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Keywords:

  • Chloroplast;
  • endomembrane continuity;
  • endoplasmic reticulum;
  • rapid-freeze;
  • freeze-fracturing;
  • ultrastructure

summary

Continuity between the endoplasmic reticulum and the plastid envelope has often been reported, but has seldom been demonstrated convincingly. Using rapid-freezing and freeze-fracturing techniques, we have shown that in the green alga, Chara globularis var. capillacea, and the lower vascular plant, Equisetum telmateia, such continuity is of frequent occurrence. Comparable chemically fixed, resin-embedded tissues hardly ever reveal connections between the two organelles.