SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aloni, B., Wyse, R. E. & Griffith, S. (1986). Sucrose transport and phloem unloading in stem of Vicia faba: possible involvement of a sucrose carrier and osmotic regulation. Plant Physiology 81, 482486.
  • Altus, D. P. & Canny, M. J. (1982). Loading of assimilates in wheat leaves I. The specialization of vein types for separate activities. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 9, 571581.
  • Aoki, S. (1981). Effects of plucking of young tea plants on their photosynthetic capacities in the mature and over wintered leaves. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 50, 445451.
  • Apel, P. & Natr, L. (1976). Carbohydrate content and grain growth in wheat and barley. Biochemie und Physiologie der Pflanzen 169, 437446.
  • Araus, J. L., Tapia, L., Calafell, R. & Lopez, E. (1987). Carbohydrate accumulation and senescence onset in field-grown flag wheat leaves during grain filling. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 25, 549556.
  • Archbold, H. K. (1942). Physiological studies on plant nutrition 13. Experiments with barley on defoliation on shading of the ear in relation to sugar metabolism. Annals of Botany 6, 487531.
  • Aufhammer, W., Göutz, I. & Peter, M. (1987). Yield performance of field beans (Vicia faba L.) in relation to interactions between inflorescences at different nodes. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 108, 479486.
  • Aufhammer, W. & Zinsmaier, P. (1982). Das Speichervermögen von Weizenähren in Abhängigkeit von Beziehungen zwischen den einzelnen Kornanlagen. Zeitschrift für Acker- und Pflanzenbau 151, 249266.
  • Austin, R. B., Edrich, J. A., Ford, M. A. & Blackwell, R. D. (1977). The fate of the dry matter, carbohydrates and 14C lost from the leaves and stems of wheat during grain filling. Annals of Botany 41, 13091321.
  • Austin, R. B., Ford, M. A., Morgan, C. L., Kaminski, A. & Miller, T. E. (1984). Genetic constraints on photosynthesis and yield in wheat. Advances in Photosynthesis Research IV (2), 103110.
  • Austin, R. B., Morgan, C. L., Ford, M. A. & Blackwell, R. D. (1980). Contributions to grain yield from pre-anthesis assimilation in tall and dwarf barley genotypes in two contrasting seasons. Annals of Botany 45, 309319.
  • Babu, R. C., Srinivasan, P. S., Natarajaratnam, N. & Rangasamy, S. R. S. (1985). Relationship between leaf photosynthetic rate and yield in blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] genotypes. Photosynthetica 19, 159163.
  • Bagnall, D. J., King, R. W. & Farquhar, G. D. (1988). Temperature-dependent feedback inhibition of photosynthesis in peanut. Planta 175, 348354.
  • Barnett, K. H. & Pearce, R. B. (1983). Source-sink ratio alteration and its effect on physiological parameters in maize. Crop Science 23, 294299.
  • Batten, G. D. & Wardlaw, I. F. (1987). Redistribution of 32P and 14C from the flag leaf during grain development in wheat. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 14, 267275.
  • Baysdorfer, C. & Bassham, J. A. (1985). Photosynthate supply and utilization in alfalfa. A developmental shift from a source to a sink limitation of photosynthesis. Plant Physiology 77, 313317.
  • Baysdorfer, C. & Robinson, J. M. (1985). Sucrose and starch synthesis in spinach plants grown under long and short photosynthetic periods. Plant Physiology 79, 838842.
  • Bidinger, F., Musgrave, R. B. & Fischer, R. A. (1977). Contribution of stored pre-anthesis assimilate to grain yield in wheat and barley. Nature 270, 431433.
  • Binnie, R. C. & Clifford, P. E. (1980). Effects of some defoliation and decapitation treatments on the productivity of French beans. Annals of Botany 46, 811813.
  • Björkman, O. (1971). Comparative photosynthetic CO2 exchange in higher plants. In: Photosynthesis and Photorespiration (Ed. by M. D.Hatch, C. B.Osmond & R. O.Slatyer), pp. 1832. Wiley Interscience, New York , London , Sydney , Toronto .
  • Blacklow, W. M., Darbyshire, B. & Pheloung, P. (1984). Fructan polymerized and depolymerized in the internodes of winter wheat as grain filling progressed. Plant Science Letters 36, 213218.
  • Blechschmidt-Schneider, S. & Eschrich, W. (1985). Microautoradiographic localization of imported [14C] photosynthate in induced sink leaves of two dicotyledonous C4 plants in relation to phloem unloading. Planta 163, 439447.
  • Blechschmidt-Schneider, S., Ferrar, P. & Osmond, C. B. (1989). Control of photosynthesis by the carbohydrate level in leaves of the C4 plant Amaranthus edulis L. Planta 177, 515525.
  • Boller, T. & Wiemken, A. (1986). Dynamics of vacuolar compartmentation. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 37, 137164.
  • Bonnemain, J.-L. (1966). Sur les modalités de la distribution des assimilats chez la Tomate et sur ses méchanismes. Comptes Rendus Académie des Sciences 262, 11061109.
  • Bonnemain, J.-L. (1968). Transport du 14C assimilé chez les Solanacées. Revue Générale de Botanique 75, 579610.
  • Bourquin, S., Bonnemain, J.-L. Delrot, S. (1990). Inhibition of loading of 14C assimilates by p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. Localization of the apoplastic pathway in Vicia faba. Plant Physiology 92, 97102.
  • Boyer, J. S. (1988). Cell enlargement and growth-induced water potentials. Physiologia Plantarum 73, 311316.
  • Britz, S. J., Hungerford, W. E. & Lee, D. R. (1985). Photoperiodic regulation of photosynthate partitioning in leaves of Digitaria decumbens Stent. Plant Physiology 78, 710714.
  • Britz, S. J., Hungerford, W. E. & Lee, D. R. (1987). Rhythms during extended dark periods determine rates of net photosynthesis and accumulation of starch and soluble sugars in subsequent light periods in leaves of Sorghum. Planta 171, 339345.
  • Brochlehurst, P. A. (1977). Factors controlling grain weight in wheat. Nature 266, 348349.
  • Brooking, I. R. & Kirby, E. J. M. (1981). Interrelationships between stem and ear development in winter wheat; the effects of a Norin 10 dwarfing gene, Gai/Rht2. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridg 97, 373381.
  • Brouwer, R. (1983). Functional equilibrium: sense or nonsense. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 31, 335348.
  • Bruck, D. K. & Paolillo, D. J. Jr (1984). Replacement of leaf primordia with IAA in the induction of vascular differentiation in the stem of coleus. New Phytologist 96, 553570.
  • Brun, W. A. & Betts, K. J. (1984). Source/sink relations of abscising and nonabscising soybean flowers. Plant Physiology 75, 187191.
  • Bunce, J. A. (1982). Effects of water stress on photosynthesis in relation to diurnal accumulation of carbohydrates in source leaves. Canadian Journal of Botany 60, 195200.
  • Burt, R. L. (1964). Carbohydrate utilization as a factor in plant growth. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 17, 867877.
  • Caldwell, C. D., Fensom, D. S., Bordeleau, L., Thompson, R. G., Drouin, R. & Didsbury, R. (1984). Translocation of 13N and 11C between nodulated roots and leaves in alfalfa seedlings. Journal of Experimental Botany 35, 431443.
  • Caldwell, J. (1930). Studies in translocation II. The movement of food materials in plants. New Phytologist 29, 2743.
  • Canny, M. J. (1960). The rate of translocation. Biological Revues 35, 507532.
  • Canny, M. J. (1973). Phloem Translocation. Cambridge University Press.
  • Carlson, D. R. & Brun, W. A. (1984). Effect of shortened photosynthetic period on 14C-assimilate translocation and partitioning in reproductive soybeans. Plant Physiology 75, 881886.
  • Carr, D. J. & Skene, K. G. M. (1961). Diauxic growth curves of seeds, with special reference to French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 14, 112.
  • Chalmers, D. J., Canterford, R. L., Jerie, P. H., Jones, T. R. & Ugalde, T. D. (1975). Photosynthesis in relation to growth and distribution of fruit in peach trees. Australian Journal Plant Physiology 2, 635645.
  • Chanda, S. V., Joshi, A. K., Krishnan, P. N. & Singh, Y. D. (1986). Distribution of glycosidases and acid invertase activities in relation to elongation growth in pearl millet internode. Journal of Experimental Botany 37, 14061415.
  • Chatterton, N. J., Harrison, P. A., Bennett, J. H. & Asay, K. H. (1989). Carbohydrate partitioning in 185 accessions of gramineae grown under warm and cool temperatures. Journal of Plant Physiology 134, 169179.
  • Chatterton, N. J. & Silvius, J. E. (1979). Photosynthate partitioning into starch in soybean leaves I Effects of photoperiod versus photosynthetic period duration. Plant Physiology 64, 749753.
