SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

references

  • Aist JR, 1976. Papillae and related wound plugs of plant cells. Annual Review of Phytopathology 14: 145163.
  • Aist JR. 1983. Structural responses as resistance mechanisms. In: BaileyJA, DeverallBJ, eds. The Dynamics of Host Defence. New York : Academic Press. 3370.
  • Albrecht C, Burgess T, Dell B, Lapeyrie F. 1994. Chitinase and peroxides activities are induced in eucalyptus roots according to aggressiveness of Australian ectomycorrhizal strains of Pisolithus sp. New Phytologist 127: 217222.
  • Albrecht C, Laurent P, Lapeyrie F. 1994. Eucalyptus root and shoot chitinases induced following root colonization by pathogenic versus ectomycorrhizal fungi compared on one- and two-dimensional activity gels. Plant Science 100: 157164.
  • Alcubilla M, von Aufsess H, Cerny G, Rehfoess KE. 1974. Untersuchungen über die Pilzhemmwirkung des Fichtenholzes (Picea abies Karst). In: KuhlmanEG, ed. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fomes annoaus. Athens , USA : 139162.
  • Anonymous 1957. International glossary of terms used in wood anatomy: prepared by the International Association of Wood Anatomists. Tropical Woods 107: 136.
  • von Aufsess H 1975. Über die Bildung einer Schutzsperre an der Astbasis voc Laubund Nadelbäumen und ihre Wirksamkeit gegen das Eindringen von Pilzen in das Kernholz lebender Bäume. Forstwissenchaftliches Centralblatt 94: 140152.
  • Bamber RK, Fukazawa K. 1985. Sapwood and heartwond: a review. Forestry Abstracts 46: 567580.
  • Barber MS, Ride JP. 1988. A quantitative assay for induced lignification in wounded wheat leaves and its use to survey potential elicitors of the response Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 32: 185197.
  • Barrett DK. 1970. Armillaria mellea as a possible factor predisposing roots to Polyporus schtweinitzii. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 55: 459462.
  • Barrow-Broaddus J, Dwinell LD. 1983. Histopathology of Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutmans in four species of southern pines. Phytopathology 73: 882889.
  • Beever DJ. 1970. The relationship between nutrients in extracted xylem sap and susceptibility of fruit trees to stlverleaf disease caused by Stereum purpureum. Annals of Applied Biology 65: 8592.
  • Benhamou N, Broglie K, Chet I, Broglie R. 1993. Cytology of infection of 35S-bean chirinase transgenic canola plants by Rhizoctonia solani: cytochemical aspects of chitin breakdown in vivo. The Plant Journal 4: 295305.
  • Biddle PG, Tinsley TW. 1971. Some effects of poplar mosaic virus on the growth of poplar trees. New Phytologist 70: 6777.
  • Bielenin A, Malewski W. 1982. Changes in the content of sugars in sour cherries xylem sap and their effect OH the growth of Stereum purpureiim (Pers.) Fr. fungus. Fruit Science Reports IX: 8389.
  • Biggs AR. 1985. Suberized boundary zones and the chronology of wound response in tree bark. Phytopathology 75: 11911195.
  • Biggs AR. 1986. Comparative anatomy and host response of two peach culiivars inoculated with Leucostoma cincta and L. persoonii. Phytopathology 76: 905912.
  • Biggs AR. 1987. Occurrence and location of suberin in wound reaction zones in xylem of 17 tree species. Phytopathology 77: 718725.
  • Biggs AR. 1992a. Anatomical and physiological responses of bark tissues to mechanical injury. In: BlanchetteHA, BiggsAR, eds. Defence Mechanisms of Woody Plants Against Fungi. Berlin : Springer-Verlag, 1340.
  • Biggs AR. 1992b. Responses of angiosperm bark tissues to fungi causing cankers and canker rots. In: BlanchetteRA, BiggsAR, eds. Defense Mechanisms of Woody Plants Against Fungi. Berlin : Spring-Verlag. 4161.
  • Biggs AR, Davis DD, Merrill W. 1983. Histology of cankers on Pupulus caused by Cytospora chrysosperma. Canadian Journal of Botany 61: 563574.
  • Biggs AR, Merrill W, Davis DD. 1984. Discussion: response of bark Tissues to injury and infection. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 14: 351356.
  • Biggs AR, Miles NW. 1988. Association of suberin formation in uninoculated wounds with susceptibility to Leucostoma cincta and L. persoonii in various peach cultivars. Phytopathology 78: 10701074.
  • Biggs AR, Stobbs LW. 1986. Fine structure of the suberized cell walls in the boundary zone and necrophylactic periderm in wounded peach bark. Canadian Journal of Botany 64: 16061616.
  • Blanchard RO, Smith D, Shigo AL, Safford LO. 1978. Effects of soil-applied potassium on cation distribution around wounds in red maple. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 8: 228231.
  • Blanchette RA. 1982. Decay and canker formation by Phellimus pini in white and balsam fir. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 12: 538544.
  • Blanchette RA. 1992. Anntomical responses of xylem to injury and invasion by fungi. In: BlanchetteRA, BiggsAR, eds. Defense Mechanisms of Woody Plants Against Fungi. Berlin : Springer-Verlag. 7695.
  • Blanchetle RA, Abad AR. 1992. Immunocytochemistry of fungal infection processes in trees. In: BlancbetteUA. BiggsAR, eds. Defense Mechanisms of Woody Plants Against Fungi. Berlin : Springer-Verlag, 424444.
  • BlanchetteRA, BiggsAR ed. 1992. Defense Mechanisms of Woody Plants Against Fungi. Berlin : Springer-Verlag.
  • Boddy L. 1986. Water and decomposition processes in terrestrial ecosystems. In: AyresPG, BoddyL, eds. Water, Fungi and Plants. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 375398.
  • Boddy L. 1992. Microenvironmental aspects of xylem defenses to wood decay fungi. In: BlancheiteRA, BiggsAH, eds. Defense Mechanisms of Woody Plants Against Fungi. Berlin : Springer-Verlag, 96132.
  • Boddy L. 1994. Latent decay fungi: the hidden foe. Arboricultural Journal 18: 113135.
  • Boddy L, Rayner ADM. 1981. Fungal communities and formation of heartwood wings in attached oak branches undergoing decay. Annals of Botany 47: 271274.
