45.35Scrub4CarniI2YS1, 2, 6
ProcellariiformesHydrobatidaeOceanodroma tristramiTristram's storm petrel14 45.3Scrub4CarniI1YS1
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaeBulweria bulweriiBulwer's petrel22 100Scrub CarniI1N 1, 6
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaeDaption capenseCape petrel20         6
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaeFulmarus glacialisNorthern fulmar48         6
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaePagodroma niveaSnow petrel20         6
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaeProcellaria parkinsoniBlack petrel17         6
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaePterodroma albaPhoenix Island petrel11.3         6
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaePterodroma hypoleucaBonin Island petrel10.7  Scrub CarniI1Y 1, 6
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaePterodroma leucopteraGould's petrel32.7         6
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaePterodroma macropteraGreat-winged petrel18         6
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaePterodroma phaeopygiaGalapagos/darked-rump petrel7 434Grass CarniI1Y 1, 6
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaePuffinus auricularisTownsend's shearwater5.1 391Scrub4CarniI1YS1, 6
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaePuffinus carneipesFlesh-footed shearwater30.2 690Scrub4CarniI2YS7
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaePuffinus gravisGreat shearwater7.1 834Grass4CarniI2YS2, 3, 5
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaePuffinus lherminieriAudubon's shearwater19 170Scrub4CarniI2YS2, 6
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaePuffinus nativitatisChristmas shearwater17 354Scrub1CarniI1YS1
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaePuffinus pacificusWedge-tailed shearwater29 393Scrub4CarniI1YS1
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaePuffinus puffinusManx shearwater37.67 419Scrub4CarniI2YS1, 2, 5
ProcellariiformesProcellariidaePuffinus tenuirostrisShort-tailed shearwater39.9 500Grass4CarniI2YS7
PsittaciformesCacatuidaeCacatua albaUmbrella cockatoo3040550Wood4HerbiI1NN3, 9, 11
PsittaciformesCacatuidaeCacatua galeritaSulphur-crested cockatoo100120895Wood4HerbiI1NS3, 7, 9
PsittaciformesCacatuidaeCacatua leadbeateriMajor Mitchell's cockatoo 63.6420Scrub4HerbiI1NS8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesCacatuidaeCacatua moluccensisMoluccan cockatoo 65.8865Wood4HerbiI1NS8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesCacatuidaeCacatua roseicapillaGalah 26.3337Wood4HerbiI1NN6, 7
PsittaciformesCacatuidaeCacatua sanguineaLittle corella 46.9505Scrub4HerbiI1NS7, 8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesCacatuidaeCacatua sulphureaYellow-crested cockatoo 49.7359Wood4HerbiI1NS8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesCacatuidaeCacatua tenuirostrisLong-billed corella 43550Wood4HerbiI2NN7, 8, 9
PsittaciformesCacatuidaeCalyptorhynchus banksiiBanksian cockatoo 29.3720Wood HerbiI1Y 6, 7
PsittaciformesCacatuidaeProbosciger aterrimusPalm cockatoo 56.3750Wood HerbiI1N 3
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAgapornis fischeriFischer's lovebird 12.650Grass3HerbiM1NS8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAgapornis lilianaeLilian's lovebird 19.232.5Wood3HerbiM1NS8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAgapornis pullariusRed-Headed lovebird 1839.5Wood4HerbiM1NN8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAgapornis tarantaAbyssinian lovebird 14.657.5Wood4HerbiM1NS8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAmazona aestivaBlue-fronted Amazon 49400Scrub4HerbiM1YN8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAmazona albifronsWhite-fronted Amazon 25.3209Wood4HerbiM1YN8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAmazona amazonicaOrange-winged Amazon 30303Wood4HerbiM1NS8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAmazona auropalliataYellow-naped parrot 49        6
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAmazona autumnalisRed-lored Amazon 27399Wood4HerbiM1NN8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAmazona finschiLilac-crowned Amazon 25.8302Wood4HerbiM1YN8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAmazona ochrocephalaYellow-crowned Amazon 56437.5Wood4HerbiM1NS3, 8, 9
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAnodorhynchus hyacinthinusHyacinth macaw 38.81360.77Wood HerbiM1N 3