  • Chatterton, N. J. & Silvius, J. E. (1980). Photosynthate partitioning into leaf starch as affected by daily photosynthetic period duration in 6 species. Physiologia Plantarum 49, 141144.
  • Chatterton, N. J. & Silvius, J. E. (1981). Photosynthate partitioning into starch in soybean leaves II Irradiance level and daily photosynthetic period duration effects. Plant Physiology 67, 257260.
  • Chojecki, A. J. S., Gale, M. D. & Bayliss, M. W. (1986). The number and size of starch granules in the wheat endosperm, and their association with grain weight. Annals of Botany 58, 819831.
  • Chonan, N., Kawahara, H. & Matsuda, T. (1984). Ultrastructure of vascular bundles and fundamental parenchyma in relation to movement of photosynthate in leaf sheath of rice. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 53, 435444.
  • Chonan, N., Kawahara, H. & Matsuda, T. (1985). Ultrastructure of transverse veins in relation to phloem loading in the rice leaf. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 54, 160169.
  • Christy, A. L. & Fisher, D. B. (1978). Kinetics of 14C-photosynthate translocation in morning glory vines. Plant Physiology 61, 283290.
  • Cleland, R. E. (1981). Wall extensibility: Hormones and wall extension. In Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, new series, vol. 13B. (Ed. by W.Tanner & F. A.Loewus), pp. 255276. Springer-Verlag, New York .
  • Clifford, P. E., Offler, C. E. & Patrick, J. W. (1986). Growth regulators have rapid effects on photosynthate unloading from seed coats of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Plant Physiology 80, 635637.
  • Clough, J. M., Peet, M., & Kramer, P. J. (1981). Effects of high atmospheric CO2 and sink size on rates of photosynthesis of a soybean cultivar. Plant Physiology 67, 10071010.
  • Cloux, H. C. Du, Andre, M., Daguenet, A. & Massimino, J. (1987). Wheat response to CO2 enrichment: growth and CO2 exchanges at two plant densities. Journal of Experimental Botany 38, 14211431.
  • Cock, J. H. & Yoshida, S. (1972). Accumulation of 14C-labelled carbohydrate before flowering and its subsequent redistribution and respiration in the rice plant. Proceedings of the Crop Science Society of Japan 41, 226234.
  • Collins, W. B. (1976). Effect of carbon dioxide enrichment on growth of the potato plant. Horticultural Science 11, 467469.
  • Constable, G. A. & Rawson, H. M. (1980). Carbon production and utilization in cotton: Inferences from a carbon budget. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 7, 539553.
  • Cook, M. G. & Evans, L. T. (1978). Effect of relative size and distance of competing sinks on the distribution of photosynthetic assimilates in wheat. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 5, 495509.
  • Cormack, R. G. H. & Lemay, P. (1963). Sugar in the intercellular spaces of white mustard roots. Journal of Experimental Botany 14, 232236.
  • Cosgrove, D. J. (1986). Biophysical control of plant cell growth. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 37, 377405.
  • Cosgrove, D. J. (1987). Wall relaxation and the driving force for cell expansive growth. Plant Physiology 84, 561564.
  • Cosgrove, D. J. & Sovonick-Dunford, S. A. (1989). Mechanisms of gibberellin-dependent stem elongation in peas. Plant Physiology 89, 184191.
  • Curtis, P. E., Ogren, W. L. & Hageman, R. H. (1969). Varietal effects on soybean photosynthesis and photorespiration. Crop Science 9, 323327.
  • Dale, E. M. & Housley, T. L. (1986). Sucrose synthase activity in developing wheat endosperms differing in maximum weight. Plant Physiology 82, 710.
  • Dale, J. E. (1988). The control of leaf expansion. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 39, 267295.
  • Daynard, T. B., Tanner, J. W. & Hume, D. J. (1969). Contribution of stalk soluble carbohydrates to grain yield in corn (Zea mays L.). Crop Science 9, 831834.
  • Derr, W. F. & Evert, R. F. (1967). The cambium and seasonal development of the phloem in Robinia pseudoacacia. American Journal of Botany 54, 147153.
  • Dick, P. S. & ap Rees, T. (1975). The pathway of sugar transport in roots of Pisum sativum. Journal of Experimental Botany 26, 305314.
  • Dickmann, D. I. & Kozlowski, T. T. (1968). Mobilization by Pinus resinosa cones and shoots of C14- photosynthate from needles of different ages. American Journal of Botany 55, 900906.
  • Die, J. Van (1974). The developing fruits of Cocos nucifera and Phoenix dactylifera as physiological sinks importing and assimilating the mobile aqueous phase of the sieve tube system. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 23, 521540.
  • Die, J. Van & Tammes, P. M. L. (1964). Studies on phloem exudation from Yucca flaccida Haw. II. The translocation of assimilates. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 13, 8490.
  • Die, J. Van & Tammes, P. M. L. (1975). Phloem exudation from monocotyledonous axes. In: Transport in Plants. I. Phloem Transport (Ed. by M. H.Zimmermann & J. A.Milburn) Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, new series, vol. 1, pp. 195222. Springer-Verlag. Berlin .
  • Ding, B., Parthasarathy, M. V., Niklas, K. & Turgeon, R. (1988). A morphometric analysis of the phloem unloading pathway in developing tobacco leaves. Planta 176, 307318.
  • Donnelly, J. R. (1974). Seasonal changes in photosynthate transport within elongating shoots of Populus-grandiden, atta. Canadian Journal of Botany 52, 25472560.
  • Donovan, G. R., Jenner, C. F., Lee, J. W. & Martin, P. (1983). Longitudinal transport of sucrose and amino acids in the wheat grain. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 10, 3142.
  • Dornhoff, G. M. & Shibles, R. M. (1970). Varietal differences in net photosynthesis of soybean leaves. Crop Science 10, 4245.
  • Downton, W. J. S. & Hawker, J. S. (1973). Enzymes of starch and sucrose metabolism in Zea mays leaves. Phytochemistry 12, 15511556.
  • Duffus, C. M. (1979). Carbohydrate metabolism and cereal grain development. In: Recent Advances in the Biochemistry of Cereals. (Ed. by D. L.Laidman & P. G. WynJones), pp. 209238. Academic Press, London , New York , San Francisco .
  • Eckart, J. F. & Raguse, C. A. (1980). Effects of diurnal variation in light and temperature on the acetylene reduction activity (nitrogen fixation) of subterranean clover. Agronomy Journal 72, 519523.
  • Edwards, G. & Walker, D. (1983). C3, C4: Mechanisms, and Cellular and Environmental Regulation, of Photosynthesis. University of California Press, Berkeley & Los Angeles .
  • Egli, D. B. (1975). Rate of accumulation of dry weight in seed of soybeans and its relationship to yield. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 55, 215219.
  • Egli, D. B., Duncan, W. G. & Crafts-Brandner, S. J. (1987). Effect of physical restraint on seed growth in soybean. Crop Science 27, 289294.
  • Egli, D. B., Fraser, J., Leggett, J. E. & Poneleit, C. G. (1981). Control of seed growth in soya beans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]. Annals of Botany 48, 171176.
  • Egli, D. B., Guffy, R. D., Mechel, L. W. & Leggett, J. E. (1985). The effect of source-sink alterations on soybean seed growth. Annals of Botany 55, 395402.
  • Ehret, D. L. & Jolliffe, P. A. (1985). Photosynthetic carbon dioxide exchange of bean plants grown at elevated carbon dioxide concentrations. Canadian Journal of Botany 63, 20262030.
  • Esau, K. (1958). Plant Anatomy. John Wiley & Sons, New York ; Chapman and Hall, London .
  • Eschrich, W. & Burchardt, R. (1982). Reactivation of phloem export in mature maize leaves after a dark period. Planta 155, 444448.
  • Eschrich, W. & Eschrich, B. (1987). Control of phloem unloading by source activities and light. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 25, 625634.
  • Essiamah, S. K. (1980). Spring sap of trees. Beruchte Deutsche Botanische Gesellschaft 93, 257267.
  • Estruch, J. J., Pereto, J. G., Vercher, Y. & Beltran, J. P. (1989). Sucrose loading in isolated veins of Pisum sativum: Regulation by abscisic acid, gibberellic acid and cell turgor. Plant Physiology 91, 259265.
  • Evans, L. T. (1978). The influence of irradiance before and after anthesis on grain yield and its components in microcrops of wheat grown in a constant daylength and temperature regime. Field Crops Research 1, 519.
  • Evans, L. T. & Dunstone, R. L. (1970). Some physiological aspects of evolution in wheat. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 23, 725741.
  • Evans, L. T., Dunstone, R. L., Rawson, H. M. & Williams, R. F. (1970). The phloem of the wheat stem in relation to requirements for assimilate by the ear. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 23, 743752.