  • Boddy L, Rayner ADM. 1983. Origins of decay in living deciduous trees: the role of moisture content and re-appraisal of the expanded concept of tree decay. New Phytologist 94: 623641.
  • Boller T. 1987. Hydrolytic enzymes in plant disease resistance. In: KosugeT, NesterEW, eds. Plant-Microbe Interactions: Molecular and Genetic Perspectives. New York : Macmillan, 385413.
  • Bonello P. 1991. Defence responses of non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal seedlings of Pinus sylvestris L. to fungal pathogens. D. Phil, thesis. University of Oxford.
  • Bonello P, Pearce RB, Watt F, Grime GW. 1991. An induced papilla response in primary routs of Scuts pine challenged in vitro with Cylindrocarpon destructans. Physiological and Molecutat Plant Pathology 39: 213228.
  • Böttcher P, Liese W. 1975. Zer Verkernung des Wurzelholzes von Fichte unii Lärchi. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt 94: 152160.
  • Boyce JS. 1961. Forest pathology. New York : McGraw-Hill.
  • Brooks FT, Storey HH. 1923. Silver leaf disease. IV. Journal of Pomology and Horticultural Science 3: 117141.
  • Burdekin DA. 1979. Common decay fungi in broad-leaved trees. Department of the Enviromnent: Agricultural Leaflet 5. London : HMSO.
  • Burden RS, Kemp MS. 1983. (-)-7-hydroxycalamenene, a phytoulexin from Tilia eurapea. Phytochemistry 22: 10391040.
  • Burden RS, Kemp MS. 1984. Sesquiterpene phytoalexins from Ulmus glabra. Phytochemistry 23: 383385.
  • CallowJA. ed. 1983. Biochemical plant pathology, Chichester : John Wiley & Sons.
  • Campbell CL, Huang J-S, Payne GA. 1980. Defence at the perimeter: the outer walls and the gates. In: HorsfallJG, CowlingEB, eds. Plant Disease: An Advanced Treatise. Vol V. New York : Academic Press. 103120.
  • Carlquist S. 1988. Comparative wood anatomy. Berlin : Springer-Verlag.
  • Carrodus BB, Triffett ACK. 1975. Analysis of composition of respiratory gases in woody stems by mass spectrometry. New Phytologist 74: 243246.
  • Chapela IH. 1989. Fungi in healthy stems and branches of American beech and aspen: a comparative study. New Phytologist 113: 6575.
  • Chapela IH, Boddy L. 1988a. Fungal colonization of attached beech branches, I. Early stages of development of fungal communities. New Phytologist 110: 3945.
  • Chapela IH, Boddy L. 1988b. Fungal colonization of attached beech branches. II. Spatial and lempnral organization of communities arising from latent invaders in bark and functional sapwood, under different moisture regimes. New Phytologist 110: 4757.
  • Chapela IH, Petrini O, Hagmann L. 1991. Monolignol glucosides as specific recognition messengers in fungus-plant symbioses. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 39: 289298.
  • Chapela IH, Petrini O, Petrini LE. 1990. Unusual ascospore germination in Hypuxylon fragiforme: first steps in the establishment of an endophytic symbiosis. Canadian Journal of Botany 68: 25712575.
  • Chen L-L, Chang H-M. Cowling EB, Hsu C-YH, Gates RP. 1976. Aporphine alkaloids and lignans formed in response to injury of sapwood in Liriodendron tulipifera. Phytochemistry 15: 11611167.
  • Cobb FW Jr, Krstic M, Zavarin E, Barber HW Jr. 1968. Inhibitory effects of volatile oleoresin compounds on Fomes annosus and four Ceratocystis species. Phytopathology 58: 13271335.
  • Cooke RC, Rayner ADM. 1984. Ecology of saprotrophic fungi. London : Longman.
  • Coutts MP. 1976. The formation of dry zones in the sapwood of conifers. I. Induction or drying in standing trees and logs by Fames annosus and extracts of infected wood. European Journal of Forest Pathology 6: 372381.
  • Croteau R, Gurkewitz S, Johnson MA, Fisk HJ. 1987. Biochemistry of oleuresinosis. Monoterpene and diterpene biosynthesis in lodgepole pine saplings infected with Cerato-cystis clavigera or treated with carbohydrate elicitors. Plant Physiology 85: 11231128.
  • Dickinson CH. 1976. Fungi on the aerial surfaces of higher plants. In: DickinsonCH, PreeceTF, eds. Microbiology of Aerial Plant Surfaces. New York : Academic Press, 293324.
  • Dobos T, Szendrodi L, Habermehl A, Ridder H-W. Solymosi J, Soós J, Nemeth G. 1991. Unttrsuchung von stehenden Bäumen mit einem mobilen Computer-Tomographen in Ungarn. Allgemeine Forst und Jagdzeitung 162: 4550.
  • Downum KR. 1992. Tansley Renew Mo. 43. Light-activated plant defence. New Phytologist 122: 401420.
  • Duchesne LC, Hubbes M, Jeng RS. 1992. Biochemistry and molecular biology of defense reactions in the xylem of angiosperm trees. In: BlanchetteRA, BiggsAR, eds. Defense Mechanisms of Woody Plants Against Fungi. Berlin : Springer-Yerlag. 133146.
  • Duchesne LC, Jeng RS, Hubbes M. 1985. Accumulation of phytoalexins in Ulmus americana in response to infection by a nonaggressive and an aggressive strain of Ophiostoma ulmi Canadian Journal of Botany 63: 678680.
  • Dumas MT, Hubbes M. 1979. Resistance of Pinus densiflora and Pinus rigida × radiata to Fomes annosus. European Journal of Forest Pathology 9: 229238.
  • Dumas MT, Hubbes M, Strunz GM. 1983. Identification of same compounds associated with resistance of Pinus dansiflora to Fomes annosus. European Journal of Forest Pathology 13: 151160.
  • Ebermann R, Stich K. 1982. Peroxidase and amylase isoenzymes in the sapwood and heartwood of trees. Phytochemistry 21: 24012402.
  • Eckstein D, Liese W, Shigo AL. 1979. Relationship of wood structure to compartmentalization of discolored wood in hybrid poplar. Canadian Journal of Finest Research 9: 205210.
  • Edwards MC, Ayres PG. 1981. Cell death and cell wall papillae in the resistance of oak species to powdery mildew disease. New Phytologist 89: 411418.
  • Eklund L. 1993. Seasonal variations of O2, CO2 and ethylene in oak and maple stems. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23: 26082610.
