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Appendix S1. Glossary of Terms.

Figure S1. Distribution of descriptions of new polyploid anuran species by decade. The first naturally occurring polyploid amphibians were described in 1964 (Ambystoma Jeffersonian complex of salamanders) and the first polyploid anuran species (Odontophrynus americanus) was reported in 1966. The peak of new descriptions was in the 1970's, when allozymes and cytogenetics were at their peak.

Figure S2a. Distribution of polyploid fish by habitats and breeding site for migratory species. The vast majority of polyploid fish are dependent on freshwater: either living exclusively in freshwater, migrating from marine to freshwater to breed (anadromous) or completing their entire lifecycle within rivers (potamodromous). A small percentage are associated with brackish water and only a very few are catadromous (live in freshwater but migrate to a marine environment to breed.

Figure S2b. Distribution of polyploid fish by niche type. Most polyploids either live near the bottom surface (benthopelagic) or in the bottom part of the water column (demersal) rather than on the surface (pelagic).

Table S1. Summary of known polyploid anurans (bold face type), along with their closest known diploid relatives, indicating original taxonomy (genus and family) at the time that the polyploids were described, as well as revised taxonomy. References are provided for the first report of polyploidy for each species, as well as those recommending changes to the original taxonomy. Chromosome numbers were taken from the original ploidy descriptions; genome sizes were obtained from the Animal Genome Size database (Gregory 2005a; http://www.genomesize.com/) but are not available for most of the species listed. Notes on origins of the polyploids were taken from the primary literature. Coordinates for the centre of distributions of polyploid taxa were taken from the maps available through Amphibiaweb (http://amphibiaweb.org/); Krüppen classifications were used to characterize the climates in the relevant regions. Endangered species status and population trends were obtained from the IUCN database (International Union for Conservation of Nature Redlist of Endangered species, http://www.iucnredlist.org). Descriptions of species distributions were obtained from the Amphibian Species of the World database (Frost et al. 2010; http://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/).

Table S2. Summary of known polyploid fish, along with a list of species where polyploidy has been suspected but not confirmed. A description of higher level classifications is provided for comparison with Fig. 2. References are provided for the first report of polyploidy for each species. Chromosome numbers were taken from the original ploidy descriptions; genome sizes were obtained from the Animal Genome Size database. Endangered species status and population trends were obtained from the IUCN Red list database. Notes on distributions, environment, and climate were obtained from Fishbase (Froese et al. 2008; http://www.fishbase.org).

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