SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adamich, M., Gibor, A. & Sweeney, B. M. (1975). Effects of low nitrogen levels and various N sources on growth and whorl development in Acetabularia. Journal of Phycology, 11, 364366.
  • Anderson, D. H. W. & King, N. J. (1961). Polysaccharides of the Characeae. II. The carbohydrate content of Chara australis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 52, 449454.
  • Anderson, M. C. (1967). Photon flux, chlorophyll content and photosynthesis under natural conditions. Ecology, 48, 10501053.
  • Andrews, T. J. & Abel, K. M. (1979). Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in seagrasses. 14C labelling evidence for the C3 pathway. Plant Physiology, 63, 650656.
  • Armstrong, W. (1979). Aeration in higher plants. Advances in Botanical Research, 7, 225332.
  • Basioury, F. H., Haller, W. J. & Garrard, L. A. (1977). Evidence for root Fe nutrition in Hydrilla verticillata Rayle. Plant and Soil, 48, 621627.
  • Bell, R. P. (1969). Acids and Bases: Their Quantitative Behaviour. Methuen, London.
  • Benedict, C. R. (1978). Nature of obligate photo-autotrophy. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 29, 6793.
  • Benedict, C. R., Wong, W. L. & Wong, J. H. H. (1974). The fractionation of stable carbon isotopes in seagrasses. Plant Physiology, 63, 1s.
  • Blinks, L. R. (1955). Photosynthesis and productivity of littoral marine algae Journal of Marine Research 14, 363373.
  • Bold, H. W. & Wynne, M. J. (1977) Introduction to the Algae: Structure and Reproduction. Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
  • Borowitzka, M. A. (1977) Algal calcification. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 15, 189224.
  • Bostrom, T. E. & Walker, N. A. (1975) Intercellular transport in plants. I The rate of transport of chloride and the electric resistance. Journal of Experimental Botany, 26, 767782.
  • Bostrom, T. E. & Walker, N. A. (1976). Intercellular transport in plants. II. Cyclosis and the rate of intercellular transport of chloride in Chara. Journal of Experimental Botany, 27, 347358.
  • Brewer, P. G. & Goldman, J. C. (1976). Alkalinity changes generated by phytoplankton growth. Limnology, and Oceanography, 21, 108117.
  • Brinkhuis, B. H. (1977a). Seasonal variation in salt-marsh macro-algae photosynthesis. I. Ascophyllum nodosum ecad scorptodes. Marine Biology, 44, 165175.
  • Brinkihuis, B. H. (1977b). Seasonal variation in salt-marsh macro-algae photosynthesis. II. Fucus vesiculosus and Ulva lactuca. Marine Biology, 44, 177185.
  • Brinkhuis, B. H., Tfmpel, N. R. & Jones, R. F. (1976). Photosynthesis and respiration of exposed salt-marsh fucoids Ascophyllum nodosum ecad scorpiodes and Fucus vesiculosus. Marine Biology, 34, 347359.
  • Brooks, S. C. (1933) Selective accumulation of ions in cavities incompletely, surrounded by protoplasm. Biological Bulletin, 64, 6769.
  • Browsf, J. A., Dromgoolf, F. I. & Brown, J. M. A. (1977) Photosynthesis in the aquatic macrophyte Egeria densa. I 14CO2 fixation at natural CO2 concentrations Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 4, 169176.
  • Burkholder, P. R., Burkholder, L. M. (1960) Photosynthesis in some Alcyonarian corals. American Journal of Botany, 47, 866872.
  • Burkholder, P. R., Burkholder, L. M. & Riviero, J. A. (1959). Some chemical constituents of turtle grass Testudinaria testudinum. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 86, 8893.
  • Carignan, R. & Kalif, J. (1969). Quantification of sediment phosphate availability to aquatic macrophytes. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 36, 10021005.
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. (1978). Nuclear volume control by nucleo-skeletal DNA. selection for cell volume and cell growth rate, and the solution of the DNA C-value paradox. Journal of Cell Science, 34, 247278.
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. (1980). r- and K-tactics in the evolution of protist developmental systems: cell and genome size, phenotype diversifying selection and cell cycle patterns. Biosystems, 12, 4359.
  • Chapman, A. R. O. (1974). The ecology of macroscopic marine algae. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 5, 6580.
  • Chapman, A. R. O. (1979). The Biology of Seaweeds. Levels of Organisation. Edward Arnold, London.
  • Church, A. H. (1919). Thalassiophyta and the sub-aerial transmigration; Oxford Botanical Memoirs Number 3. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Connell, J. H. & Slatyer, R. O. (1977). Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organisation. The American Naturalist, 111, 11191144.