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAra araraunaBlue-and-yellow Macaw 431687.5Wood4HerbiM1NS6, 8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAra chloropteraGreen-winged Macaw 50.11379Wood4HerbiM1NS8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAra macaoScarlet macaw 641195Wood4HerbiM1NS6, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAra militarisMilitary macaw 461056Wood4HerbiM1YS8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAratinga acuticaudataBlue-crownded parakeet 16173Scrub4HerbiM1NN8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAratinga auricapillaGolden-capped parakeet 20.9130Wood4HerbiM1NS8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAratinga canicularisOrange-fronted parakeet 16.274Wood4HerbiM1NN8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAratinga erythrogenysRed-masked parakeet 26.276Wood4HerbiM1NS8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeAratinga holochloraGreen parakeet 22.5232Wood4HerbiM1NS6, 8, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeBrotogeris chiririYellow-chevroned parakeet 3771.6Wood4HerbiM1NN8, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeBrotogeris pyrrhopterusGray-cheeked parakeet 11.364Wood4HerbiM1NN8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeBrotogeris sanctithomaeTui parakeet 13.259Wood4HerbiM1NS8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeBrotogeris tiricaPlain parakeet 1163Wood4OmniM1NN8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeBrotogeris versicolurusCanary-winged parakeet 3766.15Wood4HerbiM2NS1
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeMyiopsitta monachaQuaker parakeet 17.8        6
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeNandayus nendayParaguayan black-headed conure 18.2        6
PsittaciformesPsittacidaeNestor notabilisKea 14.4922Wood4HerbiM2N  
PsittaciformesPsittacidaePlatycercus elegans adelaidaeAdelaide rosella 26.8132.5Wood4HerbiI2NN8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaePlatycercus elegans elegansCrimson rosella 15.4140.5Wood4OmniI2NN7, 8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaePlatycercus eximiusEastern rosella 27.4105Wood4OmniI2NN7, 8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaePlatycercus icterotisWestern rosella 13.266Wood4HerbiI2NN7, 8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaePoicephalus cryptoxanthusBrown-headed parrot 32.1138.5Scrub4HerbiM1NN8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaePoicephalus gulielmiJardine's parrot 21277.5Wood4OmniM1NN8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaePoicephalus meyeriMeyer's parrot 34.2117Wood4OmniM1NN8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaePoicephalus robustusCape parrot 29.7313Wood4HerbiM1YS8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaePoicephalus rueppelliiRuppell's parrot 34.3119Wood4HerbiM1NN8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaePoicephalus rufiventrisRed-bellied parrot 33.4120Grass4HerbiM1NS8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaePoicephalus senegalusSenegal parrot 40155Grass4HerbiM1NN8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaePsittacula alexandriRed-breasted parakeet 23.3150.5Wood4HerbiM1NS8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaePsittacula cyanocephalaPlum-headed parakeet 18.870.5Wood4HerbiM1NS8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaePsittacus erithacusAfrican gray parrot          6
PsittaciformesPsittacidaePsittacula eupatriaAlexandrine parakeet 30228Wood4HerbiM1NS8, 9, 11
PsittaciformesPsittacidaePsittacula krameriRose-ringed parakeet 34147Wood4HerbiM1NS8, 9, 11
SphenisciformesSpheniscidaeAptenodytes patagonicaKing penguin 2613 000Scrub CarniI3N 3, 6
SphenisciformesSpheniscidaeSpheniscus demersusAfrican penguin11 3500Scrub4CarniI2NS3, 9
SphenisciformesSpheniscidaeSpheniscus humboldtiHumboldt penguin20304700Scrub4CarniI1NS3, 9
SphenisciformesSpheniscidaeSpheniscus magellanicusMagellanic penguin13 4000Scrub4CarniM2YS3, 9
SphenisciformesSpheniscidaeSpheniscus mendiculusGalapagos penguin20 2150Scrub4CarniI1NS3, 9
StrigiformesStrigidaeOtus asioEastern screech owl14.16714175Wood4CarniM2NN1, 3, 6
StrigiformesStrigidaeOtus flammeolusFlammulated owl8.1955.55Wood4CarniM2YN1, 6
StrigiformesStrigidaeOtus kennicottiiWestern screech owl12.9 169Wood4CarniM2NN3, 6, 9
StrigiformesStrigidaeOtus scopsEurasian scops owl6.75 90.5Wood4CarniM2YN2, 5
StrigiformesStrigidaeAegolius acadicusNorthern saw-whet owl7.417.587Wood CarniM N 3, 6
StrigiformesStrigidaeAegolius funereusBoreal owl11 154Wood CarniM N 3, 6
StrigiformesStrigidaeAsio flammeusShort-eared owl12.9 341Grass CarniM2N 3, 6
StrigiformesStrigidaeAsio otusLong-eared owl27.8 327Grass CarniM Y 3, 6
StrigiformesStrigidaeAthene cuniculariaBurrowing owl8.7 150Grass CarniM2Y 3, 6
StrigiformesStrigidaeBubo virginianusGreat horned owl20.6221705Wood CarniM2N 3, 6
StrigiformesStrigidaeMicrathene whitneyiElf owl4.9 45Wood CarniM N 3, 6
StrigiformesStrigidaeNinox novaeseelandiaeSouthern boobook 13230Wood CarniI2N 2, 7
StrigiformesStrigidaeNyctea scandiacaSnowy owl10.8142275Grass CarniM Y 3, 6
StrigiformesStrigidaeOtus asioEastern screech owl14.16714175Wood4CarniM2NN1, 3, 6
StrigiformesStrigidaeOtus flammeolusFlammulated owl8.1955.55Wood4CarniM2YN1, 6
StrigiformesStrigidaeOtus kennicottiiWestern screech owl12.9 169Wood4CarniM2NN3, 6, 9
StrigiformesStrigidaeOtus scopsEurasian scops owl6.75 90.5Wood4CarniM2YN2, 5
StrigiformesStrigidaePulsatrix perspicillataSpectacled owl 10850Wood CarniM N 3
StrigiformesStrigidaeScotiaptex lapponicaLap owl 27        6