  • Evans, L. T. & Wardlaw, I. F. (1976). Aspects of the comparative physiology of grain yield in cereals. Advances in Agronomy 28, 301359.
  • Evans, L. T., Wardlaw, I. F. & Fischer, R. A. (1975). Wheat. In: Crop Physiology: Some Case Histories (Ed. by L. T.Evans), pp. 101149. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge .
  • Evert, R. F., Eschrich, W. & Heyser, W. (1978). Leaf structure in relation to solute transport and phloem loading in Zea mays L. Planta 138, 279294.
  • Fader, G. M. & Koller, H. R. (1985). Seed growth rate and carbohydrate pool sizes of the soybean fruit. Plant Physiology 79, 663666.
  • Farrar, J. F. (1988). Temperature and the partitioning and translocation of carbon. In: Plants and Temperature (Ed. by F. P.Long & F. I.Woodward), pp. 203236. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology. No. XXXXII. Company of Biologists Ltd., Cambridge .
  • Fekete, M. A. R. De & Vieweg, G. H. (1984). Stärke- und Saccharosestoffwechsel in Maisblatt. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gessellschaft 97, 4150.
  • Fellows, R. J. & Geiger, D. R. (1974). Structural and physiological changes in sugar beet leaves during sink to source conversion. Plant Physiology 54, 877885.
  • Fischer, K. S. & Wilson, G. L. (1971). Studies of grain production in Sorghum vulgare. I. The contribution of pre-flowering photosynthesis to grain yield. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 22, 3337.
  • Fischer, K. S. & Wilson, G. L. (1975). Studies of grain production in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench). III. The relative importance of assimilate supply, grain growth capacity and transport system. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 26, 1123.
  • Fisher, D. B. (1970). Kinetics of C-14 translocation in soybean. I. Kinetics in the stem. Plant Physiology 45, 107113.
  • Fisher, D. B. & Gifford, R. M. (1986). Accumulation and conversion of sugars by developing wheat grains. VI. Gradients along the transport pathway from the peduncle to the endosperm cavity during grain filling. Plant Physiology 82, 10241030.
  • Fisher, D. B. & Gifford, R. M. (1987). Accumulation and conversion of sugars by developing wheat grains. VII. Effect of changes in sieve tube and endosperm cavity sap concentrations on the grain filling rate. Plant Physiology 84, 341347.
  • Fisher, D. G. & Eschrich, W. (1985). Import and unloading of 14C assimilate into mature leaves of Coleus blumei. Canadian Journal of Botany 63, 17001707.
  • Fisher, D. G. & Evert, R. F. (1982). Studies on the leaf of Amaranthus retroflexus (Amaranthaceae): ultrastructure, plasmodesmatal frequency and solute concentration in relation to phloem loading. Planta 155, 377387.
  • Fisher, D. G., Larson, P. R. & Dickson, R. E. (1983). Phloem translocation from a leaf to its nodal region and axillary branch in Populus deltoides. Botanical Gazette 144, 481490.
  • Flinn, A. M. (1974). Regulation of leaflet photosynthesis by developing fruit in the pea. Physiologia Plantarum 31, 275278.
  • Flinn, A. M. & Pate, J. S. (1970). A quantitative study of carbon transfer from pod and subtending leaf to the ripening seeds of the field pea (Pisum arvense L.). Journal of Experimental Botany 21, 7182.
  • Fondy, B. R. & Geiger, D. R. (1982). Diurnal pattern of translocation and carbohydrate metabolism in source leaves of Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology 70, 671676.
  • Frazier, J. C. & Appalanaidu, B. (1965). The wheat grain during development with reference to nature, location, and role of its translocatory tissues. American Journal of Botany 52, 193198.
  • Fritz, E., Evert, R. F. & Nasse, H. (1989). Loading and transport of assimilates in different maize leaf bundles. Digital image analysis of 14C microautoradiographs. Planta 178, 19.
  • Fry, S. C. (1989). Cellulases, hemicelluloses and auxin stimulated growth: a possible relationship. Physiologia Plantarum 75, 532536.
  • Geiger, D. R. (1976). Effects of translocation and assimilate demand on photosynthesis. Canadian Journal of Botany 54, 23372345.
  • Geiger, D. R. (1979). Control of partitioning and export of carbon in leaves of higher plants. Botanical Gazette 140, 241248.
  • Geiger, D. R. & Batey, J. W. (1967). Translocation of 14C sucrose in sugar-beet during darkness. Plant Physiology 42, 17431749.
  • Geiger, D. R. & Cataldo, D. A. (1969). Leaf structure and translocation in sugar beet. Plant Physiology 44, 4554.
  • Geiger, D. R., Saunders, M. A. & Cataldo, D. A. (1969). Translocation and accumulation of translocate in sugar-beet petiole. Plant Physiology 44, 16571665.
  • Geiger, D. R., Shieh, W.-J. & Saluke, R. M. (1989). Carbon partitioning among leaves, fruits, and seeds during development of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Plant Physiology 91, 291297.
  • Gent, M. P. N. (1982). Effect of defoliation and depodding on long distance translocation and yield in Y shaped soybean plants. Crop Science 22, 245250.
  • Gersani, M. (1985). Appearance of new transport capacity in wounded plants. Journal of Experimental Botany 36, 18091816.
  • Giaquinta, R. (1977). Sucrose hydrolysis in relation to phloem translocation in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology 60, 339343.
  • Giaquinta, R. T., Lin, W., Sadler, N. L. & Franceschi, V. R. (1983). Pathway of phloem unloading in corn roots. Plant Physiology 72, 362367.
  • Gifford, R. M. (1986). Partitioning of photoassimilate in the development of crop yield. In: Phloem Transport (Ed. by J.Cronshaw, W. J.Lucus & R. T.Giaquinta), pp. 535549. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York .
  • Gifford, R. M. (1987). Barriers to increasing crop productivity by genetic improvement in photosynthesis. In: Progress in Photosynthesis Research (Ed. by J.Biggins), pp. 377384. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht , The Netherlands .
  • Gifford, R. M. & Marshall, C. (1973). Photosynthesis and assimilate distribution in Lolium multiflorum LAM following differential tiller defoliation. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 26, 517526.
  • Gifford, R. M. & Thorne, J. H. (1985). Sucrose concentration at the apoplastic interface between seed coat and cotyledons of developing soybean seeds. Plant Physiology 77, 863868.
  • Gifford, R. M. & Thorne, J. H. (1986). Phloem unloading in soybean seed coats: dynamics and stability of efflux into attached ‘empty ovules’. Plant Physiology 80, 464469.
  • Gifford, R. M., Thorne, J. H., Hitz, W. D. & Giaquinta, R. T. (1984). Crop productivity and photoassimilate partitioning. Science 225, 801808.
  • Glasziou, K. T. & Gayler, K. R. (1972). Storage of sugars in stalks of sugarcane. Botanical Review 38, 471490.
  • Goldsworthy, P. R. (1970). The sources of assimilate for grain development in tall and short Sorghum. Journal of Agricultural Science 74, 523531.
  • Gordon, A. J., Ryle, G. J. A. & Webb, G. (1980). The relationship between sucrose and starch during dark export from leaves of uniculm barley. Journal of Experimental Botany 31, 845856.
  • Grange, R. I. (1984). The extent of starch turnover in mature pepper leaves in the light. Annals of Botany 54, 289291.
  • Grange, R. I. (1985). Carbon partitioning and export in mature leaves of pepper (Capsicum annuum). Journal of Experimental Botany 36, 734744.
  • Grusak, M. A. & Minchin, P. E. H. (1988). Seed coat unloading in Pisum sativum - osmotic effects in attached versus excised empty ovules. Journal of Experimental botany 39, 543559.
  • Gunning, B. E. S. (1976). The role of plasmodesmata in short distance transport to and from the phloem. In: Intercellular Communication in Plants: Studies on Plasmodesmata (Ed. by B. E. S.Gunning & A. W.Robards), pp. 203227. Springer-Verlag, Berlin .
  • Gunning, B. E. S., Pate, J. S., Minchin, F. R. & Marks, I. (1974). Quantitative aspects of transfer cell structure in relation to vein loading in leaves and solute transport in legume nodules. In: Transport at the Cellular Level. Symposia of the Society of Experimental Biology XXVIII, pp. 87126. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge .
  • Hackett, C. (1973). An exploration of the carbon economy of the tobacco plant. I. Inferences from a simulation. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 26, 10571071.
  • Hall, A. J. & Milthorpe, F. L. (1978). Assimilate source-sink relationships in Capsicum annuum L. III. The effect of fruit excision on photosynthesis and leaf and stem carbohydrates. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 5, 113.
  • Hansen, P. (1977). Carbohydrate allocation. In: Environmental Effects on Crop Physiology (Ed. By J. J.Landsberg & C. V.Cutting), pp. 247258. Academic Press, London .
