Ontogeny of synthesized Picea abies (L.) Karst.–Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Bull. ex St Amans) Quél. ectomycorrhizas



Ectomycorrhizas were synthesized between Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Bull. ex St Amans) Quél. in growth pouches containing activated charcoal filter paper. Immediately emanating hyphae from inoculated plugs contacted root hairs and root surfaces, hyphal morphology was altered. They became short-celled with few clamp connections, highly branched, and lacked cell wall ornamentation. Then, hyphae on root surfaces formed an inner synenchymatous mantle and loose hyphae formed an outer prosenchymatous mantle. Simultaneously, root cap cells became invaded by fungal hyphae and their remnants were incorporated into the inner mantle. Further root elongation took place but root hair production was suppressed. Thirdly, a Hartig net began to form in basal portions of developing ectomycorrhizas and the fungal mantle became denser and thicker. Fourthly, growth of the root was reduced and the hyphae of the Hartig net penetrated between cortical cells moving toward the apex. Fifthly, metacutis occasionally surrounded the meristem. At this stage the formation of the ectomycorrhiza can be considered to be complete and the rootlet itself is temporarily in a dormant state.