  • Conovfr, J. T. (1968). The importance of natural diffusion gradients and transport of substances related to benthic plant metabolism. Botanica Marina, 11, 19.
  • Cowan, I. R. (1977). Stomatal behaviour and environment. Advances in Botanical Research, 4, 117228.
  • Davies, J. M., Ffrrier, W. C. & Johnston, C. S. (1973). The ultrastructure of the meristoderm of the hapteron of Laminaria. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 53, 237247.
  • Dayton, P. K. (1973) Dispersion, dispersal and persistence of the annual intertidal alga, Postelia palmaeformis. Ecology, 54, 433438.
  • Dayton, P. K. (1975). Experimental evaluation of ecological dominance in a rocky intertidal algal community. Ecological Monographs, 45, 137159.
  • D'Elia, C. F. & Webb, K. L. (1977). The dissolved nitrogen flux of reef corals. In: Proceedings of the Third International Coral Reef Symposium, pp. 325330. Third International Coral Reef Symposium, Fisher Island Station, Miami Beach, Florida 33139, U.S.A.
  • Den Hartog, C. (1977). Structure, function and classification of sea-grass communities. In: Seagrass Ecosystems. A Scientific Perspective, (Ed. by C. M.McRoy and C.Hefferetch), pp. 89121. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York & Basel.
  • Den Hartog, C. & Segal, C. (1964) A new classification of the waterplant communities. Acta Botanica Nerlandica, 13, 367393.
  • Denny, P. (1980). Solute movement in submerged angiosperms. Biological Reviews, 55, 6592.
  • Drew, E. A. (1978). Factors affecting photosynthesis and its seasonal variation in the seagrasses Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Aschers and Posidonia oceanica (L) Delile in the Mediterranean. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 31, 173194.
  • Drew, M. C. (1979). Plant responses to anaerobic conditions in soil and solution culture. Current Advances in Plant Science, 11, 36, 1–36, 14.
  • Epstein, E. (1977). The role of roots in the chemical economy of life on earth. BioScience, 27, 783787.
  • Floc'h, J. Y. & Penot, M. (1976). Etude comparative du transport a longue distance de différents radioéléments dans le thalle de Laminaria digitata (Linne) Lam. Comptes Rendus hebdomanaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, D., 282, 989992.
  • Forsberg, C. (1960). Subaquatic macrovegetation in Osbysjon, Djunsholm. Oikos, 11, 183199.
  • Franzisket, L. (1974). Nitrate uptake by reef corals. Internationale Revue gesamtgebeiten Hydrobiologie, 59, 17.
  • Fritsch, F. E. (1935). Structure and Reproduction of the Algae, volume 1. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Fritsch, F. E. (1945). Structure and Reproduction of the Algae, volume 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Frolick, R. A. & Mathieson, A. C. (1973). Ecological studies of Codium fragile in New England, U.S.A. Marine Biology, 19, 127132.
  • Fry, B. & Parker, P. L. (1979). Animal diet in Texas seagrass meadows: 13C evidence for the importance of benthic plants. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 8, 499509.
  • Gerloff, G. C. & Krobholz, P. H. (1966). Tissue analysis as a measure of nutrient availability for the growth of aquatic plants. Limnology and Oceanography, 11, 529537.
  • Gessner, F., (1959). Hydrobotanik II: Stofftransport. V.E.B. Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaf.
  • Gibor, A. (1973a). Observations on the sterile whorls of Acetabularia. Protoplasma, 78, 195202.
  • Gibor, A. (1973b). Acetabularia: physiological role of their deciduous organelles. Protoplasma, 78, 461465.
  • Gifford, C. E. & Odum, E. P. (1961). Chlorophyll a content of intertidal zones on a rocky seashore. Limnology and Oceanography, 6, 8385.
  • Goldman, J. C., Porcella, D. B., Middlebrooks, E. J. & Toernier, D. F. (1972). The effect of carbon on algal growth — its relationship to eutrophication. Water Research, 6, 637679.
  • Goldman, J. C., McCarthy, J. J. & Peavey, D. G. (1979). Growth rate influence on the chemical composition of phytoplankton in oceanic waters. Nature, 279, 210215.
  • Grambast, L. J. (1974). Phylogeny of the Charophyta. Taxon, 23, 463481.
  • Grime, J. P. (1979). Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes. John Wiley, Chichester.
  • Grubb, P. J. (1970). Observations on the structure and biology of Haplomitrium and Takakia, hepatics with roots. New Phytologist, 69, 303326.
  • Gunning, B. E. S. (1976). Introduction to plasmodesmata. In: Intercellular Communication in Plants: Studies in Plasmodesmata, (Ed: by B.E.S.Gunning & A. W.Robards), p. 1. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg & Berlin.
