The mycorrhizal associations in 47 indigenous Tanzanian trees and shrubs, mainly from less humid areas, were studied. Forty species were found to be endomycorrhizal. One, Uapaca kirkiana Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) was ectendomycorrhizal while six, four Brachystegia spp., Julbernardia globiflora (Benth.) Troup. (Caesalpiniaceae) and Monotes elegans Gilg. (Diptero-carpaceae), were ectomycorrhizal. The results demonstrated a dominance of endomycorrhizal species, which is typical for the tropics and is further reinforced by taxonomic considerations. However, in the Miombo (Brachystegia–Julbernardia) woodlands, a major ecosystem in East and South Central Africa, ectomycorrhizal trees predominate in volume. In three other ecosystems studied – a Combretum woodland, a groundwater forest and a semi-evergreen forest–ectomycorrhizal species were absent or almost absent. Nodulated leguminous species appeared to be more common in the fire-induced woodlands than in the closed forests.