  • Ekman R. 1979a. Distribution of lignans in Norway spruce. Acta Academiae Abnensis, Ser, B 39: (3) 6 pp.
  • Ekman R. 1979. Analysis of the nonvolatile extractives in Norway spruce sapwood and heartwuod. Acta Academiae Abuensis. Ser. B 39: (4) 20 pp.
  • Elgersma DM. 1970. Length and diameter of xylem vessels as factors in resistance of elms to Ceratocystis ulmi. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 76: 179182.
  • Elgersma DM, Overeem JC. 1971. The relation of mansonones to resistance against Dutch elm disease and their accumulation, as induced by several agents. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 77: 168174.
  • Erdtman H, Misiorny A. 1952. Constituents of pine heartwood. XXXI. The content of pinosylvin phenols in Swedish pines. Svensk Papperstidning 55: 605608.
  • Esau K. 1977. Anatomy of seed plants. 2nd edn. New York : Wiley.
  • Evans J. 1982. Plantation forestry hi the tropics. Oxford : Clarendon Press.
  • Fahn A. 1982. Plant anatomy, 3rd edn. Oxford : Pergamon Press.
  • Flodin K. 1979. Effects of monoterpenes on Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cooke and its phenol oxidase activity. European Journal of Forest Pathology 9: 16.
  • Flodin K, Fries N. 1978. Studies on volatile compounds from Pinus sylvestris and their effect on wood–decomposing fungi. 11. Effects of some volatile compounds on fungal growth. European Journal of Forest Pathology 8: 300310.
  • Flores G, Hubbes M. 1979. Phytoalexin production by aspen (Populus tremdoides Michx.) in response to infection by Hypoxylon mammalian (Wahl.) Mill, and Alternaria spp. European Journal of Forest Pathology 9: 280288.
  • Flores G, Hubbes M. 1980. The nature and role of phytoalexin produced by aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), European Journal of Forest Pathology 10: 95103.
  • Forrest GI. 1982. Preliminary work on the relation between resistance to Fomes annosus and the monoterperw composition of Sitka spruce resin. In: HeybroekHM, StephanBR. vonWeissenbergK, eds. Resistance to Diseases and Pests in Forest Trees. Wageningen : PUDOC, 194197.
  • Franich RA, Gadgil PD, Shain L. 1983. Fungistatic effects of Pinus radiata needle epicuticular fatty and resin acids on Dothistroma pini. Physiological Plant Pathology 23: 183195.
  • Franich RA, Gaskin RE, Wells LG, Zabkiewicz JA. 1982. Effect of Pinus radiata needle monoterpetses on spore germination and mycelial growth of Dothistroma pini in vitro in relation to mature tree resistance. Physiological Plant Pathology 21: 5563.
  • Garrett PW, Randall WK, Shigo AL, Shortle WC. 1979. Inheritance of compartmentalization of wounds in sweetgurn (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and Eastern cotton wood (Populus deltoides Bstrtr.). United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Research Paper NE-443. 4 pp.
  • Garrett SD. 1970. Pathoganic root-infecting fungi. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
  • Geiger J-P, Rio B, Nicole M, Nandris D. 1986. Biodegradation of Hevea brasidensis wood by Rigidoporus lignosus and Phellinus noxius. Eurupean Journal of Forest Pathology 16: 147159.
  • Geiger JP, Rio B, Nicole M, Nandris D. 1989. Peroxidase production in tissues of the rubber tree following infection by root rot fungi. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 34: 241246.
  • Gibbs JN. 1968. Resin and the resistance of conifers to Forties annosus, Annal of Botany 32: 649665.
  • Gommers FJ, Bakker J. 1988. Mode of action of α–terthienyl and related compounds may explain the suppressant effects of Tagetes species on populations of free-living endoparasitic plant nemiitodes. In: LamJ, BretelerH, ArnasonR, HansenL, eds Chemistry and Biology of Naturally–Occuring Acetylenes and Related Compounds (NOARC). Amsterdam : Elsevier. 6169.
  • Goodman RN, Novacky AJ. 1994. The hypersensitive reaction ill plants to pathogens: a resistann– phenomenon. St Paul , Minnesota : APS Press.
  • Green DJ, Shortle WC, Shigo AL. 1981. Compartmentalization of discoloured and decayed wood in red maple branch stubs. Forest Science 27: 519522.
  • Green RJ Jr. 1981. An overview. In: MaceME, BellAA, BevkmanCH, eds. Fungal Will Diseases of Plants. New York : Academic Press, 124.
  • Greig BJW. 1981. Decay fungi in conifers. Forestry Commission Leaflet No 79. London : HMSO.
  • Griffith GS, Boddy L. 1990. Fungal decomposition of attached angiosperm twigs. 1. Decay community development in ash. beech and oak. New Phytologist 116: 407415.
  • Grime GW, Pearce RB 1995. External beam analysis of living sycamore xylem infected by pathogenic fungi. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B. 104: 299305.
  • Hall LD, Rajanayagam V, Stewart WA, Steiner PR, Chow S. 1986. Detection of hidden morphology of wood by magnetic resonance imaging. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 16: 684687.
  • Hart JM. 1981. Role of phytostilbenes in decay and disease resistance. Annual Review of Phytopathology 19: 437458.
  • Hart JH, Hillis WE. 1972. Inhibition of wood–rotting fungi by ellagitannins in the heartwood of Quercus alba. Phytopathology 62: 620626.
  • Hart JH, Shrimpton DM. 1979. Role of stilbenes in resistance of wood to decay. Phytopathology 69: 11381143.
  • Han IE R. 1894. Text batik of the diseases of trees. (Translated from German by SomervilleW, WardHM). London : Macmillan.
  • Henricks ML, Ekman R, von Weissenberg K 1980. Bioassay of some resin and fatty acids with Fames annosus. Acta Academiae Aboonsis Ser. B 31 (9), 7 pp.
  • Hepper FN. 1981. Changes in street tree bark during 35 years. Arboricultural Journal 5: 3943.
  • Hepting GH, Blaisdell DJ. 1936. A protective zone in red gum fire scars. Phytopathology 26: 6267.
  • Hergert HL. 1960. Chemical composition of tannins and polyphenols from conifer wood and bark. Forest Products Journal 10: 610617.
  • Highley TL, Bar-Lev SS, Kirk TK, Larsen MJ. 1983. lnttuence of O2 and CO2 on wood decay by heartrot and saprot fungi. Phytopathology 73: 630633.