  • Gunning, B. E. S. (1977). Transfer cells and their roles in transport of solutes in plants. Science Progress, Oxford, 64, 539568.
  • Gunning, B. E. S. & Robards, A. W. (eds) (1976). Intercellular Communication in Plants: Studies in Plasmodesmata, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg & Berlin.
  • Harder, R. (1970). Utricularia as the object for heterotrophy studies in flowering plants (reciprocal effects of sucrose and acetate). Zeitschrift für Pflanzen-physiologie, 63, 181184.
  • Harrison, P. G. & Mann, K. H. (1975). Detritus formation from eelgrass (Zostera marina L): the relative effects of fragmentation, leaching and decay. Limnology and Oceanography, 20, 924934.
  • Haslam, S. M. (1978). River Plants: the Macrophytic Vegetation of Water Courses. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Head, W. D. & Carpenter, E. J. (1975). Nitrogen fixation associated with the marine macroalga Codium fragile. Limnology and Oceanography, 20, 815823.
  • Hibberd, D. J. (1976). The ultrastructure and taxonomy of the Chrysophyceae and Prymnesiophyceae (Haptophyceae): a summary with some new observations on the ultrastructure of the Chrysophyceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 72, 5580.
  • Hoffman, R. J. & Margum, C. P. (1972). Passive ventilation in benthic annelids? Science, 176, 1356.
  • Hope, A. B. & Walker, N. A. (1975). The Physiology of Giant Algal Cells. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Hutchinson, G. E. (1975). A Treatise on Limnology, vol. III, Limnological Botany. John Wiley, New York, London & Sydney.
  • Hynes, H. B. N. (1970). The Ecology of Running Waters. Liverpool University Press.
  • Ikusima, I. (1966). Ecological studies on the productivity of aquatic plant communities. II. Seasonal changes in standing crop and productivity of a natural community of Vallisneria denserulata. Botanical Magazine, (Tokyo), 79, 719.
  • Iwasaki, H. & Matsudaira, C. (1954). Studies on cultural grounds of a laver, Porphyra tenera Kjellman, in Matsukawa-una Inlet. I. Environmental characteristics affecting N and P contents of laver. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Fisheries, 20, 112119.
  • Jaubert, J. (1977a). Light, metabolism and growth form of the hermatypic Scleractinean coral Synaraea covexa Verrill in the lagoon of Moorea (French Polynesia). In: Proceedings of the Third International Coral Reef Symposium, vol. 1, (Ed. by The Symposium Committee), pp. 483488. Rosensteil School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. University of Miami.
  • Jaubert, J. (1977b). Light, metabolism and distribution of Tridacna maxima. In: Proceedings of the Third International Coral Reef Symposium, vol. 1, (Ed. by The Symposium Committee), pp. 489494. Rosensteil School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami.
  • Johannes, R. E., Coles, S. L. & Kuenzel, N. T. (1970). The role of zooplankton in the nutrition of some Scleractinean corals. Limnology and Oceanography, 15, 579586.
  • Johnson, W. S., Gigon, A., Gulman, S. L. & Mooney, H. A. (1974) Comparative photosynthetic capacities of intertidal algae under exposed and submerged conditions. Ecology, 55, 450453.
  • Kain, J. M. (1979). A view of the genus Laminaria. Oceanography and Marine Biology An Annual Review, 17, 101161.
  • Kain, J. M., Drew, E. A. & Jupp, B. P. (1976). Light and the ecology of Laminaria hyperborea. In: Light as an Ecological Factor II, (Ed. by G. C.Evans, O.Rackham & R.Bainbridge), pp. 6393 Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
  • Keddy, G. J. & Patriqiin, D. G. (1978). An annual form of eelgrass in Nova Scotia. Aquatic Botany, 5, 163170.
  • King, R. J. & Schramm, W. (1976). Determination of photosynthetic rates for the marine algae Fucus vesiculosus and Laminaria digitata. Marine Biology, 37, 209213.
  • Kohlmeyer, J. (1979). Marine fungal pathogens among Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes. Experientia, 35, 437439.
  • Kohlmeyer, J. & Kohlmeyer, E. (1972). Is Ascophyllum nodosum lichenised? Botanica Marina, 15, 109122.
  • Kohlmeyer, J. & Kohlmeyer, E. (1979). Marine Mycology: The Higher Fungi. Academic Press, New York.
  • Kuo, J. (1978). Morphology, anatomy and histochemistry of the Australian seagrasses of the genus Posidonia Konig (Posidoniaceae). I. Leaf blade and leaf sheath of Posidonia australis Hook. Aquatic Botany, 5, 171190.
