In order to investigate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and short-term cold exposure on Triticum aestivum L., 7-wk-old seedlings of spring and winter cultivars (Glenlea and AC Ron) were submitted to a 1-wk cold treatment when inoculated with Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerd. & Trappe. The combined effect of arbuscular mycorrhizas and low temperature on the two cultivars was determined for several physiological parameters including biomass and chlorophyll, protein, and sugar contents. The dry biomass was higher in Glenlea than AC Ron at week five and did not significantly change at week eight in both cultivars with either the mycorrhizal or the cold treatment. The chlorophyll content was higher in mycorrhizal (M +) than non-mycorrhizal (M-) Glenlea at 5 °C but was unaltered in AC Ron or in either cultivar at 25 °C. The reducing and total sugar contents were higher in AC Ron than Glenlea. The non-reducing sugar level at 5 °C was higher in M + AC Ron than M+ Glenlea and higher in M- than M+ Glenlea. The protein content was higher in Glenlea than AC Ron at 25 °C but remained constant regardless of the mycorrhizal or cold treatment. This study shows that the spring wheat seems to benefit more than the winter wheat from AM association after a short-term exposure to low temperature.