  • Hillis WE. 1962. Wood extractives. New York , Academic Press.
  • Hillis WE. 1987. Heartwood and true exudates. Berlin : Springer-Verlag.
  • Hillis WE, Inoue T. 1968. The formation of polyphenols in trees. J V, The polyphenols formed in Finns radiata after Sirex attack Phytochemistry 7: 1322.
  • Hills WE, Swain T. 1959. Phenolic constituents of Prunus domestica. III. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture 10: 533537.
  • Hintikka V, Korhonen K. 1970. Effects of car him dioxide on the growth of lignicolous and soil-inhabiting Hymenomycetes. Communicationes Instituti Forestalls Fenniae 69: 129.
  • Homans AL, Fuchs A. 1970. Direct bioautography on thin-layer chromatograms as method for detecting fungitoxic substances. Journal of Chromatography 51: 321329.
  • Hopkins DL. 1989. Xyllella fastidiosa: xylem limited bacterial pathogen of plants. Annual Review of Phytopathology 27: 271290.
  • HorsfallJG, CowlingEB eds. 1980. Plant disease: an advanced treatise, Vol V. New York : Academic Press.
  • Jensen FK. 1967. Oxygen arid carbon dioxide- affect the growth of wood-decaying fungi. Forest Science 13: 384389.
  • Jensen FK. 1969. Oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in sound and decaying red oak trunks. Forest Science 15: 246251.
  • Jensen W, Fremer KE, Sierila P, Wast-Iovaara V. 1963. The chemistry of bark. In BrowningBC. ed. The chemistry of Wood. New York : John Wiley & Sons.
  • Jensen WA. 1962. Botanical histochemistry. San Francisco ; W, H Freeman & Co.
  • Johansson M, Stenlid J. 1985. Infection of roots of Norway spruce (Picea abies by Heterobasidion annosum. i. Initial reactions in sapwood by wounding and infection. European Journal of Forest Pathology 15: 1215.
  • Jorgensen E. 1961. The formation of pinosylvin and its monomethyl ether in the sapwood of Pinus resinosa Canadian Journal of Botany 39: 17651772.
  • Jorgensen E, Balsillie D. 1969. Formation of heartwood phenols in callus tissue of red pine (Pinus resinosa). Canadian Journal of Botany 47: 10151016.
  • Kemp MS, Burden RS. 1984. Isolation and structure determination of δM-pyrufuran, a third induced antifungal dibenzo-furan from the wood of Pyrus communis L. iofected with Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. ex Fr.) Pouz. Journal of the Chemical Society, Parkin Transactions 1, 1984: 14411443.
  • Kemp MS, Burden RS. 1986. Phytoalexins and stress metabolites in the sapwood of trees. Phytochemistry 25: 12611269.
  • Kemp MS, Burden RS, Loeffler RST. 1983. Isolation, structure determination and total synthesis of the dibenzofurans α-and β pyrufuran, new phytoalexins from the wood of Pyrus communis L. Journal of the Chemical Society. Perkin Transactions J. 1983 22672272.
  • Kemp MS, Holloway PS, Burden RS. 1985. 3-β, 19-α-dihydmxy-2–oxours-12-en-28-oic acid: a pentacyclic triterpene induced in the wood of Mains pumila Mill, iofected with Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. ex Fr.) pouzar., and a constituent of the cuticular wax of apple fruits. Journal of Chemical Research (M) (1985). 18481876.
  • Kinloch BB. 1982. Mechanisms and inheritance of rust resistance in conifers. In: HeybroekH.M, StephanBR, WeissenbergKvon, eds. Resistance la Diseases and Pests in Forest Trees. Wageningen : PUDOC, 119129.
  • Kolattukudy PE. 1984. Biochemistry and function of cutin and suberin. Canadian Journal of Botany 62: 29182933.
  • Koran Z, Cote WA. 1965. The ultrastructure of tyloses. In: CoteWA, ed. The Cellular Ultrastructure of Woody Plants. New York . Syracuse University Press, 319333.
  • Kuc J, Shain L. 1977. Antifungal compounds associated with disease resistance in plants. In: SiegelMR, SislerHD, eds. Antifungal Compounds Vol 2. New York : Marcel Dekker. 497535.
  • Ladejtschikova El, Pasternak GM. 1982. Biochemical aspects of the resistance of Pinus sylvestris to Fames annosus. In: HeybroekHM, StephanBR, vonWeissenbergK, eds. Resistance to Diseases and Pests in Forest Trees. Wageningen : PUDOC, 198205.
  • Leatham GF, King V, Stahmann MA. 1980. In vitro protein polymerization by quinones or free, radicals generated by plant or fungal oxidative enzymes. Phytopathology 70: 11341140.
  • Lemesle R. 1928. Formations subéreuses anormales chez uen Labiée– (Hymenocrater). Comptes Rendues de L'Academie des Sciences, Pans 186: 455457.
  • Lieutier F, Berryman AA. 1988a. Elicitation of defensive reactions in conifers. In MattsonWJ, LevieuxJ, Bernard-DaganC, eds. Mechanisms of Woody Plant Defenses Against Insects. Search for a Pattern. Berlin : Springer-Verlag, 313319.
  • Lieutier F, Berryman AA. 1988b. Preliminary histological investigations of the defense reactions of three pines to Ceratocystis clavigera and two chemical elicitors. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 18: 12431247.
  • Lonsdale D. 1983. Some aspects of the pathology of environmentally-stressed trees. Yearbook of the international Dendrological Society (1982): 9097.
  • Lowerts GA, Kellison RC. 1981. Genetically controlled resistance to discoloration and decay in wounded trees of yellow-poplar. Silvae Genetica 30: 98101.
  • MaceME, BellAA, BeckmanCH. eds. 1981. Fungal will diseases of plants. New York : Academic Press.
  • Malone M. 1994. Wound-induced hydraulic signals and stimulus transmission in Mimosa pudica L. New Phytologist 128: 4956.
  • Malone M, Alarcon J-J, Palumbo L. 1994. An hydraulic interpretation of rapid, long-distance wound signaling in the tomato. Planta 193: 181185.
  • Malone M, Palumbo L, Boari F, Monteleone M, Jones HG. 1994. The relationship between wound–induced proteinaae inhibitors and hydraulic signals in tomato seedlings. Plant, Cell and Environment 17: 8187.