StrigiformesStrigidaeStrix alucoTawny owl21.510491Wood4CarniM2NN2, 5
StrigiformesStrigidaeStrix nebulosaGreat gray owl15.834271078.75Wood3CarniM2NN1, 5, 6
StrigiformesStrigidaeStrix occidentalisSpotted owl1725606Wood4CarniM2NN1, 6
StrigiformesStrigidaeStrix uralensisUral owl23.834 730Wood4CarniM3NN2, 5
StrigiformesStrigidaeStrix variaBarred owl18.167 747.25Wood4CarniM2NN1, 6
StrigiformesTytonidaeTyto albaCommon barn-owl15.413550Grass CarniM N 1, 6
StruthioniformesStruthionidaeStruthio camelusOstrich 50155 000Grass HerbiM1N 3, 6
StruthioniformesStruthionidaeStruthio camelus molybdophanesSomali ostrich 26.1130 000Grass HerbiM N 3, 6
TinamiformesTinamidaeTinamus solitariusSolitary tinamou 15        6
TrochiliformesTrochilidaeArchilochus colubrisRuby-throated hummingbird9 3.6Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
TrochiliformesTrochilidaeCalothorax luciferLucifer hummingbird4 3.5Grass OmniM Y 1, 6
TrochiliformesTrochilidaeCalypte annaAnna's hummingbird6.3 4.25Scrub OmniM2N 1, 6
TrochiliformesTrochilidaeLamprolaima rhamiGarnet-throated hummingbird8         2, 6
TrochiliformesTrochilidaeSelasphorus platycercusBroad-tailed hummingbird12.2 3.5Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
TrochiliformesTrochilidaeSelasphorus rufusRufous hummingbird4.1 3.5Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
TrochiliformesTrochilidaeSelasphorus sasinAllen's hummingbird4 3Scrub OmniM2Y 1, 6
TrochiliformesTrochilidaeStellula calliopeCalliope hummingbird6.1 2.65Wood OmniM2Y 1, 6
Table Appendix 2.   Data base containing information on mean masses and maximum longevities of 470 species of birds, along with complete information on seven ecological, behavioral, and physiological variables that were entered in the multivariate analyses (Wasser and Sherman, Avian Longevity and Senescence)
OrderFamilyScientific nameCommon nameMax longevity in wildMax longevity in captivityMean massBreeding habitatNest locationDietBreeding insularityBreeding latitudeMigratory behaviorSocialityReference sources
  1. Decimals in the longevity data refer to months (e.g. 27.083=27 years, 1 month).

  2. Abbreviations are as follows: breeding habitat: Grass (Grassland), Scrub (Scrubland), Wet (Wetland), Wood (Woodland); nest location: 1 (Ground), 2 (Shrub), 3 (Tree Branch), 4 (Cavity), 5 (Aquatic – floating on water); Diet: Omni (Omnivore), Herbi (Herbivore), Carni (Carnivore); Breeding insularity: M (Mainland), I (Island); Breeding latitude: 1 (0° to ± 30°), 2 (30° to ± 60°), 3 (60° to ± 90°); Migratory behavior: Y (Yes), N (No); Sociality: S (Colonial or Cooperative Breeder), N (Non-social Breeder).

AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas acutaNorthern pintail27.417 839Wet1OmniM2YN1, 2, 5
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas americanaAmerican wigeon21.3 780Grass1HerbiM2YN1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas clypeataNorthern shoveler22.34 647Wet1OmniM2YN1
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas creccaCommon teal27.083 338Wet1OmniM2YN1,5, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas cyanopteraCinnamon teal12.917 370.5Wet1OmniM2YN1, 2
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas diaziMexican duck5.5 1150Wet1OmniM2YN2, 3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas discorsBlue-winged teal22.320334Wet1OmniM2YN1, 2, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas gracilisGray teal31.7 650Wet1OmniI2YN7, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas fulvigulaMottled duck1320988.5Wet1OmniM1NN1, 3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas laysanensisLaysan duck12 459.35Grass1CarniI1NN1, 3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas penelopeEurasian wigeon34.676.4719Wet1OmniM3YN2, 3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas platyrhynchosMallard29.08 1105Wet1OmniM2YN2, 3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas querquedulaGarganey14.5 361Wet1OmniM2YN2, 4, 5, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas rubripesAmerican black duck26.6 1203.5Wet3OmniM2YN1, 2, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas streperaGadwall22.3428858Wet1HerbiM2YN1, 2, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnas wyvillianaHawaiian duck3.7 532.75Wet1OmniI1NN1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnser albifronsGreater white-fronted goose25.25472019Wet3OmniM3YS1, 2, 5, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnser anserGreylag goose23.583283481.5Wet1HerbiM2YS2, 3, 5