  • Hanson, W. D. (1986). Rates of sucrose release from opened seed coats of soybean as affected by genotypes: Relation with rate of seed development. Crop Science 26, 301307.
  • Hanson, W. D. (1988). Analysis of differences in sink activity among soybean genotypes based on dry matter accumulation rates per unit seed coat area. Crop Science 28, 830834.
  • Harrison, M. A. & Kaufman, P. B. (1980). Hormonal regulation of lateral bud (tiller) release in oats (Avena sativa L.). Plant Physiology 66, 11231127.
  • Harrison, S. A., Boerma, H. R. & Ashley, D. A. (1981). Heritability of canopy apparent photosynthesis and its relationship to seed yield in soybeans. Crop Science 21, 222226.
  • Hatch, M. D. (1978). Regulation of enzymes in C4 photosynthesis. Current Topics in Cellular Regulation 14, 127.
  • Hatch, M. D. (1987). C4 photosynthesis: a unique blend of modified biochemistry, anatomy and ultrastructure. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 895, 81106.
  • Hatch, M. D. & Glasziou, K. T. (1963). Sugar accumulation cycle in sugarcane. II. Relationship of invertase activity to sugar content and growth rate in storage tissue of plants grown in controlled environments. Plant Physiology 38, 344348.
  • Hayashi, H., Midorikawa, B. & Hogetsu, K. (1967). A study on the efficiency of conversion of reserve substance to active plant body (economic ratio) in the initial stage of growth of potato tuber and rice seed. Japanese Journal of Ecology 17, 1320.
  • Hayes, P. M., Offler, C. E. & Patrick, J. W. (1985). Cellular structures, plasma membrane surface areas and plasmodesmatal frequencies of the stem of Phaseolus vulgaris L. in relation to radial photosynthate transfer. Annals of Botany 56, 125138.
  • Hedley, C. L. & Ambrose, M. J. (1980). An analysis of seed development in Pisum sativum L. Annals of Botany 46, 89105.
  • Hedley, C. L. & Ambrose, M. J. (1981). Designing ‘leafless’ plants for improving yields of the dried pea crop. Advances in Agronomy 34, 225277.
  • Hendrix, D. L. & Huber, S. C. (1986). Diurnal fluctuations in cotton leaf carbon export, carbohydrate content, and sucrose synthesising enzymes. Plant Physiology 81, 584586.
  • Hendrix, J. E. (1985). Partitioning of sucrose into fructans in winter wheat stems. In: Regulation of Carbon Partitioning in Photosynthetic Tissue (Ed. by R. L.Heath & J.Preiss), pp. 273288. American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville , USA .
  • Herold, A. (1980). Regulation of photosynthesis by sink activity - the missing link. New Phytologist 86, 131144.
  • Herzog, H. (1982). Relation of source and sink during grain filling period in wheat and some aspects of its regulation. Physiologia Plantarum 56, 155160.
  • Hewitt, J. D., Casey, L. L. & Zobel, R. W. (1985). Effect of daylength and night temperature on starch accumulation and degradation in soybean. Annals of Botany 56, 513522.
  • Heyser, W. (1970). Das phloem von Tradescantia albiflora. I. Lichtmiscroskopische Untersuchungen. Flora 159, 286309.
  • Ho, L. C. (1976a). The relationship between rates of carbon transport and of photosynthesis in tomato leaves. Journal of Experimental Botany 27, 8797.
  • Ho, L. C. (1976b). The effect of current photosynthesis on the origin of translocates in old tomato leaves. Annals of Botany 40, 11531162.
  • Ho, L. C. (1978). The regulation of carbon transport and the carbon balance of mature tomato leaves. Annals of Botany 42, 155164.
  • Ho, L. C. & Gifford, R. M. (1984). Accumulation and conversion of sugars by developing wheat grains. V. The endosperm apoplast and apoplastic transport. Journal of Experimental Botany 35, 5873.
  • Ho, L. C. & Shaw, A. F. (1977). Carbon economy and translocation of 14CO2 in leaflets of the seventh leaf of tomato during leaf expansion. Annals of Botany 41, 833848.
  • Hofstra, G. & Nelson, C. D. (1969). The translocation of photosynthetically assimilated 14C in corn. Canadian Journal of Botany 47, 14351442.
  • Hole, C. C. & Scott, P. A. (1981). The effect of fruit shading on yield in Pisum sativum L. Annals of Botany 48, 827835.
  • Housley, T. L. & Peterson, D. M. (1982). Oat stem vascular size in relation to kernel number and weight. I. Controlled environment. Crop Science 22, 259263.
  • Hozyo, Y. & Park, C. Y. (1971). Plant production in grafting plants between wild type and improved variety in Ipomoea. Bulletin of the National Institute of Agricultural Science (Japan) D·22, 145164.
  • Huber, A. G. & Grabe, D. F. (1987) Endosperm morphogenesis in wheat: termination of nuclear division. Crop Science 27, 12521256.
  • Huber, S. C., Rogers, H. & Israel, D. W. (1984a). Effects of CO2 enrichment on photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) leaves. Physiologia Plantarum 62, 95101.
  • Huber, S. C., Rufty, T. W. & Kerr, P. S. (1984b). Effect of photoperiod on photosynthate partitioning and diurnal rhythms in sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L. [Merr.] and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Plant Physiology 75, 10801084.
  • Huber, S. C., Sugiyama, T. & Alberte, R. S. (1989). Photosynthetic determinants of growth in maize plants: Effects of nitrogen nutrition on growth carbon fixation and photochemical features. Plant Cell Physiology 30, 10631072.
  • Huff, A. & Dybing, D. (1980). Factors affecting shedding of flowers in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]. Journal of Experimental Botany 31, 751762.
  • Hume, D. J. & Campbell, D. K. (1972). Accumulation and translocation of soluble solids in corn stalks. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 52, 363368.
  • Imai, K., Coleman, D. F. & Yanagisawa, T. (1985). Increase in atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide and growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Japanese Journal of Crop Science 54, 413418.
  • Inanaga S., Kumura, A. & Murata, Y. (1979). Studies on matter production of rape plant (Brassica napus L.) II. Photosynthesis and matter production of pods. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 48, 260264.
  • Isebrands, J. G. & Larson, P. R. (1973). Anatomical changes during leaf ontogeny in Populus deltoides. American Journal of Botany 60, 199208.
  • Izquierdo, J. A. & Hosfield, G. L. (1983). The relationship of seed filling to yield among dry beans with differing architectural forms. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 108, 106111.
  • Jacobs, W. P. & Morrow, I. B. (1958). Quantitative relationships between stages of leaf development and differentiation of sieve tubes. Science 128, 1084.
  • Jenner, C. F. (1970). Relationship between levels of soluble carbohydrate and starch synthesis in detached ears of wheat. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 23, 9911003.
  • Jenner, C. F. (1976) Wheat grains and spinach leaves as accumulators of starch. In: Transport and Transfer Processes in Plants (Ed. by I. F.Wardlaw & J. B.Passioura), pp. 7383. Academic Press, New York .
  • Jones, M. G. K. (1976). Movement of solutes from host to parasite in nematode infected roots. In: Transport and Transfer Processes in Plants (Ed. I. F.Wardlaw & J. B.Passioura), pp. 6571. Academic Press, New York .
  • Kallarackal, J. & Milburn, J. A. (1984). Specific mass transfer and sink-controlled phloem translocation in castor bean. Australian Journal Plant Physiology 11, 483490.
  • Kalt-Torres, W., Kerr, P. S., Usuda, H. & Huber, S. C. (1987). Diurnal changes in maize leaf photosynthesis. I. Carbon exchange rate, assimilate export rate, and enzyme activities Plant Physiology 83, 283288.
  • Kawahara, H., Chonan, N. & Matsuda, T. (1974). Studies on morphogenesis in rice plants. 7. The morphology of vascular bundles in the vegetative nodes of the culm. Proceedings of the Crop Science Society of Japan 43, 389401.
  • Kawamitsu, Y., Hakoyama, S., Agata, W. & Takeda, T. (1985). Leaf interveinal distances corresponding to anatomical types in grasses. Plant Cell Physiology 26, 589593.
  • Keeling, P. L., Wood, J. R., Tyson, R. H. & Bridges, I. G. (1988). Starch biosynthesis in developing wheat grain. Evidence against the direct involvement of triose phosphates in the metabolic pathway. Plant Physiology 87, 311319.
  • Keener, M. E., Demichele, D. W. & Sharpe, P. J. H. (1979). Sink metabolism: a conceptual framework for analysis. Annals of Botany 44, 659669.
  • Kerr, P. S., Rufty, T. W. J r. & Huber, S. C. (1985). Changes in nonstructural carbohydrates in different parts of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) plants during a light dark cycle and in extended darkness. Plant Physiology 78, 576581.