  • Mamiya Y. 1983. Pathology of the pine wilt disease caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Annual Review of Phytopathology 21: 201220.
  • Manion PD. 1991. Tree disease concepts, 2nd edn. Englewood cliffs . NJ : Prentice-Hall.
  • Mansfield JW. 1983. Antimicrobial compounds. In: CallowJA, ed. Biochemical Plant Pathology. Chichester . John Wiley & Sons, 237265.
  • Manville JF, Levitin N. 1974. Anti–fungal coumarins from mineral-stained maple. Bi-Monthly Research Notes 30: 34.
  • Mattson WJ, Levieux J, Bernard-Pagan C. 1988. Mechanisms of moody plant defenses against insects. Search for a pattern. New York : Springer-Verlag.
  • McGinnes EA Jr, Chang CI-J, Wu KY-T. 1971. Ring shake in some hardwood species. The individual tree approach. Journal of Polymer Science C 36: 153176.
  • McLaughlin SB, Shriner DS. 1980. Allocation of resources ID defense and repair. In: HorsfallJG, CowlingEB, eds. Plant Disease: An Advanced Treatise, Vol V. New York : Academic Press, 407431.
  • McNabb HS jr, Heybroek HM, MacDonald WL. 1970. Anatomical factors in resistance to Dutch elm disease. Nether-lands Journal of Plant Pathology 76: 196204.
  • Merrill W. 1992. Mechanisms of resistance to fungi in woody plants: a historical perspective. In: BlanchetteRA. BiggsAR. eds. Defense Mechanisms of Woody Plants Against Fungi. Berlin : Springer–Verlag, 112.
  • Miller D, Sutcliffe R, Thauvette J. (1990). Sticker stain formation in hardwoods: isolation of scopoletin from sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.). Wood Science and Technology 24: 339344.
  • Miller RH, Berryman AA, Ryan CA. 1986. Biotic elicitors of defense reactions in lodgepole pine. Phytochemistry 25: 611612.
  • El Modafar C, Clerivet A, Fleuriet A, Macheix JJ. 1993. Inoculation of Platanus acerifolia with Ceratocystis funbriata f. sp. platani induces scopoletin and umbelliferone acoumulation. Phytochemistry 34: 12711276.
  • Moore KE. 1978. Barrier zone formation in wounded stems of sweetgum. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 8: 389397.
  • Morrison DJ, Williams RE, Whitney RD. 1991. Infection, disease development, diagnosis and detection. In: ShawEGIII, KiteGA. eds. Armillaria Rout Disease. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook No 691. 6265.
  • Moss EH. 1934. Rings of cork in the wood of herbaceous plants. Nature, London 133: 689.
  • Moss EH. 1936. The ecology of Epilobium angustifolium with particular reference to rings of periderm in the wood. American Journal of Botany 23: 114120.
  • Moss EH, Gorham AL. 1953. Interxylary cork and fission of stems and roots. Phytomorphology 3: 285294.
  • Mullick DB. 1977. The non-specific nature of defense in bark and wood during wounding, insect and pathogen attack. In: LoewusFA, RunecklesVC, eds. The Structure, Biosynthesis and Degradation of Wood. Recent Advances in Photochemistry, Vol 11. New York : Plenum Press, 395441.
  • Nicole M, Geiger JP, Nandris D. 1986. Ultrastructure of lactifers: modifications in Hevea brasiliensis iofected with root rut fungi. Journal of Phytopathology 116: 259268.
  • Nicole MR, Geiger JP, Nandris D. 1992. Defence of angiosperm roots against fungal invasion, In: BlanchetteRA, BiggsAK. eds, Defense Mechanisms of Woody Plains Against Fungi. Berlin : Springer-Verlag, 181206.
  • Nicole M, Toppan A, Geiger JP, Roby D, Nandris D, Rio B. 1991. Defence responses of Hevea brasiliensis to elicitors from root rot fungi. Canadian Journal of Botany 69: 18191824.
  • Nienhaus F, Castello JD. 1989. Viruses in forest trees. Annual Review of Phytopathology 27: 165186.
  • Nsolomo VR, Woodward S. 1994. Glucanohydrolase enzyme activity in embryos of Scots, Corsican and lodgepole pines iofected in vitro with Heterobasidion annosum. European Journal of Forest Pathology 24: 144153.
  • Ofong AU, Pearce RB. 1994. Suberin degradation by Rosellinia desmazieresii. European Journal of Forest Pathology 24: 316322.
  • Ouellette GB, Rioux D. 1992. Anatomical and physiological aspects of resistance to Dutch elm disease. In: BlanchetteRA, BiggsAR, eds. Defense Mechanisms of Woody Plants Against Fungi. Berlin : Springer-Verlag, 257307.
  • Overeem JC, Elgersma DM. 1970. Accumulation of mansonones E and F in Ulmus hollandica iofected with Ceratocystis ulmi. Phytochemistry 9: 19491952.
  • Paine TD, Blanche CA, Nebeker TE, Stephen FM. 1987. Composition of loblolly pint resin defences: comparison of monoterpenes from induced lesion and sapwood resin. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 17: 12021206.
  • Parameswaran N, Knigge H, Liese W. 1985. Electron microscopic demonstration of a suberised layer in the tylostis wall of beech and oak. IAW A Bulletin ns 6: 269271.
  • Parsons TJ, Bradshaw HD Jr, Gordon MP. 1989. Systemic accumulation of specific mRNAs in response to wounding in poplar trees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 86: 78957899.
  • Peace TR. 1962. Pathology of trees and shrubs. Oxford : Clarendon Press.
  • Pearce RB. 1984. Staining fungal hyphae in wood. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 82: 564567.
  • Pearce RB. 1987. Antimicrobial defences in secondary tissues of woody plants. In: PeggCJF, AyresPC eds. Fungal Infection of Plants. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 219238.
  • Pearce RB. 1989. Cell wall alterations and antimicrobial defence in perennial plants. In: LewisNG, PaiceMG, eds. Plant Celt Wall Polymers: Biogenesis and Biodegradation. American Chemical Society Symposium Series No 399. Washington DC : American Chemical Society, 346360.
  • Pearce RB. 1990. Occurrence of decay-associated xylem suberization in a range of woody species. European Journal of Forest Pathology 20: 275289.
  • Peace RB. 1991. Reaction zone relics and the dynamics of fungal spread in the xylem of woody angiosperms. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 39: 4155.