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnser brachyrhynchusPink-footed goose39.7539.82645Wet1HerbiM3YS2, 5, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnser caerulescensSnow goose26.6132500Grass1HerbiM2YS2, 3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnser canagicaEmperor goose9 2100Grass1OmniM2YS3, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnser fabalisBean goose22.34232315Grass1HerbiM3YS2, 5, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeAnser rossiiRoss's goose21.5 1410Wet1HerbiM3YS3, 6, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeAythya affinisLesser scaup18.3 741Wet2HerbiM2YN1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAythya americanaRedhead duck21.4161145Wet1OmniM2YN1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAythya collarisRing-necked duck20.4 807.95Wet1OmniM2YN1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAythya ferinaCommon pochard22.259857Wet1OmniM2YN2, 5, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeAythya fuligulaTufted duck20.34 701.5Wet1OmniM2YN2, 5, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeAythya marilaGreater scaup22.083 969.4Wet1HerbiM2YN1, 2, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeAythya valisineriaCanvasback22.4 1415Wet1OmniM2YN1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeCygnus atratusBlack swan40306225Wet1HerbiI2NN3, 7
AnseriformesAnatidaeCygnus buccinatorTrumpeter swan23.832.510 800Wet1OmniM2YN1, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeCygnus columbianusTundra swan24.083116750Wet1OmniM3YN1, 5, 6
AnseriformesAnatidaeCygnus cygnusWhooper swan26.5179575Grass1OmniM2YN2, 5, 10
AnseriformesAnatidaeCygnus olorMute swan28.583409300Wet1OmniM2YN1, 2, 6
CharadriiformesCharadriidaeCharadrius alexandrinusKentish plover18 41.2Scrub1CarniM1YN1, 5, 6
CharadriiformesCharadriidaeCharadrius dubiusLittle ringed plover12.083 38.75Grass1CarniM1YN2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesCharadriidaeCharadrius hiaticulaRinged plover19.917 54.8Grass1CarniM3YN2, 5
CharadriiformesCharadriidaeCharadrius melodusPiping plover14 53Scrub1CarniM2YN1, 6
CharadriiformesCharadriidaeCharadrius montanusMountain plover10 101.42Scrub2CarniM2YN1
CharadriiformesCharadriidaeCharadrius semipalmatusSemipalmated plover9 46.95Scrub2CarniM3YN1
CharadriiformesCharadriidaeCharadrius vociferusKilldeer10.9 79Grass1OmniM2YN1, 2
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus argentatusHerring gull32.083441085Wet1OmniM2YS1, 5, 6
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus atricillaLaughing gull19 308Wet1CarniM1YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus californicusCalifornia gull30 606.5Wet1OmniI2YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus canusCommon gull31.67 388.5Wet3OmniM2YS1, 5
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus cirrocephalusGray-headed gull7.92 322.5Wet1CarniM1NS2, 10
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus delawarensisRing-billed gull31.75 518.5Wet1OmniM2YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus fuscusLesser black-backed gull32.75 817.5Grass1OmniM2YS2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus geneiSlender-billed gull31.67 249Wet1CarniM2NS2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus glaucescensGlaucous winged gull32 1063.05Wet1OmniI2NS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus hyperboreusGlaucous gull21.083 1685.5Grass1OmniI3YN1
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus ichthyaetusGreat black-headed gull9 1598.5Wet1OmniI2YS2, 10
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus marinusGreat black-backed gull26.083 1658.5Wet1CarniM2YS1, 5
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus melanocephalusMediterranean gull15 320Wet1CarniM2YS2, 10
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus minutusLittle gull20.834 125.3Wet2CarniM2YS1, 5
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus occidentalisWestern gull27.8 1007.5Wet1OmniM2NS1, 6
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus pipixcanFranklin's gull9.4 280Wet2OmniM2YS1, 6
CharadriiformesLaridaeLarus ridibundusBlack-headed gull30.583 238Wet1CarniM2YS2, 3, 4
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna albifronsLittle tern23.917 57.5Scrub1CarniM1YS1, 5, 10
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna anaethetusBridled tern17.917 133.3Scrub4CarniI1YS1, 2
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna antillarumLeast tern24.083 49.55Grass1CarniI1YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna bergiiGreater crested tern20.34 337.5Wet1CarniI1YS2, 10
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna caspiaCaspian tern30 655.5Wet1CarniM2YS1, 5
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna dougalliiRoseate tern25.6 107.6Scrub1CarniM2YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna elegansElegant tern8.9 259.6Wet1CarniI1YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna forsteriForster's tern12 158Wet1CarniM2YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna fuscataSooty tern34 184Wet1CarniI1YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna hirundoCommon tern33 36.25Scrub1CarniM2YS1, 3, 5
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna lunataGrey-backed tern25.75 129.6Scrub2CarniI1YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna maximaRoyal tern27 445Scrub1CarniM1YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna niloticaGull-billed tern16 181.5Scrub1CarniM1YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna paradisaeaArtic tern34 111.5Wet1CarniI3YS1