  • Khan, A. A. & Sagar, G. R. (1967). Translocation in tomato: the distribution of the products of photosynthesis of the leaves of a tomato plant during the phase of fruit production. Horticultural Research 7, 6169.
  • Khan, M. A. & Tsunoda, S. (1970). Leaf photosynthesis and transpiration under different levels of air flow rate and light intensity in cultivated wheat species and its wild relatives. Japanese Journal of Plant Breeding 20, 305314.
  • Kienholz, R. (1934). Leader, needle, cambial and root growth of certain conifers and their relationships. Botanical Gazette 96, 7392.
  • King, R. W., Wardlaw, I. F. & Evans, L. T. (1967). Effect of assimilate utilization on photosynthetic rate in wheat. Planta 77, 261276.
  • Kirshin, I. K. (1962). On the problem of intercalary growth of leaf in grasses. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 142, 474477 (translation, pp. 191–193).
  • Koch, K. E. & Johnson, C. R. (1984). Photosynthate partitioning in split-root citrus seedlings with mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root systems. Plant Physiology 75, 2630.
  • Koch, K. E., Jones, P. H., Avigne, W. T. & Allen, L. H. Jr. (1986). Growth, dry matter partitioning, and diurnal activities of RuBP carboxylase in citrus seedlings maintained at two levels of CO2. Physiologia Plantarum 67, 477484.
  • Kokubun, M. & Watanabe, K. (1983). Analysis of the yield-determining process of field-grown soybeans in relation to canopy structure. VII. Effects of source and sink manipulations during reproductive growth on yield and yield components. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 52, 215219.
  • Kozlowski, T. T. (1971). Growth and Development of Trees, vol. II, Cambial Growth, Root Growth and Reproductive Growth. Academic Press, New York .
  • Kozlowski, T. T. & Keller, T. (1966). Food relations of woody plants. Botanical Review 32, 293382.
  • Kozlowski, T. T. & Winget, C. H. (1964). The role of reserves in leaves, stems and root on shoot growth of red pine. American Journal of Botany 51, 522529.
  • Kriedemann, P. E. (1970). The distribution of 14C-labelled assimilates in mature lemon trees. Australian Journal of Agriculture Research 21, 623632.
  • Krueger, K. W. & Trappe, J. M. (1967). Food reserves and seasonal growth of Douglas-fir seedlings. Forest Science 13, 192202.
  • Kruger, N. J., Bulpin, P. V. & ap Rees, T. (1983). The extent of starch degradation in the light in pea leaves. Planta 157, 271273.
  • Kühbauch, W. & Thome, U. (1989). Nonstructural carbohydrates of wheat stems as influenced by sink-source manipulations. Journal of Plant Physiology 134, 243250.
  • Kuo, J., O'Brien, T. P. & Zee, S. Y. (1972). The transverse veins of the wheat leaf. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 25, 721737.
  • Labhart, C. H., Nösberger, J. & Nelson, C. J. (1983). Photosynthesis and degree of polymerization of fructan during reproductive growth of meadow fescue at two temperatures and two photon flux densities. Journal of Experimental Botany 34, 10371046.
  • Lafitte, H. R. & Travis, R. L. (1984). Photosynthesis and assimilate partitioning in closely related lines of rice exhibiting different sink:source relationships. Crop Science 24, 447452.
  • Larson, P. R. (1964) Contribution of different aged needles to growth and wood formation of young red pines. Forest Science 10, 224238.
  • Larson, P. R. (1977). Phyllotactic transitions in the vascular system of Populus deltoides Bartr. as determined by 14C-labelling. Planta 134, 241249.
  • Larson, P. R., Isebrands, J. G. & Dickson, R. E. (1972). Fixation patterns of 14C within developing leaves of eastern cottonwood. Planta 107, 301314.
  • Lauer, M. J. & Shibles, R. (1987). Soybean leaf photosynthetic response to changing sink demand. Crop Science 27, 11971201.
  • LIN, W. (1985). Energetics of sucrose transport into protoplasts from developing soybean cotyledons. Plant Physiology 78, 4145.
  • Lucas, W. J. & Madore, M. A. (1988). Recent advances in sugar transport. In: The Biochemistry of Plants, Vol. 14, Carbohydrates (Ed. by J.Preiss), pp. 3584. Academic Press, New York .
  • Lush, W. M. (1976). Leaf structure and translocation of dry matter in a C3 and C4 grass. Planta 130, 235244.
  • Lush, W. M. & Evans, L. T. (1974). Translocation of photosynthetic assimilate from grass leaves as influenced by environment and species. Australian Journal Plant Physiology 1, 417431.
  • Lyne, R. L. & ap Rees, T. (1971). Invertase and sugar content during differentiation of roots of Pisum sativum. Phytochemistry 10, 25932599.
  • Madore, M. & Webb, J. A. (1981). Leaf free space analysis and vein loading in Cucurbita pepo. Canadian Journal of Botany 59, 25502557.
  • Maggs, D. H. (1963). The reduction in growth of apple trees brought about by fruiting. Journal of Horticultural Science 38, 119128.
  • Malek, F. & Baker, D. A. (1977). Proton co-transport of sugars in phloem loading. Planta 135, 297299.
  • Martin, P. (1982). Stem xylem as a possible pathway for mineral retranslocation from senescing leaves to the ear in wheat. Australian Journal Plant Physiology 9, 197207.
  • Martinez-Carrasco, R., Perez, P., Molino, I. M. D., Ulloa, M. & Rojo, B. (1988). Regulation of grain weight by supply of assimilates and starch granule development in three winter wheat varieties. Journal of Experimental Botany 39, 17231733.
  • Mason, T. G. & Maskell, E. J. (1928). Studies on the transport of carbohydrates in the cotton plant. II. The factors determining the rate and direction of movement of sugars. Annals of Botany 42, 571636.
  • Matsushima, S. (1970). Crop Science in Rice. Theory of Yield Determination and its Application. Fuji Publishing Co., Tokyo .
  • Mauney, J. R., Fry, K. E. & Guinn, G. (1978). Relationship of photosynthetic rate to growth and fruiting of cotton, soybean, sorghum and sunflower. Crop Science 18, 259263.
  • Mcalister, D. F. & Krober, O. A. (1958). Response of soybeans to leaf and pod removal. Agronomy Journal 50, 674677.
  • McPherson, H. G. & Boyer, J. S. (1977). Regulation of grain yield by photosynthesis in maize subjected to a water deficiency. Agronomy Journal 69, 714718.
  • Meynhardt, J. T. & Malan, A. H. (1963). Translocation of sugars in double-stem grape vines. South African Journal of Agricultural Science 6, 337338.
  • Michael, G. (1980). The role of hormones in yield formation. In: Physiological Aspects of Crop Productivity, pp. 85115. Proceedings of the 15th Colloquium of the International Potash Institute, Bern.
  • Milburn, J. A. & Zimmermann, M. H. (1977). Preliminary studies on sap flow in Cocos nucifera L. III. Phloem transport. New Phytologist 79, 543558.
  • Millet, E. (1986). Relationships between grain weight and the size of floret cavity in the wheat spike. Annals of Botany 58, 417423.
  • Millhollon, E. P. & Williams, L. E. (1986). Carbohydrate partitioning and the capacity of apparent nitrogen fixation of soybean plants grown outdoors. Plant Physiology 81, 280284.
  • Milthorpe, F. L. & Moorby, J. (1969). Vascular transport and its significance in plant growth. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 20, 117138.
  • Minchin, P. E. H. & Thorpe, M. R. (1987). Measurement of unloading and reloading of photo-assimilate within the stem of bean. Journal of Experimental Botany 38, 211220.
  • Minchin, P. E. H. & Thorpe, M. R. (1989). Carbon partitioning to whole versus surgically modified ovules of pea: an application of the in vivo measurement of carbon flows over many hours using the short-lived isotope carbon-11. Journal of Experimental Botany 40, 781787.
  • Mochizuki, T. (1962). Studies on the elucidation of factors affecting the decline in tree vigour in apples as induced by fruit load. Bulletin of Forestry and Agriculture Hirosaki University 8, 40124.
  • Morris, D. A & Arthur, E. D. (1984). An association between acid invertase activity and cell growth during leaf expansion in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Journal of Experimental Botany 35, 13691379.
  • Morris, D. A. & Arthur, E. D. (1985). Invertase activity, carbohydrate metabolism and cell expansion in the stem of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Journal of Experimental Botany 36, 623633.
  • Mullen, J. A. & Koller, H. R. (1988). Trends in carbohydrate depletion, respiratory carbon loss, and assimilate export from soybean leaves at night. Plant Physiology 86, 517521.
  • Munns, R. (1988). Why measure osmotic adjustment Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 15, 717726.