  • Land, L. S., Lang, J. C. & Barnes, D. J. (1975). Extension rate: a primary control on the isotopic composition of West Indian (Jamaican) Scleractinian reef coral skeletons. Marine Biology, 33, 221233.
  • Lembi, C. A. & Herndon, W. R. (1966). Fine structure of the pseudocilia of Tetraspora. Canadian Journal of Botany, 44, 710712.
  • Lewis, D. H. (1973). The relevance of symbiosis to taxonomy and ecology, with particular reference to mutualistic symbioses and the exploitation of marginal habitats. In: Taxonomy and Ecology, (Ed. by V. H.Heywood), pp. 151172. Academic Press, London.
  • Lewis, J. R. (1964). The Ecology of Rocky Shores. English Universities Press, London.
  • Leyton, L. (1975). Fluid Behaviour in Biological Systems. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Littler, M. M. (1980). Morphological form and photosynthetic performances of marine macroalgae: tests of a function/form hypothesis. Botanica Marina, 22, 161165.
  • Lubchenko, J. (1978). Plant species diversity in a marine intertidal community: importance of herbivore food preference and algal competitive abilities. American Naturalist, 112, 2339.
  • Lucas, W. J. (1975). Photosynthetic fixation of 14Carbon by internodal cells of Chara corallina. Journal of Experimental Botany, 26, 331346.
  • Lucas, W. J. (1980). Control and synchronization of HCO3 and OH transport during photosynthetic assimilation of exogenous HCO3. In: Plant Membrane Transport: Current Conceptual Issues (Eds. R. M.Spanswick, W. J.Lucas & J.Dainty), pp. 317330. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.
  • Luther, H. (1949). Vorschlag zu einer okologischen Grundeinleitung der Hydrodophyten. Acta Botanica Fennica, 44, 115.
  • Macan, T. T. (1970). Biological Studies on the English Lakes. Longmans, London.
  • McCully, M. E. (1968). Histological studies of the genus Fucus III Fine structure and possible functions of the epidermal cells of the vegetative thallus. Journal of Cell Science, 3, 116.
  • Macfarland, W. N. & Prescott, J. (1959). Standing crop, chlorophyll content and in situ metabolism of a giant kelp community in Southern California. Publications of the Institute of Marine Science, University of Texas, 6, 109132.
  • Maclachlan, J. (1977). Effects of nutrients on growth and development of embryos of Fucus edentatus Pyl. (Phaeophyceae, Fucales). Phycologia, 16, 329338.
  • McRoy, C. P. (1977). Production ecology and physiology of seagrasses. In Sea-Grass Ecosystems. A Scientific Perspective, (Ed by C. P.McRoy & C.Helfenreich), pp. 5387. Marcel Dekker, New York & Basel.
  • McRoy, P. C., Barsdate, R. J. & Nebert, M. (1972). Phosphorus cycling in an eelgrass (Zostera marina L) ecosystem. Limnology and Oceanography, 17, 5867.
  • Mann, K. H. (1972a). Ecological energetics of the seaweed zone in a marine bay on the Atlantic coast. II Productivity of the seaweeds. Marine Biology, 14, 199209.
  • Mann, K. H. (1972b). Ecological energetics of the seaweed zone in a marine bay on the Atlantic coast. I. Zonation and biomass of the seaweeds Marine Biology 12, 110.
  • Mann, K. H. (1978). Some adaptations for high productivity in seaweeds. In: Photosynthesis 77 (Ed. by D. O.Hall & J.Coombs), pp. 235244. Biochemical Society, London.
  • Mann, K. H. & Chapman, A. R. O. (1975). Primary production in marine macrophytes. In Photosynthesis and Productivity in Different Environments, (Ed. by J.Cooper), pp. 207223. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Maragas, J. E. (1972). A study of the ecology of Hawaiian Reef Corals. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hawaii.
  • Marchant, H. J. (1976). Plasmodesmata in algae and fungi. In: Intercellular Communication in Plants: Studies in Plasmodesmata, (Ed. by B. E. S.Gunning & A. W.Robards), pp. 5980. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  • Matieson, A. C. (1979). Vertical distribution and longevity of sublittoral seaweeds in Northern New England, U.S.A. Botania Marina, 22, 511520.
  • Medina, E. & Minchin, P. (1980). Stratification of δ13C values of leaves in Amazonian rain forests. Oecologia, 45, 377378.
  • Mercer, M. J. & Mercer, F. V. (1971). Studies on the comparative physiology of Chara corallina. III. Nitrogen relations of internodal cell components during internodal cell expansion. Australian Journal of Botany, 19, 112.
