• Armillaria;
  • isozymes;
  • mycelial cords;
  • taxonomy


  1. Top of page
  2. references

Ten Armillaria isolates, collected from various host plants and widespread geographical origins in tropical Africa, were cultivated on orange fragments in the presence of water and ran different culture media in order to optimize enzyme and mycelial cord production. Seven enzymes involved in the primary metabolism of nitrogen and carbon (glutamate dehydrogenases, aspartate aminotransferase, malate dehydrogenase, glucose n-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase) were extracted from the mycelial cords and analyzed by polyacry lamide gel electrophoresis. Cluster analysis based on calculated similarity values derived from isozyme banding patterns separated the isolates into five groups. Two isolates considered as belonging to A. mellea ssp. africana (an African species closely related to European A. mellea) were present in a clearly Separated cluster when compared to the other isolate groups. Two Kenyan isolates, belonging to an as yet unnamed biological species, which were characterized by the production of few slow growing mycelial cords, were also found in a separate cluster with slightly greater similarity coefficients to the other isolates. The six other isolates, referred to as isolates of A. heimii (a highly variable species with different sexual systems) fell into three sub-clusters of variable homology. The two homothallic heimii isolates from Tanzania and Malawi, which were very closely related, displaying 100% isozyme similarity, exhibited a higher degree of similarity with the two other homothallic heimii isolates from Zimbabwe and Congo, than with the two heterothallic unifactorial heimii isolates from Cameroon and Gabon. The value of isozymes in the classification of African Armillaria spp. is discussed.