  • Murray, D. R. (1987). Nutritive role of seedcoats in developing legume seeds. American Journal of Botany 74, 11221137.
  • Nakamoto, T. & Yamazaki, K. (1988a). Quantitative relationships among vegetative organs and their conductive tissues in several millets. II. Quantitative observation of conductive tissues in leaves. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 57, 482489.
  • Nakamoto, T. & Yamazaki, K. (1988b). Quantitative relationships among vegetative organs and their conductive tissues in several millets. III. Quantitative observation of conducting tissues in primary roots. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 57, 490495.
  • Neales, T. F. & Incoll, L. D. (1968). The control of leaf photosynthesis rate by the level of assimilate concentration in the leaf: a review of the hypothesis. Botanical Review 34, 107125.
  • Nonami, H. & Boyer, J. S. (1987). Origin of growth-induced water potential. Solute concentration is low in apoplast of enlarging tissues. Plant Physiology 83, 596601.
  • Nösberger, J. & Humphries, E. C. (1965). The influence of removing tubers on dry-matter production and net assimilation rate of potato plants. Annals of Botany 29, 579588.
  • Oberbauer, S. F., Strain, B. R. & Fetcher, N. (1985). Effect of CO2-enrichment on seedling physiology and growth of two tropical tree species. Physiologia Plantarum 65, 352356.
  • Offler, C. E., Nerlich, S. M. & Patrick, J. W. (1989). Pathway of photosynthate transfer in the developing seed of Vicia faba L. Transfer in relation to seed anatomy. Journal of Experimental Botany 40, 769780.
  • Offler, C. E. & Patrick, J. W. (1984). Cellular structures, plasma-membrane surface areas and plasmodesmatal frequencies of seed coats of Phaseolus vulgaris L. in relation to photosynthate transfer. Australian Journal Plant Physiology 11, 7999.
  • Ohsugi, R. & Huber, S. C. (1987). Light modulation and localization of sucrose phosphate synthase activity between mesophyll cells and bundle sheath cells in C4 species. Plant Physiology 84, 10961101.
  • Oparka, K. J. (1986). Phloem unloading in the potato tuber. Pathway and sites of ATPase. Protoplasma 131, 201210.
  • Oparka, K. J. & Davies, H. V. (1985). Translocation of assimilates within and between potato stems. Annals of Botany 56, 4554.
  • Oworu, O. O., McDavid, C. R. & Maccoll, D. (1977). The anatomy of the storage tissue of sugar-cane in relation to sugar uptake. Annals of Botany 41, 401404.
  • Palit, P. (1985). Translocation and distribution of 14C-labelled assimilate associated with growth of jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) Australian Journal Plant Physiology 12, 527534.
  • Parthasarathy, M. V. (1974). Ultrastructure of phloem in palms. III. Mature phloem. Protoplasma 79, 265313.
  • Passioura, J. B. & Ashford, A. E. (1974). Rapid translocation in the phloem of wheat roots. Australian Journal Plant Physiology 1, 521527.
  • Pate, J. S. & Herridge, D. F. (1978). Partitioning and utilization of net photosynthate in a nodulated annual legume. Journal of Experimental Botany 29, 401412.
  • Patrick, J. W. (1972). Distribution of assimilate during stem elongation in wheat. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 25, 455467.
  • Patrick, J. W. (1990). Sieve element unloading: cellular pathway, mechanism and control. Physiologia Plantarum 78, 298308.
  • Patrick, J. W. & McDonald, R. (1980). Pathway of carbon transport within developing ovules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 7, 671684.
  • Patrick, J. W. & Wardlaw, I. F. (1984). Vascular control of photosynthate transfer from the flag leaf to the ear of wheat. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 11, 235241.
  • Pechan, P. M. & Webster, B. D. (1986). Seed and pod set of red kidney beans. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 111, 8789.
  • Peel, A. J. (1964). Tangential movement of 14C-labelled assimilates in stems of willow. Journal of Experimental Botany 15, 104113.
  • Peel, A. J. & Ho, L. C. (1970). Colony size of Tuberolachnus salignus (Gmelin) in relation to mass transport of 14C-labelled assimilates from the leaves in willow. Physiologia Plantarum 23, 10331038.
  • Peel, A. J. & Weatherley, P. E. (1962). Studies in sieve tube exudation through aphid mouth parts. I. The effects of light and girdling. Annals of Botany 26, 633646.
  • Peet, M. M., Bravo, A., Wallace, D. H. & Ozbun, J. L. (1977). Photosynthesis, stomatal resistance, and enzyme activities in relation to yield of field grown dry bean varieties. Crop Science 17, 287293.
  • Pendleton, J. W., Smith G. E., Winter, S. R. & Johnston, T. J. (1968). Field investigations of the relationship of leaf angle in corn (Zea mays L.) to grain yield and apparent photosynthesis. Agronomy Journal 60, 422424.
  • Penning De Vries, F. W. T. (1975) Use of assimilates in higher plants. In: Photosynthesis and Productivity in Different Environments (Ed. by J. P.Cooper), pp. 459480. Cambridge University Press.
  • Percival, J. (1921). The Wheat Plant. Duckworth, London .
  • Perry, M. W. & D'Antuono, M. F. (1989). Yield improvement and associated characteristics of some Australian spring wheat cultivars introduced between 1860 and 1982. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 40, 457472.
  • Peterson, D. M., Housley, T. L. & Luk, T. M. (1982). Oat stem vascular size in relation to kernel number and weight. II. Field environment. Crop Science 22, 274278.
  • Poorter, H., POT, S. & Lambers, H. (1988). The effect of an elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on growth, photosynthesis and respiration of Plantago major. Physiologia Plantarum 73, 553559.
  • Prendergast, H. D. V., Hattersley, P. W. & Stone, N. E. (1987). New structural/biochemical associations in leaf blades of C4 grasses (Poaceae). Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 14, 403420.
  • Porter, H. K., Martin, R. V. & Bird, I. F. (1959). Synthesis and dissolution of starch labelled with carbon in tobacco leaf tissue. Journal of Experimental Botany 10, 264276.
  • Poskuta, J. W., Dropkin, V. H. & Nelson, C. J. (1986). Photosynthesis, photorespiration and respiration of soybean after infection with root nematodes. Photosynthetica 20, 405410.
  • Preiss, J. (1982). Regulation of the biosynthesis and degradation of starch. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 33, 431454.
  • Priestley, C. A. (1964) The importance of autumn foliage to carbohydrate status and root growth of apple trees. Annual Report of the East Mailing Research Station 1963, 104106.
  • Priestley, C. A. (1970). Carbohydrate storage and utilization. In: The Physiology of Tree Crops (Ed. by L. C.Luckwill & C. V.Cutting), pp. 113127. Academic Press, New York .
  • Prokofyev, A. A., Zhdanova, L. P. & Sobolev, A. M. (1957). Certain regularities in the flow of substances from leaves into reproductive organs. Fiziologia Rastenii 4, 425431.
  • Radley, M. (1978). Factors affecting grain enlargement in wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany 29, 919934.
  • Rao, M. & Terry, N. (1989). Leaf phosphate status, photosynthesis, and carbon partitioning in sugar beet. I. Changes in growth, gas exchange and Calvin cycle enzymes. Plant Physiology 90, 814819.
  • Rawson, H. M. & Evans, L. T. (1970). The pattern of grain growth within the ear of wheat. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 23, 753764.
  • Rawson, H. M. & Evans, L. T. (1971). The contribution of stem reserves to grain development in a range of wheat cultivars of different height. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 22, 851863.
  • Rawson, H. M. & Hackett, C. (1974). An exploration of the carbon economy of the tobacco plant. III. Gas exchange of leaves in relation to position on the stem, ontogeny and nitrogen content. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 1, 551560.
  • Rawson, H. M., Hindmarsh, J. H., Fischer, R. A. & Stockman, Y. (1983). Changes in leaf photosynthesis with plant ontogeny and relationships with yield per ear in wheat cultivars and 120 progeny. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 10, 503514.
  • Rawson, H. M. & Hofstra, G. (1969). Translocation and remobilization of 14C assimilated at different stages by each leaf of the wheat plant. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 22, 321331.
  • Reed, A. J., Singletary, G. W., Schussler, J. R., Williamson, D. R. & Christy, A. L. (1988). Shading effects on dry matter and nitrogen partitioning, kernel number and yield of maize. Crop Science 28, 819825.
  • Richards, J. H., Mueller, R. J. & Mott, J. J. (1988). Tillering in tussock grasses in relation to defoliation and apical bud removal. Annals of Botany 62, 173179.
  • Richardson, P. T., Baker, D. A. & Ho, L. C. (1982). The chemical composition of cucurbit vascular exudates. Journal of Experimental Botany 33, 12391247.