  • Pearce RB, Fisher BJ, Carpenter TA, Hall LD, Grime GW. 1994. Responses of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus xylem to fungal infection. Abstracts: Fifth International Mycological Congress, Vancouver, Canada: 167.
  • Pearce RB, Holloway PJ. 1984. Suberin in the sapwood of oak (Quercus robur L.): its composition from a compartmentalization harrier and its occurrence in tyloses in undecayed wood. Physiological Plant Pathology 24: 7181.
  • Pearce RB, Rutherford J. 1981. A wound associated suherized barrier to the spread of decay in the sapwood of oak (Quercus robur L.). Physiological Plata Pathology 19: 359369.
  • Pearce RB, Sumer S, Doran SJ, Carpenter TA, Hall LD. 1994a. Non-invasive imaging of fungal colonization and host response in the UVMIJ; sapwood of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) using nuclear magnetic resonance. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 45: 359384.
  • Pearce RB, Woodward S. 1986. Compartmentalization and reaction zone burners in Acer saccharinum L. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 29: 197216.
  • PeggGF, AyresPG. ed. 1987. Fungal infection of plants. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
  • Peng S, Scalbaert A, Monties B. 1991. Insoluble ellagitannins in Castanea sativa and Quercus petraea woods. Photochemistry 30: 775778.
  • Pirone PP, Hartman JR, Sall MA, Pirone TP. 1988. Tree maintenance, 6th edn. New York : Oxford University Press.
  • Popoff T, Theander O, Johansson M. 1975. Changes in sapwood of roots of Norway spruce, attacked by Forties annosus. 11. Organic chemical constituents and their biological effects. Physiologia Plantarum 34: 347356.
  • Preece TF. 1977. Watermark disease of the cricket bat willow. 3rd edn, Forestry Commission Leaflet No 20. London : HMSO.
  • Prior C. 1976. Resistance by Corsican pine to attack by Heterobasidion annosum. Annuls of Botany 40: 261279.
  • Rayner ADM. 1986. Water and the origins of decay ill trees. In: AyresPG, BuddyL. eds. Water. Fungi and Plants. Cambridge ; Cambridge University Press, 321341.
  • Rayner ADM, Boddy L. 1988. Fungal decomposition of wood. Chichester : John Wiley.
  • Rennerfelt E. 1945. The influence of the phenolic compounds in the heartwood of Scots pine on the growth of some decay fungi in nutrient solution. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 39: 311318.
  • Ride JP. 1983. Cell wall and other structural barriers in defence. In: CallowJA. ed. Biochemical Plan! Pathology Chichester : John Wiley & Sons, 215236.
  • Rioux D, Chamberland H, Simard M, Ouellette GB. 1995. Suhenzed tyloses in trees: an ultrastructural and cytochemical study. Planta 196: 125140.
  • Robbins WJ, Hervey A. 1969. Unidentified growth factors for Palyporus schweimtzii. Mycologia 61: 808816.
  • Roff JW, Whittaker El. 1959. Toxicity tests of a new tropolone, β-thujaplicinol (7-hydroxy-4-isopropyl tropolone) occurring in Western red cedar. Canadian Journal of Botany 37: 11321134.
  • Roll-Hansen F, Roll-Hansen H. 1979. Microflora of sound-looking wood in Picea abies stems. European Journal of Forest Pathology 9: 308316.
  • Rowe JW, Seikel ME, Roy DW, Jorgensen E. 1972. Chemo-taxonomy of Ulmus. Phytochemistry 11: 25132517.
  • von Rudloff E, Jorgensen E. 1963. The biosynthesis of pinosylvin in the sapwood of Pinus resinosa Ait. Phytochemistry 2: 297304.
  • Santamour FS. 1979. Inheritance of wound compartmentalization in soft maples. Journal of Arboriculture 5: 220225.
  • Sauter M, Hager A. 1989. The mycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria induces chitinase activity in roots and in suspension-cultured cells of its host Picea abies. Planta 179: 6166.
  • Schmidt RA. 1978. Diseases in forest ecosystems: the importance of functional diversity. In: HorsfallJG, CowlingEB, eds. Plant Disease: An Advanced Treatise, Vol. 11. New York : Academic Press, 287315.
  • Schmitt U, Liese W. 1991. Suberin in wound reaction parenchyma of birch xylem (Betula pendula Roth): an electron microscope study. Holzforschung 45: 313315.
  • Schmitt U, Liese W. 1993. Response of xylem parenchyma suberization in some hardwoods after mechanical injury. Trees 8: 2330.
  • Schnathorst WC. 1981. Life cycle and epidemiology of Verti-cillium. In: MaceME, BellAA, BeckmanCH, eds. Fungal Will Diseases of Plants. New York : Academic Press. 81111.
  • Scholtens-Toma IMJ, Joosten MHAJ, De Wit PJGM. 1991. Appearance of pathogen-related proteins m plant hosts. In: ColeGT, HochHC, eds. The Fungal Spore and Disease Initiation in Plants and Animate. New York : Plenum, 247265.
  • Schuck HJ. 1982a. Monoterpenes und resistance of conifers to fungi. In: HeybroekHM, StephanBR. vonWeissenbergK, eds. Resistance to Diseases and Pests in Forest Trees, Wageningen : PUDOC, 169175.
  • Scbuck HJ. 1982. The chemical composition of the mono-terpene fraction in wounded wood of Picea abies and its significance for the resistance against wound infecting fungi. European Journal of Forest Pathology 12: 175181.
  • Schwarze F. 1995. Eniwickhung und bimechanische Auswirkungen von holzzersetzenden Pilzen in lebenden Bäumem und in vitro Dr. rer. nat. thesis, University of Freiburg. 163 pp.
  • Schwarte FWMR, Lonsdale D, Fink S. 1995. Soft rot and multiple T-branching by the basidiomycetes Inonotus hispidus in ash and London plane. Mycological Research 99: 813820.
  • Shain L. 1967. Resistance of sapwood in stems of loblolly pine to infection by Fomes annosus. Phytopathology 57: 10341045.
  • Shain L. 1971. The response of sapwood of Norway spruce to infection by Fomes annosus. Phytopathology 61: 301307.
  • Shain L. 1979. Dynamic response of differentiated sapwood to injury and infection. Phytopathology 69: 11431147.
  • Shain L. 1993. The induction of antifungal hydrolases in forest trees. Abstracts: 6th International Congress of Plant Pathology. Ottawa : National Research Council Canada, 126.