CharadriiformesLaridaeSterna sandvicensisSandwich tern30.75 191.5Scrub1CarniM1YS1, 5
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris albaSanderling18.5 63.7Grass1CarniM3YN1, 5
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris alpinaDunlin28.834 54.6Grass1CarniM3YS1, 5, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris canutusRed knot25.083 137Grass1OmniM3YS1, 2, 5
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris ferrugineaCurlew sandpiper17 63.25Wet1CarniM3YN2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris fuscicollisWhite-rumped sandpiper7 44.55Grass1OmniI3YN1, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris himantopusStilt sandpiper11.1 57.35Grass1OmniM3YN1, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris maritimaPurple sandpiper20 77.75Grass1OmniI3YN1
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris mauriWestern sandpiper9.167 27.5Grass1CarniM3YN1
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris melanotosPectoral sandpiper5.9 80.25Grass1OmniM3YN1, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris minutillaLeast sandpiper16 23.45Grass2CarniM3YN1, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris ptilocnemisRock sandpiper7.34 96.2Grass2CarniM3YN1
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris pusillaSemipalmated sandpiper12 26Grass2CarniM3YN1
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeCalidris temminckiiTemminck's stint9.917 26.05Grass1CarniM3YN2, 5
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeNumenius americanusLong-billed curlew10 699.35Grass1CarniM2YN1, 9
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeNumenius arquataEurasian curlew31.5 805.5Wet1OmniM2YN2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeNumenius phaeopusWhimbrel16.0838.8379.35Grass1OmniM3YN1, 5, 6
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeNumenius tahitiensisBristle-thighed curlew23.834 375.85Grass1OmniI3YN1
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeTringa erythropusSpotted redshank8.583 151.5Grass1CarniM3YN2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeTringa flavipesLesser yellowlegs4.75 84.05Wood2CarniM3YN1
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeTringa glareolaWood sandpiper11.583 67.5Wood2CarniM3YN2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeTringa nebulariaGreenshank24.417 173.5Grass1CarniM3YN2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeTringa ochropusGreen sandpiper11.5 78.5Wet1CarniM2YN2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeTringa stagnatilisMarsh sandpiper7.083 71.55Wet1CarniM2YS2, 5, 10
CharadriiformesScolopacidaeTringa totanusCommon redshank20.34 112Grass1CarniM2YN2, 5, 10
CiconiiformesArdeidaeArdea albaGreat egret22.834 873.5Wet3CarniM1YS1
CiconiiformesArdeidaeArdea cinereaGrey heron35.083241433Wet3CarniM2YS2, 5, 10
CiconiiformesArdeidaeArdea cocoiCocoi heron2224.41000Wet1CarniM2YS6, 9
CiconiiformesArdeidaeArdea goliathGoliath heron2222.94300Wet1CarniM1NN2, 6, 9
CiconiiformesArdeidaeArdea herodiasGreat blue heron23.392300Wet3CarniM2YS1, 3, 6
CiconiiformesArdeidaeArdea purpureaPurple heron25.417 873.75Wet3CarniM1YS2, 5
CiconiiformesArdeidaeEgretta albaCommon egret22.8322995Wet2CarniM1YS2
CiconiiformesArdeidaeEgretta caeruleaLittle blue heron13.91710339.5Wet2CarniM1YS1, 3
CiconiiformesArdeidaeEgretta garzettaLittle egret22.34 532Wet2CarniM1YS2, 4, 10
CiconiiformesArdeidaeEgretta rufescensReddish egret12.2522613.5Wet1CarniM1YS1
CiconiiformesArdeidaeEgretta thulaSnowy egret22.83422.8369Wet3CarniM1YS1
CiconiiformesArdeidaeEgretta tricolorTricolored heron17.67 262.5Wet2CarniM1YS1
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeCiconia abdimiiAbdim's stork21.6211300Grass3CarniM2YS6, 9
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeCiconia ciconiaWhite stork39483448Wet3CarniM2YS2, 3, 4
CiconiiformesCiconiidaeCiconia nigraBlack stork18.583313000Wood3CarniM2YN2, 3, 4
ColumbiformesColumbidaeColumba fasciataBand-tailed pigeon18.529.2340Wood1HerbiM2NN3, 6
ColumbiformesColumbidaeColumba leucocephalaWhite-crowned pigeon14.4 150Wood3HerbiI1NS1, 6, 9
ColumbiformesColumbidaeColumba liviaRock pigeon6.3435354.4Wood4OmniM2NN1, 2, 6
ColumbiformesColumbidaeColumba oenasStock pigeon12.58 308.5Wood4OmniM2NS2, 5
ColumbiformesColumbidaeColumba palumbusWood pigeon16.33 489.5Wood3OmniM2NN2
ColumbiformesColumbidaeStreptopelia chinensisSpotted dove7.7 158Wood3OmniM2NN1, 6, 7
ColumbiformesColumbidaeStreptopelia decaoctoEurasian collared dove13.6717.9193Wood3HerbiM2NN1, 2, 6
ColumbiformesColumbidaeStreptopelia senegalensisLaughing dove5.75 101Scrub3OmniM1NN2
ColumbiformesColumbidaeStreptopelia turturTurtle dove13.17 148Wood3HerbiM2YN2
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAccipiter cooperiiCooper's hawk12 452Wood3CarniM2YN1, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAccipiter gentilisGoshawk19.759.4844.5Wood3CarniM2NN1, 2, 5, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAccipiter nisusEurasian sparrowhawk20.25 204Wood3CarniM2YN2, 4
