Late-glacial and early Post-glacial deposits have been examined in two areas of Northumberland. All the sites are associated with esker or kame features and the deposits show a succession from lake to bog, two of them under calcareous conditions. The pollen diagrams show a completely unforested Late-glacial period, probably with a total absence of trees from the higher site. The spread of forest conditions, indicated by the rise in juniper pollen followed by rising values of birch, is shown to have occurred in the middle of zone IV at the lower site but closer to the end of zone IV at the higher site. At the same time attention is drawn to the persistence of Lateglacial conditions into zone IV at the higher site. Also of note are the high percentages of Quercus and very low percentages of Pinus in zone VI. Comparisons are made with previously published diagrams from other areas, especially from Tadcaster in Yorkshire, to illustrate the later date of forest spread in the more northerly localities.
The two areas described are situated in Northumberland, one on the coastal plain near Bamburgh at an altitude of 150 ft and the other some 7 miles south at an altitude of 350 ft. The country in which they lie is largely covered by a mantle of glacial drift and both sites are associated with glacial features.
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