  • Shain L, Hillis WE. 1971. Phenolic extractives in Norway spruce and their effects un Fomes, annosus. Phytopathology 61: 841845.
  • Shain L, Mackay JFG. 1973. Phenol–oxidizing enzymes in the heartwood of Pinus radiata. Forest Science 19: 155155.
  • Sharon EM. 1974. An altered pattern of enzyme activity in tissues associated with wounds in Acer saccharum. Physiological Plant Pathology 4: 307312.
  • Shaw CG III. 1985. In vitro responses of different Armillaria taxa to gallic acid, tannie acid and ethanol. Plant Pathology 34: 594602.
  • Shevenell BJ, Shortle WC. 1986. An ion profile of wounded red maple. Phytopathology 76: 132135.
  • Shigo AL. 1969. How Poria obliquua and. Polyporus glorneratus incite tankers. Phytopathology 59: 11641165.
  • Shigo AL. 1979. Tree decay – an expanded concept United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Agriculture Information Bulletin No 419.
  • Shigo AL. 1984. Compartmentalization: a conceptual framework for understanding how trees grow and defend themselves. Annual Review of Phytopathology 22: 189214.
  • Shigo AL. 1986. A new tree biology. Durham , New Hampshire ; Shigo and Trees, Associates.
  • Shigo AL, Marx HG. 1977. Compartmentalize ion of decay in trees. United States Deportment of Agriculture Forest Service. Agriculture Information Bulletin So 405.
  • Shigo AL, McGinnes EA, Funk DT, Rogers N. 1979. Internal defects associated with pruned und nonpruned branch stubs. In black walnut, United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Research Paper NE–440.
  • Shigo AL, Shortle WC. 1979. Compartmentalization of dis-colored wood in heartwood of red oak. Phytopathology 69: 710711.
  • Shigo AL, Shortle WC, Garrett PW. 1977. Genetic control suggested of compartmentalization of discolored wood associated with tree wounds. Forest Science 23: 179182.
  • Shigo A, Tippett JT. 1981. Compartmentalization of American elm tissues infected by Ceratocystis ulmi. Plant Disease 65: 715718.
  • Shirata A. 1978. Production of phytoalexin in cortex tissue of mulberry shoot. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 44: 485492.
  • Shortle WC. 1979. Mechanisms of compartmentalization of decay in living trees. Phytopathology 69: 11471151.
  • Shortle WC, Cowling EB. 1978. Interaction of live sapwood and fungi commonly found in discolored and decayed wood. Phytopathology 68: 617623.
  • Shortle WC, Smith KT. 1990. Decay column boundary layer formation in maple. Biodeterioration Research 3: 377389.
  • Shortle WC, Tattar TA, Rich AE. 1971. Effects of some phenolic compounds on the growth of Phialophora melinii and Fomes conatus. Phytopathology 61: 552555.
  • Shrimpton DM, Whitney HS. 1968. inhibition of growth of blue stain fungi by wood extractives. Canadian Journal of Botany 46: 757761.
  • Sinclair WA, Zahand JP, Melching JB. 1975. Anatomical marker for resistance of Ulmus americana to Ceratocystis ulmi. Phytopathology 65: 349352.
  • Smith C. 1996. Tansley Review No. 86. Accumulation of phytoalexins: defence mechanism and stimulus response system. New Phytologist 132: 000000.
  • Smith KT, Houston DR. 1994. Metal concentrations in wood of sugar maple infected with sapstreak disease. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24: 185188.
  • Smith RS Jr. 1967. Verticicladiella root disease of pines. Phytopathology 57: 935938.
  • Stanislawek SD, Long PG, Davis LK. 1987. Sugar content of xylem sap and susceptibility of willow to Chondrostereum purpureum. New Zealand Journal of Botany 25: 263264.
  • Stenlid J, Johansson M. 1987. Infection of roots of Norway spruce (Picea abies) by Heterobasidion annosum. II. Early changes in phenolic content and toxicity. European Journal of Forest Pathology 17: 217226.
  • Susi A, Mikkelsen JD, von Weissenberg K, Nielsen KK. 1995. Sugar-beet chitinase inhibits the growth of a spruce pathogen. European Journal of Forest Pathology 25: 6164.
  • Suske J, Acker G. 1989. Identification of endophytic hyphae of Lophoderminum picea in tissues of green, symptomless Norway spruce needles by immunoelectron microscopy. Canadian Journal of Botany 67: 17681774.
  • Swain LA, Downum KR. 1991. Phototoxic metabolites of tropical plants. In: HedinFA, ed. Naturally Occurring Pest Bioregulators. American Chemical Society Symposium Series No. 449. Washington . D.C. : American Chemical Society, 361370.
  • Swarbrick T. 1926. The healing of wounds in woody stems. Journal of Pomology and Horticultural Science 5: 98114.
  • Swift MJ. 1965. Loss of suberin from bark tissue rotted by Armillaria mellea. Mature. London 207: 136137.
  • Tabirih PK, Seehann G. 1984. Effects of Botryodiplodia theobromae attack on abachi wood (Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum.). Material unit Organismen 19: 921.
  • Takahashi K, Shirata A. 1982. Production of antifungal substances in mulberry. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 16: 114124.
  • Takasugi M, Kumagai Y, Nagao S, Masamune T, Shirata A, Takahashi K. 1980a. Studies on phytoalexins of the Moraceae: 6. The co-occurrence of flavan and 1.3-diphtnylpropane derivatives in wounded paper mulberry. Chemistry Letters (1980): 14591460.
  • Takasugi M, Munoz L, Masamune T, Shirata A, Takahashi K. 1978a. Stilbene phytoalexins from diseased mulberry. Chemistry Letters (1978b): 12411242.
  • Takasugi M, Nagao S, Masamune A, Shirata A, Takahashi K. 1978. Structure of moracin A and B, new phytoalexins from diseased mulberry. Tetrahedron Letters (1978) No. 9. 797798.
  • Takasugi Of, Nagao S, Masamune T, Shirata A, Takahashi K. 1979. Structures of moracins E. P, G and H, new phytoalexins from diseased mulberry. Tetrahedron Letters (1979) No. 48: 46754678.
  • Takasugi M, Nagao S, Ueno S, Masamune T, Shirata A, Takahashi K. 1978c. Moracin C and D, new phytoalexins from diseased mulberry. Chemistry Letters (1978): 12391240.