  • Rijven, A. H. G. C. & Gifford, R. M. (1983). Accumulation and conversion of sugars by developing wheat grains. 3. Non-diffusional uptake of sucrose, the substrate preferred by endosperm slices. Plant Cell and Environment 6, 417425.
  • Robbins, N. S. & Pharr, D. M. (1987). Regulation of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in cucumber by light intensity and photosynthetic period. Plant Physiology 85, 592597.
  • Rocher, J.-P. & Prioul, J.-L. (1987). Compartmental analysis of assimilate export in a mature maize leaf. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 25, 531540.
  • Rufty, T. W. Jr., Raper, C. D. Jr. & Huber, S. C. (1984). Alterations in internal partitioning of carbon in soybean plants in response to nitrogen stress. Canadian Journal of Botany 62, 501508.
  • Russell, C. R. & Morris, D. A. (1983). Patterns of assimilate distribution and source-sink relationships in the young reproductive tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Annals of Botany 52, 357363.
  • Sachs, T. (1975). Induction of transport channels by auxin. Planta 127, 201206.
  • Saitoh, K., Shimoda, H. & Ishihara, K. (1990). Characteristics of dry matter production process in high yielding rice varieties. I. Canopy structure and light intercepting characteristics. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 59, 130139.
  • Sakai, T. & Hayashi, K. (1973). Studies on the distribution of starchy and sugary leaves in monocotyledonous plants. Botanical Magazine, Tokyo 86, 1325.
  • Sakri, F. A. K. & Shannon, J. C. (1975). Movement of 14C-labelled sugars into kernels of wheat. Plant Physiology 55, 881889.
  • Sanders, T. H., Ashley, D. A. & Brown, R. H. (1977). Effects of partial defoliation on petiole phloem area, photosynthesis, and 14C translocation in developing soybean leaves. Crop Science 17, 548550.
  • Satoh, M. & Ohyama, K. (1976). Studies on photosynthesis and translocation of photosynthate in mulberry tree. V. Utilisation of reserve substance in the process of regrowth after shoot pruning in a growing season. Proceedings of the Crop Science Society of Japan 45, 5156.
  • Sauter, J. J. (1966). Untersuchungen zur Physiologie der Pappelholzstrahlen. I. Jahresperiodischer Verlauf der Starkespeicherung im Holzstrahlparenchym. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenpysiologie 55, 246258.
  • Sauter, J. J. (1972). Respiratory and phosphatase activities in contact cells of wood rays and their possible role in sugar secretion. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenpysiologie 67, 135145.
  • Sauter, J. J. & Ambrosius, T. (1986). Changes in the partitioning of carbohydrates in the wood during bud break in Betula pendula Roth. Journal of Plant Physiology 124, 3143.
  • Sauter, J. J., Iten, W. & Zimmermann, M. H. (1973). Studies on the release of sugar into the vessels of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Canadian Journal of Botany 51, 18.
  • Sawada, S., Hasegawa, Y., Kasai, M. & Sasaki, M. (1989). Photosynthetic electron transport and carbon metabolism during altered source–sink balance in single rooted soybean leaves. Plant and Cell Physiology 30, 691698.
  • Schacherer, A. & Beringer, H. (1984). Zahl und Größe von Endospermzellen in wachsenden Getreidekorn als Indikator der Speicherkapazität. Berichte Deutsche Botanische Gesellschaft 97, 183195.
  • Schaffer, A. A., Sagee, O., Goldschmidt, E. E. & Goren, R. (1987). Invertase and sucrose synthase activity, carbohydrate status and endogenous IAA levels during Citrus leaf development. Physiologia Plantarum 69, 151155.
  • Schmalstig, J. G. & Geiger, D. R. (1985). Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet. I. Evidence for pathway through the symplast. Plant Physiology 79, 237241.
  • Schmitz, K. (1970). Der autoradiographische Nachweis tritiierter wasserloslicher Substanzen in den Siebrohren von Cucurbita und Cucumis. Planta 91, 96110.
  • Schmitz, K., Cuypers, B. & Moll, M. (1987). Pathway of assimilate transfer between mesophyll cells and minor veins in leaves of Cucumis melo L. Planta 171, 1929.
  • Schmitz, K. & Willenbrink, J. (1967). Histoautoradiographischer Nachweis 14C-markierter assimilate im Phloem. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenphysiologie 58, 97107.
  • Schussler, J. R., Brenner, M. L. & Brun, W. A. (1984). Abscisic acid and its relationship to seed filling in soybeans. Plant Physiology 76, 301306.
  • Seddigh, M. & Jolliff, G. D. (1984). Physiological responses of field-grown soybean leaves to increased reproductive load induced by elevated night temperatures. Crop Science 24, 952957.
  • Segovia, A. J. & Brown, R. H. (1978). Relationship of phloem size to leaf size and position. Crop Science 18, 9093.
  • Selga, M., Vitola, A., Kristkalne, S. & Gubar, G. D. (1983). Accumulation of photosynthates in chloroplasts under various irradiances and mineral nutrition of cucumber plants. Photosynthetica 17, 171175.
  • Seo, S. W. & Ota, Y. (1982). Role of the hull in the ripening of rice plant. IV. Morphological relationship between hull and kernel among grains with a different degree of ripening. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 51, 354359.
  • Servaites, J. C., Fondy, B. R., LI, B. & Geiger, D. R. (1989). Sources of carbon for export from spinach leaves throughout the day. Plant Physiology 90, 11681174.
  • Sharp, R. E. & Davies, W. J. (1985). Root growth and water uptake by maize plants in drying soil. Journal of Experimental Botany 36, 14411456.
  • Sheldrake, A. R. (1979). A hydrodynamical model of pod-set in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 22, 137143.
  • Shibles, R. M. & Weber, C. R. (1965). Leaf area, solar radiation interception and dry matter production by soybeans. Crop Science 5, 575577.
  • Shibles, R. M. & Weber, C. R. (1966). Interception of solar radiation and dry matter production by various soybean planting patterns. Crop Science 6, 5559.
  • Siddique, K. H. M., Belford, R. K., Perry, M. W. & Tennant, D. (1989). Growth, development and light interception of old and modern wheat cultivars in a Mediterranean type environment. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 40, 473487.
  • Silvius, J. E., Kremer, D. F. & Lee, D. R. (1978). Carbon assimilation and translocation in soybean leaves at different stages of development. Plant Physiology 62, 5458.
  • Simmons, S. R. & Crookston, R. K. (1979). Rate and duration of growth of kernels formed at specific florets in spikelets of spring wheat. Crop Science 19, 690693.
  • Singh, B. K. & Jenner, C. F. (1982). Association between concentrations of organic nutrients in the grain, endosperm cell number and grain dry weight within the ear of wheat. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 9, 8395.
  • Singh, B. K. & Jenner, C. F. (1984). Factors controlling endosperm cell number and grain dry weight in wheat: Effects of shading on intact plants and of variation in nutritional supply to detached, cultured ears. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 11, 151163.
  • Singh, B. K. & Pandey, R. K. (1980). Production and distribution of assimilate in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 7, 727735.
  • Skene, K. G. M. & Carr, D. J. (1961). A quantitative study of the gibberellin content of seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris at different stages in their development. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 14, 1325.
  • Sofield, I., Evans, L. T., Cook, M. G. & Wardlaw, I. F. (1977). Factors influencing the rate and duration of grain filling in wheat. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 4, 785797.
  • Spiertz, J. H. J., Hag, A. Ten, & Kupers, L. J. P. (1971). Relation between green area duration and grain yield in some varieties of spring wheat. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 19, 211222.
  • Starck, Z. (1969). Pattern of 14C-assimilate distribution in relation to their supply and demand in bean plants. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 38, 583600.
  • Starck, Z. (1971). Pattern of 14C-assimilate distribution in relation to their supply and demand in sunflower. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 40, 653667.
  • Starck, Z. & Ubysz, L. (1974). Effect of limited supply of assimilates on the relationships between their sources and acceptors. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniaeh 43, 427445.
  • Steveninck, R. F. M. Van (1957). Factors affecting the abscission of reproductive organs in yellow lupins (Lupinus luteus L.). The effect of different patterns of flower removal. Journal of Experimental Botany 8, 373381.
  • Stitt, M. & Heldt, H. W. (1981). Simultaneous synthesis and degradation of starch in spinach chloroplasts in the light. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 638, 111.
  • Stitt, M., Huber, S. & Kerr, P. (1987). Control of photosynthetic sucrose formation. In: Photosynthesis (Ed. by M. D.Hatch & N. K.Boardman), The Biochemistry of plants, vol. 10, pp. 327409. Academic Press.
  • Stoy, V. & Hagberg, A. (1967). Effects of growth regulators on ear density mutants in barley. Hereditas 58, 359384.
  • Sung, S-J. S., Zu, D-P. & Black, C. C. (1989). Identification of actively filling sucrose sinks. Plant Physiology 89, 11171121.