  • Miller, A. G. & Colman, B. (1980). Evidence for HCO3 transport by the blue-green alga (cyanobacterium) Coccochloris peniiocystis. Plant Physiology, 65, 397402.
  • Mntangi, M. J. & Farrar, J. F. (1978). Physiological ecology of the marine alga Acrocystis nana. New Phytologist, 80, 199208.
  • Moeller, R. E. (1978a). Carbon uptake by the submerged hydrophyte Utricularia purpurea. Aquatic Botany, 5, 209216.
  • Moeller, R. E. (1978b). Seasonal changes in biomass, tissue chemistry and net production of the evergreen hydrophyte Lobelia dortmanna. Canadian Journal of Botany, 56, 14251433.
  • Moss, B. (1968). The chlorophyll a content of some benthic algal communities. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 65, 5162.
  • Moss, B. (1974). Morphogenesis. In: Algal Physiology and Biochemistry, (Ed. by W. D. P.Stewart), pp. 788813. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
  • Neuschul, M. (1972). Functional interpretation of benthic marine algal morphology. In: Contributions to the Systematics of Benthic Marine Algae of the North Pacific, (Ed. by I. A.Abbott & M.Kurogi), pp. 4774. Japanese Society of Phycologists, Kobe.
  • Nichols, D. S. & Keeney, D. R. (1976). Nitrogen nutrition of Myriophyllum spicatum: variation of plant tissue nitrogen concentration with season and site in Lake Wingren. Freshwater Biology, 6, 137144.
  • Nicholson, N. L. (1970). Field studies on the giant kelp Nereocystis. Journal of Phycology, 6, 177182.
  • Niell, F. X. (1976). C:N ratio in some marine macrophytes and its possible ecological significance. Botanica Marina, 19, 347350.
  • Niell, F. X. (1979). Structure and succession in rocky algal communities of a temperate intertidal system. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 36, 185200.
  • Norton, T. A. & Burrows, E. M. (1969). Studies on marine algae of the British Isles. 7. Sacchoriza polyschides (Lightf.) Batt. British Phycological Journal, 4, 1953.
  • Nye, P. H. & Tinker, P. B. (1977). Solute Movement in the Soil-root System. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
  • Odum, H. T., McConnell, W. H. & Abbott, W. (1958). The chlorophyll ‘A’ of communities. Publications of the Institute of Marine Science, University of Texas, 5, 6597.
  • Odum, H. T., Burkholder, P. R. & Rivero, J. (1959). Measurements of productivity of turtle grass flats, reefs and Bahia Fosforescente in Southern Puerto Rico. Publications of the Institute of Marine Science, University of Texas, 6, 159170.
  • Odum, H. T. & Pinkerton, R. C. (1955). Time's speed regulator: the optimum efficiency for maximum power output in physical and biological systems. American Scientist, 43, 331343.
  • Osmond, C. B. (1978). Crassulacean acid metabolism: a curiosity in context. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 29, 379114.
  • Paine, R. T. (1979). Disaster, catastrophe and local persistence in the sea palm Postelsia palmaeformis. Science, 205, 685687.
  • Paine, R. T., Slocum, C. J. & Duggins, D. O. (1979). Growth and longevity in the crustose red alga Petrocellis middendorfii. Marine Biology, 51, 185192.
  • Pate, J. S. & Gunning, B. E. S. (1972). Transfer Cells. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 23, 173196.
  • Pearce, V. B. & Muscatine, L. (1971). Role of symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) in coral calcification. Biological Bulletin, 141, 350363.
  • Peebles, M. J., Mercer, F. V. & Chambers, T. C. (1964). Studies on the comparative physiology of Chara australis. I. Growth pattern and gross cytology of the internodal cell. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 17, 4961.
  • Peter, R., Welsh, H. & Denny, P. (1979). The translocation of lead and copper in two submerged aquatic angiosperm species. Journal of Experimental Botany, 30, 339345.
  • Porter, J. W. (1976). Autotrophy, heterotrophy and resource partitioning in Caribbean reef-building corals. American Naturalist, 110, 731742.
  • Pringsheim, E. G. & Pringsheim, O. (1967). Kleiner Beitrag zur Physiologie von Utricularia. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenphysiologie, 67, 110.
  • Prins, H. B. A. & Helder, R. J. (1980). Photosynthetic use of HCO3 by Elodea and Potamogeton, pH changes induced by HCO3 CO2, K+ and H+/OH transport In Plant Membrane Transport: Current Conceptual Issues (Ed. by R. M.Spanswick, W. J.Lucas & J.Dainty), pp. 625626 Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.
  • Ramus, J. (1978). Seaweed anatomy and photosynthetic performance the ecological significance of light guides, heterogeneous absorption and multiple scatter. Journal of Phycology., 14, 352362.