  • Takasugi M, Nogao T, Masamune T, Shirata A, Takahashi K. 1980b. Chalcomoracin, a natural diels-alder adduct from diseased mulberry. Chemistry Letters (1980): 15731576.
  • Tattar TA, Rich AE. 1973. Extractable phenols in clear; discolored and decayed woody tissues and bark of sugar maple and red maple. Phytopathology 63: 167169.
  • Tattar TA, Shortle WC, Rich AE. 1971. Sequence of microorganisms and changes in constituents associated with discoloration and decay of sugar maples infected with Fomes conatus. Phytopathology 61: 556558.
  • Thacker DG, Good HM. 1952. The composition of air in trunks of sugar maple in relation to decay. Canadian Journal of Botany 30: 475485.
  • Tippett JT. 1986. Formation and fate of kin veins in Eucalyptus L'Hérit. 1AW A Bulletin 7: 137143.
  • Tippett JT, Bogle AL, Shigo AL. 1982. Response of balsam fir and hemlock roots to injuries. European Journal of Forest Pathology 12: 357364.
  • Tippett JT, Shea SR, Hill TC, Shearer BL. 1983. Development of lesions caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi in the secondary phloem of Eucalyptus marginata, Australian Journal of Botany 31: 197210.
  • Tippett JT, Shigo AL. 1980. Harrier zone anatomy in red pine roots invaded by Heterobasidion annosum. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 10: 224232.
  • Tippett JT, Shigo AL. 1981a. Harrier zone formation: a mechanism of tree defense against vascular pathogens. IAWA Bulletin us 2: 163168.
  • Tippett JT, Shigo AL. 1981b. Harriers to decay in conifer roots. European Journal of Purest Pathology 11: 5159.
  • Toscano Underwood CD, Pearce RB. 1991. Astringin and isorhapontin distribution in Sitka spruce trees. Phytochemistry 30: 21832189.
  • Tourvielle de Labrouhe D. 1982. Pénétration de Rosellinia necatrix (Hart.) Berl. dans les raciness du pommier en conditions de contamination artificielle. Agronomie 2: 553560.
  • Vance CP, Kirk TK, Sherwood RT. 1980. Lignification as a mechanism of disease resistance. Annual Review of Phytopathology 18: 259288.
  • Ward JC, Zeikus JG. 1980. bacteriological, chemical and physical properties of wetwood in living trees. In: BauchJ. ed. Natural Variations of Wood Properties. Mitt Bundesforschunganst Forst-Holzwirtsch 131: 133166.
  • Wargo PM. 1972. Defoliation–induced chemical changes in sugar maple roots stimulate growth of Armillaria melted. Phytopathology 62: 12781283.
  • Wargo PM. 1975. Lysis of the cell wall of Armillaria by enzymes from forest trees. Physiological Plant Pathology 5: 99105.
  • White DA, Kile GA. 1993. Discoloration and decay from artificial wounds in 20–year–old Eucalyptus regnans. European Journal of Forest Pathology 23: 431440.
  • White DA, Kile GA. 1994. Breakdown of barrier zones and prediction of the spread of discolouration and decay resulting from stem wounds in Eucalyptus regnans and E. obliqua. European Journal of Forest Pathology 24: 7178.
  • Wilcox WW. 1973. Degradation in relation to wood structure. In: NicholasDL, ed. Wood Deterioration und its Prevention by Preservative Treatments. Vol. I. Degradation and Protection of Wood. Syracuse , New York : Svracuse University Press. 107148.
  • Wong WC, Preece TF. 1978a. Erwinia salicis siilhis. in cricket bat willows: peroxidase, β-glucosidase, pectinolytic and cellulolytic enzyme activity in diseased wood. Physiological Plant Pathology 12: 333347.
  • Wong WC, Preece TF. 1978. Erwinia salicis siilhis. in cricket bat willows: phenolic constituents in healthy and diseased wood. Physiological Plant Pathology 12: 349357.
  • Woodward S. 1992. Responses of gymnosperm bark tissues to fungal infections. In: BlanchetteRA, BiggsAR. eds. Defense Mechanisms of Woody Plants Against Fungi. Berlin : Springer–Verlag, 6275.
  • Woodward S, Pearce RB. 1985. Methods fur visualizing hyaline fungi for the detection of antifungal compounds on thin–layer chromatograms. Plant Pathology 34: 477480.
  • Woodward S, Pearce RB. 1988a. The role of stilbenes in the resistance of Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis (Bung.) Carr.) to entry of decay fungi. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 33: 127144.
  • Woodward S, Pearce RB. 1988b. Wound-associated responses in Sitka spruce root bark challenged with Phaeolus schweinitzii. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 33: 151162.
  • Worrall JJ, Parmeter JR Jr. 1982. Wetwood formation as a host response in white fir, European Journal of Forest. Pathology 12: 432441.
  • Yamada T. 1992. Biochemistry of gymnosperm xylem responses to fungal invasion. In: BlarichetteRA, BiggsAR, eds. Defense Mechanisms of Woody Plants Against Fungi. Berlin : Springer-Verlag, 147164.
  • Yamada T, Tamura H, Mineo K. 1988. The response of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don.) sapwood to fungal invasion following attack by the sugi bark borer. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 33: 429442.
  • Yang D, Hubbes M Jr, Jeng RS, Hubbes M. 1994. A glycoprotein isolated from culture filtrates of Ophiostoma ulmi as a mansonone-inducing elicitor on elm callus. Mycological Research 98: 295300.
  • Yang D, Jeng RS, Hubbes M. 1989. Mansonone accumulation in elm callus cultures induced by elicitors of Ophiostoma ulmi, and general properties of elicitors. Canadian Journal of Botany 67: 34903497.
  • Yoshikawa M. 1983. Macromolecules, recognition and the triggering of resistance. In: CallowJA. ed, Biochemical Plant Pathology. Chichester : John Wiley & Sons. 267298.
  • Young, DH, Pegg GF. 1981. Purification and characterization of 1,3-β-glucan hydrolases from healthy Verticillium alboatrum-infected tomato plants. Physiological Plant Pathology 19: 391417.
  • Zadoks JC, Schein RD. 1979. Epidemiology and plant disease management, Oxford : Oxford University Press.
  • Zimmermann W, Seemuller E. 1984. Degradation of raspberry suberin by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi and Armillaria mellea. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 110: 192199.