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAccipiter striatusSharp-shinned hawk1313138.5Wood3CarniM2YN1, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAquila adalbertiSpanish imperial eagle21443000Wood3CarniM2NN9
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAquila audaxWedge-tailed eagle11403775Wood3CarniI2NN3, 7
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAquila chrysaetosGolden eagle32464195Wet4CarniM2YN1, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAquila pomarinaLesser spotted eagle26.1 1410Wood3CarniM2YN2
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAquila rapaxTawny eagle1842.52723Scrub1CarniM1NN2, 3
FalconiformesAccipitridaeAquila wahlbergiWahlberg's eagle11.822.3680Wood3CarniM1NN9
FalconiformesAccipitridaeButeo buteoCommon buzzard25.34 940Wood3CarniM2YN2
FalconiformesAccipitridaeButeo jamaicensisRed-tailed hawk21.529.51126Wood3CarniM2NN1
FalconiformesAccipitridaeButeo lagopusRough-legged buzzard18 951Wood3CarniM3YN1, 6
FalconiformesAccipitridaeButeo lineatusRed-shouldered hawk20 625Wood3CarniM2NN1, 3
FalconiformesAccipitridaeButeo platypterusBroad-winged hawk14.34 397Wood3CarniM2YN1
FalconiformesAccipitridaeButeo regalisFerruginous hawk20 1469.5Grass3CarniM2YN1
FalconiformesAccipitridaeButeo swainsoniSwainson's hawk16 958.5Grass3CarniM2YN1
FalconiformesAccipitridaeCircus aeruginosusWestern marsh harrier20.083 584.5Wet1CarniM1YN2, 4
FalconiformesAccipitridaeCircus approximansSwamp harrier16.5 750Wet1CarniI2YN7
FalconiformesAccipitridaeCircus cyaneusHen harrier17.083 436.5Wet1CarniM2YN1, 2, 4
FalconiformesAccipitridaeCircus macrourusPallid harrier13.417 367.5Grass1CarniM2YS2, 4
FalconiformesAccipitridaeCircus pygargusMontagu's harrier16.3 315.5Grass1CarniM2YS2, 4
FalconiformesAccipitridaeGyps coprotheresCape vulture11.2519.79100Scrub4CarniM2NS6, 9
FalconiformesAccipitridaeGyps fulvusGriffon vulture9.91741.49250Grass4CarniM2NS2, 4, 6
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco berigoraBrown falcon10.524530Grass3CarniI1NN6, 7
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco columbariusMerlin12.6716188.15Wood3CarniM2YN1, 3, 5, 6
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco cherrugSaker falcon1025987.5Wood3CarniM2YN2, 3
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco eleonoraeEleonora's falcon11.167 369Scrub4CarniI2YS2, 3, 5
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco longipennisAustralian hobby10.5 210Wood3CarniI1YN6, 9
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco mexicanusPrairie falcon1320648.35Scrub4CarniM2YN1, 3, 6
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco naumanniLesser kestrel6.17 159.5Grass4CarniM2YS2, 3, 6
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco peregrinusPeregrine falcon17.3425814.5Grass4CarniM2YN1, 5
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco rusticolusGyrfalcon12.917121181.75Grass4CarniM3YN1, 5
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco rupicoloidesGreater kestrel6.5 275Grass3CarniM2NN9
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco sparveriusAmerican kestrel11.614115.5Scrub4CarniI2YN1, 6
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco subbuteoEurasian hobby10.814210.5Scrub3CarniM2YN2, 6
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco tinnunculusCommon kestrel23.834 214Grass4CarniM2YN2, 5
FalconiformesFalconidaeFalco vespertinusRed-footed falcon13.2518155Scrub3CarniM2YS5, 9
GruiformesGruidaeGrus americanaWhooping crane30406800Wet5OmniM3YN1, 3, 6
GruiformesGruidaeGrus antigoneSarus crane25267600Grass5OmniM1YN6, 7
GruiformesGruidaeGrus canadensisSandhill crane21.5403705Wet5OmniM3YN1, 6
GruiformesGruidaeGrus grusCommon crane17.2539.44797.5Wet1OmniM2YN2, 5, 6
GruiformesGruidaeGrus japonensisRed-crowned crane30659500Wet5OmniM2YS3, 6
GruiformesGruidaeGrus vipioWhite-naped crane932.35600Wet5OmniM2YS9
PasseriformesCardinalidaePasserina amoenaLazuli bunting8.9 8.65Scrub1OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesCardinalidaePasserina caeruleaBlue grosbeak5.917 28.4Grass3OmniM1YN1
PasseriformesCardinalidaePasserina cirisPainted bunting12 15.6Scrub2OmniM1YN1, 6
PasseriformesCardinalidaePasserina cyaneaIndigo bunting11 14.675Grass3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeAphelocoma californicaWestern scrub jay15.75 90.4Scrub3OmniM2NS1
PasseriformesCorvidaeAphelocoma coerulescensFlorida scrub jay15.816.374.925Wood2OmniM1NS1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeAphelocoma insularisIsland scrub jay16 117.95Wood3OmniI2NN1
PasseriformesCorvidaeAphelocoma ultramarinaMexican jay1925124.45Wood3OmniM1NS1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus brachyrhynchosAmerican crow14.6 506Wood3OmniM2YS1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus caurinusNorthwestern crow16.75 381Wood3OmniM2NS1
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus coraxCommon raven20.41724.7782.5Wood3OmniM2NS1, 5, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus coroneCarrion crow17.08313542Scrub3CarniM2NS2, 5, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus coronoidesAustralian raven12.521.8534Scrub3OmniM2NS1, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus cryptoleucusChihuahuan raven20.511457.55Wood3OmniM2NS2, 5, 6
