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jzo862-sup-001-S1.docx445KFigure S1. A phylogeny of the bear family (Ursdiae), based upon summaries by (15) and (16). Living species are shown in red, fossil species in magenta. Thick lines denote known fossil record; thin lines represent relationships as determined from DNA [red lines (16)] and morphology [magenta (15)]. Subfamilies are shown in black text at their respective ‘stem’ branches. Axis at right shows geological epochs and dates for boundaries in millions of years. The earliest fossil record of the primitive ursid Ursavus is 23 million years. Note that the position of the Agriotherium within the bear family is currently uncertain.
jzo862-sup-001-S1.docx445KFigure S2. Pull back load case (A) A. africanum, (B) Asian bear, (C) black bear, (D) brown bear, (E) giant panda, (F) polar bear and (G) polar bear AM M42656.
jzo862-sup-001-S1.docx445KTable S1. Details of finite element models and corresponding CT data.
jzo862-sup-001-S1.docx445KTable S2. 2D force, number of beams and pre tension applied to beams at natural size.
jzo862-sup-001-S1.docx445KTable S3. Mean von Mises microstrain values calculated from 95% of all strain data.
jzo862-sup-001-S1.docx445KTable S4. Rankings of mean VM microstrain based on 95% of strain data for a bilateral canine bite. A rank of 1 has the highest strain and a rank of 7 has the lowest.
jzo862-sup-001-S1.docx445KTable S5. Rankings resultant of mean VM microstrain of 95% of all strain data. A rank of 1 has the highest strain and a rank of 7 has the lowest.
jzo862-sup-001-S1.docx445KTable S6. Maximum and mean VM microstrain of pull back loading case. A rank of 1 has the highest strain and a rank of 7 has the lowest.
jzo862-sup-001-S1.docx445KTable S7. Maximum and mean VM microstrain during lateral shake loading. A rank of 1 has the highest strain and a rank of 7 has the lowest.

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