Nitro Blue Tetrazolium


species or formally equated to those European Pyridoxal 5-phosphate


Phenazine methosulphate








  1. Top of page
  2. references
  • Anderson JB, Bailey SS, Pukkila PJ. 1989. Variation in ribosomal DNA of Armillaria, a genus of root-infecting fungi. Evolution 43: 16521662.
  • Anderson JB, Stasovski E. 1992. Molecular phylogeny of northern hemisphere species of Armillaria. Mycology 84: 505516.
  • Bradford MM. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72: 248254.
  • Dell B, Botton B, Martin F, Le Tacon F. 1989. Glutamatc dehydrogenase in ectomycorrhizas of spruce (Picea excelsa L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). New Phytologist 111: 683692.
  • Dupré C, Chevalier G, Palenzona M, Biocca E. 1993. Caractérization des mycorhizes de différents Tuber par l' etude du polymorphisme enzymatique, Cryptogamie. Mycologie 14: 163170.
  • Guillaumin JJ, Anderson JB, Korhonen K. 1991. Life cycle, interfertility and biological species. In. ShawCG. KileGA, eds. Armillaria root disease. Forest service. United States Department of Agriculture. Agriculture Handbook No. 691. 1020.
  • Heim R. 1963. L'Armillariella elegans Heim. Revue de Mycologie 28: 8994.
  • Heim R. 1967. Note complémentaire sur I' Armillariella elegans Heim. Revue de Mycologie 32: 911.
  • Hood IA, Redfern DB, Kile GA. 1991. Armillaria in planted hosts. In. ShawCG. KileGA, eds. Armillaria root disease. Forest service. United States Department of Agriculture. Agriculture Handbook No 691. 122149.
  • Keller G. 1992. Isozymes in isolates of Suillus species from Pinus cembra, L. New Phytologist 120: 351358.
  • Kile GA, Guillaumin JJ, Mohammed C, Watling R. 1994. Biogeography and pathology of Armiliaria In. JohannssonM. StenlidJ, eds.Proceedings of the 8th international conference an root and but rots. Uppsala. Sweden . IUFRO working party S 750.07. 411436.
  • Kile GA, McDonald GI, Byler JW. 1991 Ecology and disease in natural forests. In. ShawCG. KileGA, eds. Armiliaria root disease. Forest service. United States Department of Agriculture. Agriculture Handbook No. 691. 102121.
  • Korhonen K. 1978. Interfertility and clonal size in the Armillariella melleo complex. Karstenia 18: 3142.
  • Laemmli UK. 1970. Cleavage of structural proteins during assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227: 680685.
  • Lilly WW, Charvat I. 1987. Activities and isozymes of acid phosphnmses in Schizapyllum commune: a reexamination. Mycologia 79: 3l4319.
  • Lin D, Dumas MT, Hubbes M. 1989. Isozyme and general protein patterns of Armillaria spp. collected from the boreal mixedwood forests of Ontario. Canadian Journal of Botany 67: 11431147.
  • Magae Y, Haga K, Taniguchi H, Sasaki T. 1990. Enzymes of strain of Pleurotus species (Basidiomycetes) compared by electrophoresis. Journal of General Applied Microbiology 36: 6980.
  • Micales JA, Bonde MR, Peterson GL. 1986. The use of isozyme analysis in fungal taxonomy and genetics. Mycotaxon 27: 405449.
  • Mohammed C. 1994. The detection and species identification of African Armillaria. In. Schots. A.DeweyF.M. OliverR, eds.Modern detection asays for plant pathogenic fungi. Carmbridge . CAB International, U.P. 141147.
  • Mohammed C, Guillaumin JJ. 1993. Armillaria in tropicalIn. FranklandJC. WatlingR. WhalleyAJS, Eds.Aspects of tropical mycology. SISAAC. British Mycological Society Sympsoium Series, Cambridge . Cambridge University Press. 207217.
  • Mohammed C, Guillaumin JJ, Berthelay S. 1989. Preliminary investigations about the taxonomy and genetics of African Armillaria species. In. MorrisonDJ, ed.Proceedings of the 7th international conference on root and but rots. British Columbia. Canada . IUFRO working party S 2.06.01)1. 447457.
  • Mohammed C, Guillaumin JJ, Botton B, Intini M. 1994. Species of Armiliaria in tropical Africa. In. JohannssonM. StenlidJ, eds.Proceedings of the 8th international conference on root and but rots. Sweden . IUFRO working party S 750.07. uppsala. 402410.
  • Morrison DJ, Thomson AJ, Chu D, Peet FG, Sahota TS. 1985. Isozyme patterns of Armillaria intersterility groups occurring in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 31: 651653.
  • Muto S, Uritani I. 1970. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase from sweet potato. Plant Cell Physiology 11: 767776.
  • Mwangi LM, Lin D, Hubbes M. 1989. Identification of Kenyan Armiliaria isolates by cultural morphology, intersterility tests and analysis of isozyme profiles. Eurnpean Journal of Forest Pathology 19: 399406.
  • Ni W, Robertson EF, Reeves HC. 1987. Purification and characterization of cytosolic NADP specific isocitrate dehydrogenase from Pisum sativum, Plant Physiology 83: 785788.
  • Ohmasa M, Furukawa H. 1986. Analysis of esterase and malate dehydrogenase isozymes of Lentinus edodes by isoelectric focusing for the identification and discrimination of stocks. Transactions of the Mycological Society (Japan) 27: 7990.
  • Orotsina WJ, Chase TE, Cobb FW, Jr., Korhonen K. 1993. Population structure of Heterobasidion annosum from North America and Europe. Canadian Journal of Botany 71: 10641071.
  • Oudemans P, Coffey MD. 1991. Isozyme comparison within and among worldwide sources of three morphologically distinct species of Phytophthora. Mycological Research. 95: 1930.
  • Pegler DN. 1977. A preliminary agaric flora of East Africa. Kew Bulletin, Additional Series 6: 9195.
  • Sen R. 1990. Isozymic identification of individual eeiomycurrhizas synthesized between Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and isolates of two species of Suillus. New. Phytologist. 114: 617626.
  • Sen R, Hepper CM. 1986. Characterization of vesicular-arbuacular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus spp) by selective enzyme staining following polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 18: 2934.
  • Sneath PHA, Sokal RR. 1973. Numerical taxonomy: The principles and practice of numerical classification. San Francisco . W. H. Freeman and Co.
  • Spieth PT. 1975. Population genetics of allozyme variation in Neurospora intermedia. Genetics 80: 785805.
  • Stenlid J. 1985. Population structure of Heterobasidion annosum as determined by somatic incompatibility, sexual incompatibility, and isozyme patterns. Canadian Journal of Botany 63: 22682273.
  • Triest L. 1992. The role of isozymes in studies of plant populations: several considerations of data obtained in water plants. Belgian Journal of Botany 125: 262269.
  • Vidal J, Gadal P, Cavalie G, Cailliau-Commanay L. 1977. NADH and NADPH dependent malate dehydrogenase of Phaseolus vulgaris. Physiologia Plantarum 39: 190195.
  • Wahlström K, Karlson JO, Holdenrieder O, Stenlid J. 1991. Pectinolytic activity and isozymes in European Armiliaria species. Canadian Journal of Botany 69: 27322739.
  • Watling R, Kile GA, Burdsall HH. 1991. Nomenclature, taxonomy and identification. In: ShawCG, KileG.A, eds. Armillaria root disease. Forest service, United States Department of Agriculture. Agriculture Handbook No. 691: 19.