  • Ramus, J., Beale, S. I. & Mauzerall, D. (1976) Correlation of changes in pigment content with photosynthetic capacity in seaweeds as a function of water depth. Marine Biology, 37, 231238.
  • Raven, J. A. (1970). Exogenous inorganic carbon sources in plant photosynthesis. Biological Reviews, 45, 167221.
  • Raven, J. A. (1972). Endogenous inorganic carbon sources in plant photosynthesis. II Comparison of total CO2 production in the light with measured CO2 evolution in the light. New Phytologist, 71, 9951014.
  • Raven, J. A. (1976). Transport in algal cells. In: Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New Series, volume 2A, (Ed. by U.Lüttge & M. G.Pitman), pp. 129188. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  • Raven, J. A. (1977a). The evolution of vascular land plants in relation to supracellular transport processes. Advances in Botanical Research, 5, 153219.
  • Raven, J. A. (1977b). Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity in terrestrial plants: significance of O2 and CO2 diffusion. Current Advances in Plant Science, 9, 579590.
  • Raven, J. A. (1978). Photosynthesis in cells and tissues. In: Photosynthesis 77, (Ed. by D. O.Hall & J.Coombs), pp. 147155. Biochemical Society, London.
  • Raven, J. A. (1980). Nutrient transport in microalgae. Advances in Microbial Physiology, 21, 47226.
  • Raven, J. A. & Glidewell, S. M. (1978). C4 characteristics of photosynthesis in the C2 alga Hydrodictyon africanum. Plant, Cell and Environment, 1, 185197.
  • Raven, J. A. & Smith, F. A. (1978). Effect of temperature on ion content, ion fluxes and energy metabolism in Chara corallina. Plant, Cell and Environment, 1, 231238.
  • Raven, J. A. & Smith, F. A. (1980). The chemiosmotic approach. In Plant Membrane Transport: Current Conceptual Issues, (Ed. by R. M.Spanswick, W. J.Lucas & J.Dainty), pp. 161178. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.
  • Raven, J. A., Smith, F. A. & Glidewell, S. M. (1979). Photosynthetic capacities and biological strategies of giant-celled and small-celled macro-algae. New Phytologist, 83, 299309.
  • Rundel, P. W., Stichler, W., Zandor, R. H. & Ziegler, H. (1979). Carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of bryophytes from arid and humid regions Oecologia, 44, 9194.
  • Sand-Jensen, K. & Sondergaard, M. (1979). Distribution and quantitative development of aquatic macrophytes in relation to sediment characteristics in oligotrophic Lake Kalgaard. Fresh-water Biology, 9, 112.
  • Schonbeck, M. W. & Norton, T. A. (1979). The effect of diatoms on the growth of Fucus spiralis germlings in culture. Botanica Marina, 22, 233236.
  • Seybold, A. & Egle, K. (1938). Quantitative Untersuchungen uber die Chlorophyll und Carotinoide der Meeresalgen. Jahrbuch für Wissenschaftliche Botanik, 84, 5080.
  • Shen, E. Y. F. (1971). Cultivation of Chara in defined media. In: Contributions to Phycology, (Ed. by B. C.Parker & R. M.Brown, Jr.), pp. 153161. Published by the Students of H. C. Bold, Printed by Allen Press.
  • Shomer-Ilan, A., Nissenbaum, A., Galun, A. & Waisei, Y. (1979). Effect of water regime on carbon isotope composition of lichens. Plant Physiology, 63, 201205.
  • Sievers, A. (1967). Elektronmikroskopisch Untersuchungen zur geotropischen Reaktion. II. Die polare Organisation des normal wachsenden Rhizoids von Chara foetida. Protoplasma, 44, 225253.
  • Sinclair, C. & Whitton, B. A. (1977). Influence of nutrient deficiency on hair formation in the Rivulariaceae. British Phycological Journal, 12, 297313.
  • Skirrow, G. (1975). The dissolved gases — carbon dioxide In: Chemical Oceanography, 2nd edn, vol. 3 (Ed. by J. P.Riley & G.Skirrow), pp. 1192. Academic Press, London.
  • Smith, F. A. (1967). Rates of photosynthesis in Characean cells. I. Photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation by Nitella translucens. Journal of Experimental Botany, 18, 509517.
  • Smith, F. A. (1980). Comparison of the effects of ammonia and methylamine on chloride transport and intracellular pH in Chara corallina. Journal of Experimental Botany, 31, 597606.
  • Smith, F. A. & Raven, J. A. (1978). The evolution of H+ transport and its role in photosynthetic energy transduction. In: Light Transducing Membranes: Structure, Function and Evolution, (Ed. by D. W.Deamer), pp. 233251. Academic Press, New York.