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus frugilegusRook19.91714244Grass3OmniM2NS2, 5
PasseriformesCorvidaeCorvus monedulaJackdaw14.59285.05Wood3OmniM2NS1
PasseriformesEmberizidaeEmberiza aureolaYellow-breasted bunting7 21.6Wood1OmniM3YN2, 4
PasseriformesEmberizidaeEmberiza cirlusCirl bunting6.083 23.75Scrub3OmniM2NN2
PasseriformesEmberizidaeEmberiza citrinellaYellowhammer13 26.75Wood1OmniM2NN2, 5
PasseriformesEmberizidaeEmberiza hortulanaOrtolan bunting5.834 22.85Wood1OmniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesEmberizidaeEmberiza melanocephalaBlack-headed bunting11 27.9Scrub2OmniM2YN2, 4
PasseriformesEmberizidaeEmberiza schoeniclusReed bunting11.25 18.8Grass1OmniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesEmberizidaePipilo abertiAbert's towhee8.6 48.49Scrub2OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaePipilo chlorurusGreen-tailed towhee7.7 29.2Scrub2OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaePipilo crissalisCalifornia towhee12.834 54.5Wood2OmniM2NN1
PasseriformesEmberizidaePipilo erythrophthalmusEastern towhee12.3 40.5Wood1OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaePipilo fuscusCanyon towhee12.8 45.55Grass3HerbiM1NN1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeSpizella arboreaAmerican tree sparrow10.75 17.85Grass1OmniM3YN1
PasseriformesEmberizidaeSpizella breweriBrewer's sparrow5.2 10.85Grass2CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeSpizella pallidaClay-Colored sparrow5.1 11.95Grass2OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeSpizella passerinaChipping sparrow9.8 12.15Wood3HerbiM2YS1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeSpizella pusillaField sparrow8.8 13.1Grass2OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeZonotrichia albicollisWhite-throated sparrow9.7 26.3Wood1OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesEmberizidaeZonotrichia atricapillaGolden-crowned sparrow10.5 31.55Wood1HerbiM3YN1
PasseriformesEmberizidaeZonotrichia leucophrysWhite-crowned sparrow13.34 26.87Wood1OmniM3YN1
PasseriformesEmberizidaeZonotrichia querulaHarris's sparrow11.7 35.55Wood1OmniM3YN1, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis cannabinaLinnet9.417 18.95Grass3HerbiM2YS2, 5
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis carduelisEuropean goldfinch11.75 15.6Grass3OmniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis chlorisEuropean greenfinch13 27.65Wood3OmniM2YS2, 5, 7
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis flammeaCommon redpoll10.672513.75Wood3OmniM3YN1, 5, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis flavirostrisTwite6.083 16.2Grass2OmniM2NS2, 5
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis hornemanniArtic redpoll4.583 8.8Scrub3OmniM3YS1
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis pinusPine siskin9.4 16.3Scrub3OmniM2YS1, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis psaltriaLesser goldfinch5.7 9Wood3HerbiM1NN1, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis spinusEurasian siskin13.5 12.8Wood2OmniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarduelis tristisAmerican goldfinch11 12.12Grass2HerbiM2YN1
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarpodacus cassiniiCassin's finch7 27.45Wood3OmniM2YS1, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarpodacus erythrinusCommon rosefinch9 22.95Wood2OmniM2YN2
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarpodacus mexicanusHouse finch11.6 19.3Grass3HerbiM2NS1, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaeCarpodacus purpureusPurple finch11.8 25.23Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesFringillidaeSerinus canariaCanary7.22415.25Wood3OmniI2NN2, 6, 10
PasseriformesFringillidaeSerinus citrinellaCitril finch5.67 12.5Wood3HerbiM2YN2, 9
PasseriformesFringillidaeSerinus serinusEuropean serin8.583 11.95Grass3OmniM2NN2
PasseriformesFringillidaeSerinus syriacusSyrian serin6.917 12.5Grass3HerbiM2NN2, 5
PasseriformesHirundinidaeHirundo dauricaRed-rumped swallow9 22.25Grass4CarniM1NN2, 5
PasseriformesHirundinidaeHirundo fulvaCave swallow9.32419Grass4CarniM2YS1, 6, 9
PasseriformesHirundinidaeHirundo pyrrhonotaCliff swallow11 22.7Grass4CarniM2YS1, 6, 9
PasseriformesHirundinidaeHirundo rusticaBarn swallow15.92 19.1Wet3CarniM2YS1, 2, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeIcterus bullockiiBullock's oriole8 37.85Wood3OmniM2YN1
PasseriformesIcteridaeIcterus cucullatusHooded oriole6 24.3Scrub3OmniM1YN1, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeIcterus galbulaBaltimore oriole11.6 34.2Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeIcterus parisorumScott's oriole6.417 35.7Scrub3OmniM1YN1, 6
PasseriformesIcteridaeIcterus spuriusOrchard oriole9.6 20.05Wood3OmniM2YS1, 6
PasseriformesLaniidaeLanius collurioRed-backed shrike7.75 30.7Scrub2CarniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesLaniidaeLanius excubitorGreat gray shrike6.516.168Grass3CarniM3YN1, 6
