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Summary

It has been demonstrated that in Britain five species of Papaver (a) frequently occur together, (b) flower over the same general period, (c) are normally insect-pollinated and possess insect visitors in common. Hybrids are rare under natural conditions although some can easily be produced artificially.

The external barriers reducing the chances of natural hybridization are the facts that (a) some of the species have mechanisms facilitating self-pollination, and (b) specific selection by the principal insect visitor, the honey-bee, tends to reduce the chances of cross-pollination between the species.