SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Andersen, R. N. (1968) Germination and Establishment of Weeds for Experimental Purposes. WSSA Handbook, Urbana , 111. 236 Pp.
  • Angevine, M. W. & Chabot, B. F. (1979). Seed germination syndromes in higher plants. In: Topics in Plant Population Biology (Ed. by O. T.Solbrig, S.Jain, G. B.Johnson & P. H.Raven), pp. 189206. Columbia University Press, New York .
  • Baskin, J. M. & Baskin, C. C. (1981) Seasonal changes in germination responses of buried seeds of Verbascum thapsus and V. blatteria and ecological implications. Canadian Journal of Botany, 59, 17691775.
  • Cleland, R. E. (1972). Oenothera Cytogenetics and Evolution. Academic Press, New York .
  • Creswell, E. G. & Grime, J. P. (1981) Induction of a light requirement during seed development and its ecological consequences. Nature, 291, 583585.
  • Dale, H. M., Harrison, P. J. & Thomson, G. W. (1965) Weeds as indicators of physical site characteristics in abandoned pastures. Canadian Journal of Botany, 43, 13191327.
  • Fenner, M. (1980a) The inhibition of germination of Bidens pilosa seeds by leaf canopy shade in some natural vegetation types. New Phytologist, 84, 95102.
  • Fenner, M. (1980b) The induction of a light requirement in Bidens pilosa by leaf canopy shade. New Phytologist, 84, 103106.
  • Frankland, B. (1981). Germination in shade. In: Plants and the Daylight Spectrum (Ed. by H.Smith), pp. 187204. Academic Press, London .
  • Gorski, T. (1975) Germination of seeds in the shadow of plants. Physiologia Plantarum, 34, 342346.
  • Gorski, T., Gorska, K. & Nowicki, J. (1977) Germination of seeds of various herbaceous species under leaf canopy. Flora, 166, 249259.
  • Grime, J. P. (1979) Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes. Wiley, New York .
  • Grime, J. P. (1981). Plant strategies in shade. In: Plants and the Daylight Spectrum (Ed. by H.Smith), pp. 159186. Academic Press, London .
  • Grime, J. P., Mason, G., Curtis, A. V., Rodman, J., Band, S. R., Mowforth, M. A. G., Neal, A. M. & Stano, S. (1981) A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology, 69, 10171059.
  • Gross, K. L. (1980) Colonization of Verbascum thapsus (Mullein) in an old-field in Michigan: the effects of vegetation. Journal of Ecology, 68, 919928.
  • Gross, K. L. (1984) Effects of seed size and growth form on seedling establishment of six monocarpic perennial plants. Journal of Ecology, 72, 369387.
  • Gross, K. L. & Werner, P. A. (1978) The biology of Canadian weeds. 28. Verbascum thapsus L. and V. blattaria L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 58, 401413.
  • Gross, K. L. & Werner, P. A. (1982) Colonizing abilities of ‘biennial’ plant species in relation to ground cover: implications for their distributions in a successional sere. Ecology, 63, 921931.
  • Harper, J. L. (1977) Population Biology of Plants. Academic Press, London .
  • Kivilaan, A. & Bandurski, R. S. (1981) The one-hundred-year period for Dr. Beal's seed viability experiment. American Journal of Botany, 68, 12901292.
  • Levin, D. A. (1975) Genie heterozygosity and protein polymorphism among local populations of Oenothera biennis. Genetics, 79, 477491.
  • Marino, M. L. (1980) Sand dune succession. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, Michigan .
  • Marks, M. & Prince, S. (1982) Seed physiology and seasonal emergence of wild lettuce, Lactuca serriola. Oikos, 38, 242249.
  • Pennell, F. W. (1935) The Scrophulariaceae of Eastern Temperate North America. Academy of Natural Sciences Monograph No. 1, 650 pp.
  • Platt, W. J. (1975) The colonization and formation of equilibrium plant species associations on badger disturbances in a tall-grass prairie. Ecological Monographs, 45, 285305.
  • Raghavan, V. (1973) Blue light interference in the phytochrome-controlled germination of spores of Cheilanthes farinosa. Plant Physiology, 51, 306311.
  • Reinartz, J. A. (1984) Life history variation of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus). I. Latitudinal differences in population dynamics and timing of reproduction. Journal of Ecology, 72, 897911.
  • Silvertown, J. W. (1980) Leaf canopy induced seed dormancy in a grassland flora. New Phytologist, 85, 109118.
  • Silvertown, J. W. (1981) Seed size, life span and germination data as coadapted features of plant life history. American Naturalist, 118, 860864.
  • Steiner, E. & Levin, P. A. (1977) Allozyme, SI gene, cytological, and morphological polymorphisms in a population of Oenothera biennis. Evolution, 31, 127133.
  • Turrill, W. B. (1929). The Plant Life of the Balkan Peninsula. A Phytogeographical Study. Clarendon Press, Oxford .
  • Wesson, G. & Wareing, P. F. (1969) The induction of light sensitivity in weed seeds by burial. Nature, 213, 600601.