  • Smith, F. A. & Raven, J. A. (1979). Intracellular pH and its regulation. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 30, 289311.
  • Smith, F. A. & Walker, N. A. (1980). Photosynthesis by aquatic plants: effects of unstirred layers in relation to assimilation of CO2 and HCO3 and to carbon isotope discrimination. New Phytologist, 86, 245259.
  • Smith, G. W., Hayasaka, S. S. & Thayer, G. W. (1979). Root surface area measurements of Zostera marina and Halodule wrightii. Botanica Marina, 22, 347358.
  • Sondergaard, M. (1979). Light and dark respiration and the effect of the lacunal system on refixation of CO2 in submerged aquatic plants. Aquatic Botany, 6, 269284.
  • Sondergaard, M. & Laegaard, S. (1977). Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza in some aquatic plants. Nature, 268, 232233.
  • Sournia, A. (1976). Primary production in the lagoon of an atoll and the role of foraminiferan symbionts Marine Biology, 37, 2932.
  • Spanswick, R. M. & Miller, A. G. (1977). The effect of CO2 and the Cl influx and electrogenic pump in Nitella translucent. In: Exchanges Ioniques Transmembranaires chex les vegetaux, (Ed. by M.Thellier, A.Monnier, M.Demarty & J.Dainty), pp. 239245. C.N.R.S. Paris/University of Rouen.
  • Spence, D. H. N. (1967). Factors controlling the distribution of freshwater macrophytes with particular reference to the lochs of Scotland. Journal of Ecology, 55, 147170.
  • Spence, D. H. N. (1975). Light and plant response in fresh water. In: Light as an Ecological Factor 2, (Ed. by G. C.Evans, O.Rackham & R.Bainbridge), pp. 93133. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
  • Spence, D. H. N. & Chrystal, J. (1970). Photosynthesis and zonation of freshwater macrophytes. I. Depth distribution and shade tolerance. New Phytologist, 69, 205215.
  • Spencer, C. P. (1975). The micronutrient elements. In: Chemical Oceanography 2nd edn, vol. 2, (Ed. J. P.Riley & G.Skirrow), pp. 245300. Academic Press, London.
  • Spencer-Davies, P. (1977). Carbon budgets and vertical zonation of Atlantic reef corals. In: Proceedings of the Third International Coral Reef Symposium, volume 1 (Ed. by the Symposium Committee), pp. 392396. Rosensteil School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami.
  • Sprent, J. I. (1979). The Biology of Nitrogen-fixing Organisms. McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead.
  • Starling, M. B., Chapman, V. J. & Brown, J. M. A. (1974a). A contribution to the biology of Nitella hookeri A. Br. in the Rotorua Lakes, New Zealand. I. Inorganic nutrient requirements. Hydrobiologia, 45, 91113.
  • Starling, M. W., Chapman, V. J. & Brown, J. M. A. (1974b). A contribution to the biology of Nitella hookeri A. Br. in the Rotorua Lakes, New Zealand. II. Organic nutrients and physical factors. Hydrobiologia, 45, 157168.
  • Steeman-Nielsen, E. (1960). Uptake of CO2 by the plant. In: Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, vol. 1, (Ed. by R.Ruhland), pp. 7084. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  • Sydenham, P. H. & Findlay, G. P. (1975). Transport of solutes and water by resetting bladders of Utricularia. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2, 335351.
  • Talling, J. F. (1975). Primary production of aquatic plants — conclusions. In: Photosynthesis and Productivity in Different Environments. (Ed. by J. P.Cooper), pp. 281294. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Talling, J. F. (1976). Depletion of carbon dioxide from lake water by phytoplankton. Journal of Ecology, 64, 79122.
  • Talling, J. F., Wood, R. B., Prosser, M. V. & Baxter, R. M. (1973). The upper limit of photosynthetic productivity of phytoplankton: evidence from Ethiopian soda lakes. Freshwater Biology, 3, 5376.
  • Taylor, D. L. (1977). Intra-colonial transport of organic compounds and calcium in some Atlantic reef corals. In: Proceedings of the Third International Coral Reef Symposium, volume 1 (Ed. by the Symposium Committee), pp. 432436. Rosensteil School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami.
  • Troughton, J. H. (1971). Aspects of the evolution of the photosynthetic carboxylation reaction in plants. In: Photosynthesis and Photorespiration, (Eds. M. D.Hatch, C. B.Osmond & R. O.Slayter), pp. 124129. Wiley-Interscience, New York.
  • Tupa, D. D. (1974). An investigation of certain Chaetophoralean algae. Nova Hedwigia, 46, 1155.