PasseriformesLaniidaeLanius ludovicianusLoggerhead shrike12.5 47.7Grass3CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesLaniidaeLanius nubicusMasked shrike4.34 22.8Wood3CarniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesLaniidaeLanius senatorWoodchat shrike5.67 36Wood3CarniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesMimidaeToxostoma bendireiBendire's thrasher4.2 62.2Scrub2OmniM1NN1, 6
PasseriformesMimidaeToxostoma crissaleCrissal thrasher4.34 62.7Scrub2OmniM1NN1
PasseriformesMimidaeToxostoma curvirostreCurve-billed thrasher10.8 78.36Grass2CarniM1NN1, 6
PasseriformesMimidaeToxostoma leconteiLe Conte's thrasher5.87 61.82Scrub2OmniM2NN1, 6
PasseriformesMimidaeToxostoma longirostreLong billed thrasher7.3 67.65Wood2OmniM1NN1, 6
PasseriformesMimidaeToxostoma redivivumCalifornia thrasher6.9 84.4Scrub2OmniM2NN1, 6
PasseriformesMimidaeToxostoma rufumBrown thrasher12.8341268.5Wood2OmniM2YN1
PasseriformesMotacillidaeAnthus cervinusRed-throated pipit4.5 20.4Wet1OmniM3YS2, 5
PasseriformesMotacillidaeAnthus rubescensBuff-bellied pipit5.1 20.565Grass1OmniM3YN1, 6
PasseriformesMotacillidaeAnthus spinolettaWater pipit8.834 22.95Wet4OmniM2YN1, 2, 6
PasseriformesMotacillidaeAnthus pratensisMeadow pipit7.67 19.25Grass1OmniM2NN2, 5
PasseriformesMotacillidaeAnthus petrosusRock pipit10.9 23Scrub1CarniM2NN5, 9
PasseriformesMotacillidaeAnthus trivialisTree pipit8.167 23.4Wood1OmniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesMotacillidaeMotacilla albaWhite wagtail12.25 24.4Grass4OmniM3YN1, 5
PasseriformesMotacillidaeMotacilla flavaYellow wagtail8.834 17.25Grass1CarniM2YN2, 5
PasseriformesMotacillidaeMotacilla lugensBlack-backed wagtail12.25 26.65Grass4OmniM3YN1, 7
PasseriformesMotacillidaeMotacilla tschutschensisEastern yellow wagtail8.417 16.55Grass1CarniM3YN1
PasseriformesParidaeParus aterCoal tit9.5 9.25Wood4OmniM2NN2
PasseriformesParidaeParus atricapillusBlack-capped chickadee12.4 12Wood4OmniM2NN1, 3, 6
PasseriformesParidaeParus bicolorTufted titmouse13.3 25.5Wood4OmniM2NS3, 6
PasseriformesParidaeParus caeruleusBlue tit14.583 11.75Wood4OmniM2NN2, 5
PasseriformesParidaeParus carolinensisCarolina chickadee10.9 10.5Wood4OmniM2NN1, 3, 6
PasseriformesParidaeParus cristatusCrested tit11.583 11.15Wood4OmniM2NN2, 5
PasseriformesParidaeParus gambeliMountain chickadee10.1 10.5Wood4OmniM2NN1, 3, 6
PasseriformesParidaeParus majorGreat tit15.417918.3Wood4CarniM2NS2, 5
PasseriformesParidaeParus rufescensChesnut-backed chickadee7.8910.5Wood4OmniM2NN1, 3, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica caerulescensBlack-throated blue warbler9.7 9.95Wood1OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica castaneaBay-breasted warbler3.4 12.15Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica chrysopariaGolden-cheeked warbler8 9.895Wood3CarniM2YN1
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica coronataYellow-rumped warbler7 12.55Wood3OmniM2YN1
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica discolorPrarie warbler10.34 7.05Wood3CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica dominicaYellow-throated warbler5.1 9.7Wood3CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica fuscaBlackburnian warbler8.2 10.2Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica kirtlandiiKirtland's warbler9 13.95Wood1CarniM2YS1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica magnoliaMagnolia warbler6.917 8.735Wood3CarniM2YN1
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica palmarum hypochryseaYellow palm-warbler5.834 10Wood2OmniM2YN1
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica palmarum palmarumWestern palm-warbler6.6 10Wood2OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica pensylvanicaChestnut-sided warbler6.917 12.4Wood2OmniM2YN1
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica petechiaYellow warbler8.917 9.8Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica pinusPine warbler6.8 11.9Wood3OmniM2NN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica striataBlackpoll warbler5 12.3Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica tigrinaCape May warbler4.34 10.15Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica townsendiTownsend's warbler3.6 8.85Wood3CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeDendroica virensBlack-throated green warbler5.917 9.2Wood3OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeOporornis agilisConnecticut warbler4.34 15.32Wood2CarniM2YN1
PasseriformesParulidaeOporornis formosusKentucky warbler7 14.45Wood1OmniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeOporornis philadelphiaMourning warbler7.9 12.3Wood2CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeOporornis tolmieiMacGillivray's warbler4.1 10.4Wood2CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeVermivora celataOrange-crowned warbler6.86.89.3Wood1CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeVermivora chrysopteraGolden-winged warbler7.97.99.3Scrub1CarniM2YN1, 6
PasseriformesParulidaeVermivora luciaeLucy's warbler5.8 6.6Wood