  • Terry, N. & Mortimer, D. C. (1972). Estimation of the rates of mass carbon transfer by leaves of sugar beet. Canadian Journal of Botany 50, 10491054.
  • Thorne, J. H. (1980). Kinetics of 14C-photosynthate uptake by developing soybean fruit. Plant Physiology 65, 975979.
  • Thorne, J. H. (1981). Morphology and ultrastructure of maternal seed tissue of soybean in relation to the import of photosynthate. Plant Physiology 67, 10161025.
  • Thorne, J. H. (1982). Characterization of the active sucrose transport system of immature soybean embryos. Plant Physiology 70, 953958.
  • Thorpe, M. R. & Minchin, P. E. (1988). Phloem loading and transport of endogenously or exogenously labelled photo-assimilate in bean, beat, maize and cucurbit. Journal of Experimental Botany 39, 17091721.
  • Thrower, L. B. & Thrower, S. L. (1966). The effect of infection with Uromyces fabae on translocation in broad bean. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 57, 267276.
  • Timpa, J. A., Burke, J. J., Quisenberry, J. E. & Wendt, C. W. (1986). Effects of water stress on the organic acid and carbohydrate composition of cotton plants. Plant Physiology 82, 724728.
  • Tolley-Henry, L. & Raper, C. D. JR. (1986). Nitrogen and dry-matter partitioning in soybean plants during onset of and recovery from nitrogen stress. Botanical Gazette 147, 392399.
  • Trenbath, B. R. & Angus, J. F. (1975). Leaf inclination and crop production. Field Crop Abstracts 28, 231244.
  • Trip, P. (1969). Sugar transport in conducting elements of sugar beet leaves. Plant Physiology 44, 717725.
  • Tschaplinski, T. J. & Blake, T. J. (1989). The role of sink demand in carbon partitioning and photosynthetic reinvigoration following shoot decapitation. Physiologia Plantarum 75, 166173.
  • Turgeon, R. (1987). Phloem unloading in tobacco sink leaves: insensitivity to anoxia indicates a symplastic pathway. Planta 171, 7381.
  • Turgeon, R. (1989). The source-sink transition in leaves. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 40, 119138.
  • Turgeon, R. & Webb, J. A. (1975). Leaf development and phloem transport in Cucurbita pepo: carbon economy. Planta 123, 5362.
  • Tyson, R. H. & ap Rees, T. (1988). Starch synthesis by isolated amyloplasts from wheat endosperm. Planta 175, 3338.
  • Volenec, J. J. & Nelson, C. J. (1984). Carbohydrate metabolism in leaf meristems of tall fescue. I. Relationship to genetically altered leaf elongation rates. Plant Physiology 74, 590594.
  • Volkenburgh, E. Van. & Cleland, R. E. (1986). Wall yield threshold and effective turgor in growing bean leaves. Planta 167, 3743.
  • Wang, X-D. & Canny, M. J. (1985). Loading and translocation of assimilate in the fine veins of sunflower leaves. Plant Cell and Environment 8, 669685.
  • Wardlaw, I. F. (1967). The effect of water stress on translocation in relation to photosynthesis and growth. I. Effect during grain development in wheat. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 20, 2539.
  • Wardlaw, I. F. (1968). The control and pattern of movement of carbohydrates in plants. Botanical Review 34, 79105.
  • Wardlaw, I. F. (1972). Temperature and the translocation of photosynthate through the leaf of Lolium temulentum. Planta 104, 1834.
  • Wardlaw, I. F. (1974). Temperature control of translocation. In: Mechanisms of Regulation of Plant Growth (Ed. by R. L.Bieleski, A. R.Ferguson & M. M.Cresswell). Bulletin of the Royal Society of New Zealand 12, 533538.
  • Wardlaw, I. F. (1976). Assimilate movement in Lolium and Sorghum leaves. I. Irradiance effects on photosynthesis, export and the distribution of assimilates. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 3, 377387.
  • Wardlaw, I. F. (1980). Translocation and source-sink relationships. In: The Biology of Crop Productivity (Ed. by P. S.Carlson), pp. 297339. Academic Press, New York , London , Toronto , Sydney , San Francisco .
  • Wardlaw, I. F. (1982). Assimilate movement in Lolium and Sorghum leaves. III. Carbon dioxide concentration effects on the metabolism and translocation of photosynthate. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 9, 705713.
  • Wardlaw, I. F. (1985). The regulation of photosynthetic rate by sink demand. In: Regulation of Source and Sinks in Crop Plants (Ed. by B.Jeffcoat, A. F.Hawkins & A. D.Stead). British Plant Growth Regulator Group. Monograph 12, pp. 145162.
  • Wardlaw, I. F. (1987). The physiology and development of temperate cereals. In: Australian Field Crops. 1. Wheat and other Temperate Cereals, 2nd edn (Ed. by A.Lazenby & E. M.Matheson), pp. 5898. Angus & Robertson, Sydney .
  • Wardlaw, I. F. & Moncur, L. (1976). Source, sink and hormonal control of translocation in wheat. Planta 128, 93100.
  • Wardlaw, I. F. & Mortimer, D. C. (1970). Carbohydrate movement in pea plants in relation to axillary bud growth and vascular development. Canadian Journal of Botany 48, 229237.
  • Wardlaw, I. F. & Porter, H. K. (1967). The redistribution of stem sugars in wheat during grain development. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 20, 309318.
  • Webb, J. A. & Gorham, P. R. (1965). Radial movement of C14-translocates from squash phloem. Canadian Journal of Botany 43, 97103.
  • Whingwiri, E. E., Kuo, J. & Stern, W. R. (1981). The vascular system in the rachis of a wheat ear. Annals of Botany 48, 189201.
  • Wiebold, W. J., Ashley, D. A. & Boerma, H. R. (1981). Reproductive abscission levels and patterns for eleven determinate soybean cultivars. Agronomy Journal 73, 4346.
  • Williams, R. F. (1975). The shoot apex, leaf growth and crop production. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science 41, 1826.
  • Williams, R. F. & Metcalf, R. A. (1975). Physical constraints and tiller growth in wheat. Australian Journal of Botany 23, 213223.
  • Williams, R. F., Sharman, B. C. & Langer, R. H. M. (1975). Growth and development of the wheat tiller I Growth and form of the tiller bud. Australian Journal of Botany 23, 71543.
  • Wolswinkel, P. (1974a). Complete inhibition of setting and growth of fruits of Vicia faba L., resulting from the draining of the phloem system by Cuscuta species. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 23, 4860.
  • Wolswinkel, P. (1974). Enhanced rate of 14C-solute release to the free space by the phloem of Vicia faba stems parasitised by Cuscuta. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 23, 177188.
  • Wolswinkel, P. (1984). Phloem unloading and ‘sink strength’: the parallel between the site of attachment of Cuscuta and developing legume seeds. Plant Growth Regulation 2, 309317.
  • Wolswinkel, P. (1988). Nutrient transport into developing seeds I SI Atlas of Science. Plants and Animals 1, 298302.
  • Wolswinkel, P. & Ammerlaan, A. (1983). Phloem unloading in the developing seeds of Vicia faba L. The effect of several inhibitors on the release of sucrose and amino acids by the seed coat. Planta 158, 205215.
  • Wu, A. & Thrower, S. L. (1973). Translocation into mature leaves. Plant and Cell Physiology 14, 12251228.
  • Yamazaki, K. (1964). Studies on leaf formation in rice plants VI Some experiments revealing the role of process in leaf formation. Proceedings of the Crop Science Society of Japan 32, 237242.
  • Zee, S. Y. & O'Brien, T. P. (1970). A special type of trachery element associated with ‘xylem discontinuity’ in the floral axis of wheat. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 23, 783791.
  • Ziegler, H. (1964). Storage, mobilization and distribution of reserve materials in trees. In: The Formation of Wood in Forest Trees (Ed. by M. H.Zimmermann), pp. 303320. Academic Press, New York .
  • Ziegler, H. (1975). Nature of transported substances. In: Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, new series, vol. 1, Transport in plants. I. Phloem transport (Ed. by M. H.Zimmermann & J. A.Milburn), pp. 59100. Springer-Verlag, Berlin , Heidelberg , New York .
  • Ziegler-Jöns, A. (1989). Gas exchange of ears of cereals in response to carbon dioxide and light. I. Relative contributions of parts of the ears of wheat, oat and barley to the gas exchange of the whole organ. Planta 178, 8491.
  • Zimmermann, M. H. (1969). Translocation velocity and specific mass transfer in the sieve tubes of Fraxinus americana L. Planta 84, 272278.
  • Zimmermann, M. H. (1973). The monocotyledons: their evolution and comparative biology. IV. Transport problems in arborescent monocotyledons. Quarterly Review of Biology 48, 314321.