  • Verhoeven, J. T. A. (1979). The ecology of Ruppia-dominated communities in Western Europe. Aquatic Biology, 6, 197268.
  • Vinogradov, A. P. (1953). The Elementary Composition of Marine Organisms. Memoir of the Sears Foundation for Marine Research no. 2.
  • Vogel, G. C. (1978). Recycling of carbon in a forest environment. Oecologia Plantarum, 13, 8994.
  • Vogel, S. & Bretz, W. L. (1972). Interfacial organisms: passive ventilation in the velocity gradients near surfaces. Science, 175, 210211.
  • Wainwright, S. A., Biggs, W. D., Currey, J. D. & Gosline, J. M. (1976). Mechanical Design in Organisms. Edward Arnold, London.
  • Walker, N. A., Beilby, M. J. & Smith, F. A. (1979). Amine uniport at the plasmalemma of charophyte cells. I. Current-voltage curves, saturation kinetics, and effects of unstirred layers. Journal of Membrane Biology, 49, 2156.
  • Walker, N. A. & Smith, F. A. (1975). Intracellular pH in Chara corallina measured by DMO distribution. Plant Science Letters, 4, 125132.
  • Walker, N. A., Smith, F. A. & Beilby, M. J. (1979). Amine uniport at the plasmalemma of charophyte cells. II. Ratio of matter to charge transported and permeability of free base. Journal of Membrane Biology, 49, 283296.
  • Walker, N. A., Smith, F. A. & Cathers, I. R. (1980). Bicarbonate assimilation by freshwater charophytes and higher plants. I. Membrane transport of bicarbonate ions is not proven. Journal of Membrane Biology, 57, 5158.
  • Wassman, E. R. & Ramus, J. (1973). Primary-production measurements for the green seaweed Codium fragile in Long Island Sound. Marine Biology, 21, 289297.
  • Webb, K. L. & Wiebe, W. J. (1978). The kinetics and possible significance of nitrate uptake by several algal-invertebrate symbioses. Marine Biology, 47, 2128.
  • Welsh, R. P. H. & Denny, P. (1979). The translocation of 32P in two submerged aquatic angiosperm species. New Phytologist, 82, 645656.
  • Westlake, D. F. (1975a). Macrophytes. In: River Ecology, (Ed. by B. A.Whitton) Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
  • Westlake, D. F. (1975b). Freshwater macrophytes. In: Photosynthesis and Productivity in Different Environments, (Ed. by J. P.Cooper), pp. 189206. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Wetzel, R. G. (1975). Primary Production. In: River Ecology, (Ed. by B. A.Whitton), pp. 230247. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
  • Wetzel, R. G. & Penhale, P. A. (1979). Transport of carbon and excretion of dissolved organic carbon by leaves and roots/rhizomes of seagrasses and their epiphytes. Aquatic Botany, 6, 149158.
  • Wheeler, W. N. (1975). Ecological studies in kelp forests. Journal of Phycology, 11, 14s.
  • Wheeler, W. N. (1980a). Pigment content and photosynthetic rates of the fronds of Macrocystis pyrifera. Marine Biology, 56, 97102.
  • Wheeler, W. N. (1980b). Effect of boundary layer transport on fixation of carbon by the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. Marine Biology, 56, 103110.
  • Whitton, B. A. (1975a). Algae. In: River Ecology, (Ed. by B. A.Whitton), pp. 81105. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
  • Whitton, B. A., (Ed.) (1975b). River Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
  • Whitton, B. A. & Harding, J. P. C. (1978). Influence of nutrient deficiency on hair formation in Stigeoclonium. British Phycological Journal, 13, 6568.
  • Wium-Anderson, S. (1971). Photosynthetic uptake of free CO2 by the roots of Lobelia dortmanna. Physiologia Plantarum, 25, 245248.
  • Wium-Anderson, S. & Anderson, J. (1972a). Carbon dioxide content of the interstitial water in the sediment of Grane Langsø, a Danish Lobelia lake. Limnology and Oceanography, 17, 943947.
  • Wium-Anderson, S. & Anderson, J. (1972b). The influence of vegetation on the redox profile of the sediment of Grane Langsø, a Danish Lobelia lake Limnology and Oceanography, 17, 948952.
  • Wong, S. C., Cowan, I. R. & Farqhar, G. D. (1979). Stomatal conductance correlates with photosynthetic capacity. Nature, 282, 424426.
  • Wong, W. W. L., Benedict, C. R., Newton, R. J. & Bhaskaran, S. (1979). The fractionation of stable carbon isotopes in aquatic submerged angiosperms. Plant Physiology, 63, 1s.