SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Arredondo JT, Johnson DA. 1999. Root architecture and biomass allocation of three grasses in response to nonuniform supply of nutrients and shoot defoliation. New Phytologist 143: 373385.
  • Van Auken OW, Manwaring JH, Caldwell MM. 1992. Effectiveness of phosphate acquisition by juvenile cold-desert perennials from different patterns of fertile-soil microsites. Oecologia 91: 16.
  • Baldwin JP. 1975. A quantitative analysis of the factors affecting plant nutrient uptake from some soils. Journal of Soil Science 26: 195206.
  • Barber SA, Cushman JH. 1981. Nutrient uptake model for agronomic crops. In: IskanderIK, ed. Modelling wastewater renovation for land treatment. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 382409.
  • BassiriRad H, Caldwell MM. 1992a. Temporal changes in root growth and N-15 uptake and water relations of two tussock grass species recovering from water stress. Physiologia Plantarum 86: 525531.
  • BassiriRad H, Caldwell MM. 1992b. Root growth, osmotic adjustment and NO3 uptake during and after a period of drought in Artemisia tridentata. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 19: 493500.
  • BassiriRad H, Tremmel DC, Virginia A, Reynolds JF, De Soyna AG. 1999. Short-term patterns in water and nitrogen acquisition by two desert shrubs following a simulated summer rain. Plant Ecology 145: 2736.
  • Bending GD, Read DJ. 1995. The structure and function of the vegetative mycelium of ectomycorrhizal plants. V. The foraging behaviour of ectomycorrhizal mycelium and the translocation of nutrients from expolited organic matter. New Phytologist 130: 401409.
  • Bengough AG. 2003. Root growth and function in relation to soil structure, composition, and strength. In: De KroonH, VisserEJW, eds. Root ecology. Ecological studies, Vol. 168. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 151171.
  • Berendse F. 1981. Competition between plants with different rooting depths. II. Pot experiments. Oecologia 48: 334341.
  • Berendse F. 1982. Competition between plant populations with different rooting depths. III. Field experiments. Oecologia 53: 5055.
  • Berendse F. 1983. Interspecific competition and niche differentiation between Plantago lanceolata and Anthoxanthum odoratum in a natural hayfield. Journal of Ecology 71: 379390.
  • Bilbrough CJ, Caldwell MM. 1995. The effects of shading and N status on root proliferation in nutrient patches by the perennial grass Agropyron desertorum in the field. Oecologia 103: 1016.
  • Bliss K, Jones RH, Mitchell RJ, Mou PP. 2002. Are competitive interactions influenced by spatial nutrient heterogeneity and root foraging behavior? New Phytologist 154: 409417.
  • Bloom AJ, Chapin FS, Mooney HA. 1985. Resource limitation in plants – an economic analogy. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16: 363392.
  • Boerjan W, Cervera M-T, Delarue M, Beeckman T, Dewitte W, Bellini C, Caboche M, Van Onckelen H, Van Monatgu M, Inze D. 1995. Superroot, a recessive mutation in Arabidopsis, confers auxin expression. Plant Cell 7: 14051419.
  • Burns IG. 1991. Short- and long-term effects of a change in the spatial distribution of nitrate in the root zone on nitrogen uptake, growth and root development of young lettuce plants. Plant, Cell & Environment 14: 2133.
  • Caldwell MM. 1994. Exploiting nutrients in fertile soil microsites. In: CaldwellMM, PearcyRW, eds. Exploitation of environmental heterogeneity of plants. New York, NY, USA: Academic Press, 325347.
  • Caldwell MM, Dudley LM, Lilieholm B. 1992. Soil solution phosphate, root uptake kinetics and nutrient acquisition: implications for a patchy soil environment. Oecologia 89: 305309.
  • Caldwell MM, Manwaring JH, Durham SL. 1996. Species interactions at the level of fine roots in the field: influence of soil nutrient heterogeneity and plant size. Oecologia 106: 440447.
  • Campbell BD, Grime JP. 1989. A comparative study of plant responsiveness to the duration of episodes of mineral nutrient enrichment. New Phytologist 112: 261267.
  • Campbell BD, Grime JP, Mackey JML. 1991. A trade-off between scale and precision in resource foraging. Oecologia 87: 532538.
  • Casper BB, Cahill JF Jr. 1996. Limited effects of soil nutrient heterogeneity on populations of Abutilon theophrasti (Malvaceae). American Journal of Botany 85: 333341.
  • Casper BB, Cahill Jr JF. 1998. Population level responses to nutrient heterogeneity and density by Abutilon theophrasti (Malvaceae): an experimental neighborhood approach. American Journal of Botany 85: 16801687.
  • Casper BB, Jackson RB. 1997. Plant competition underground. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28: 545570.
  • Chalot M, Brun A. 1998. Physiology of organic acquisition by ectomycorrhizal fungi and ectomycorrhizas. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 22: 2144.
  • Chapin FS III. 1980. The mineral nutrition of wild plants. Annual Review of Ecological Systematics 11: 233260.
  • Chiariello N, Hickman JC, Mooney HA. 1982. Endomycorrhizal role for interspecific transfer of phosphorus in a community of annual plants. Science 217: 941943.
  • Cui M, Caldwell MM. 1996a. Facilitation of plant phosphate acquisition by arbuscular mycorrhizas from enriched soil patches. I. Roots and hyphae exploiting the same soil volume. New Phytologist 133: 453460.
  • Cui M, Caldwell MM. 1996b. Facilitation of plant phosphate acquisition by arbuscular mycorrhizas from enriched soil patches. II. Hyphae exploiting root-free soil. New Phytologist 133: 461467.
  • Cui M, Caldwell MM. 1997a. A large ephemeral release of nitrogen upon wetting a dry soil and corresponding root responses in the field. Plant and Soil 191: 291299.
  • Cui M, Caldwell MM. 1997b. Shading reduces exploitation of soil nitrate and phosphate by Agropyron desertorum and Artemisia tridentata from soils with patchy and uniform nutrient distributions. Oecologia 109: 177183.
  • Cui M, Caldwell MM. 1998. Nitrate and phosphate uptake by Agropyron desertorum and Artemisia tridentata from soil patches with balanced and unbalanced nitrate and phosphate supply. New Phytologist 139: 267272.
  • D’Antonio CM, Mahall BE. 1991. Root profiles and competition between the invasive, exotic perennial, Carpobrotus edulis, and two native shrub species in California coastal scrub. American Journal of Botany 78: 885894.
  • Dowson CG, Springham P, Rayner ADM, Boddy L. 1989. Resource relationships of foraging mycelial systems of Phanerochaete velutina and Hypholoma fasciculare in soil. New Phytologist 111: 501509.
  • Drew MC. 1975. Comparison of the effects of a localized supply of phosphate, nitrate, ammonium and potassium on the growth of the seminal root system, and the shoot, in barley. New Phytologist 75: 479490.
  • Drew MC, Saker LR. 1975. Nutrient supply and the growth of the seminal root system in barley. II. Localized, compensatory increases in lateral root growth and rates of nitrate uptake when nitrate supply is restricted to only part of the root system. Journal of Experimental Botany 26: 7990.
  • Drew MC, Saker LR. 1978. Nutrient supply and the growth of the seminal root system in barley. III. Compensatory increases in growth of lateral roots, and in rates of phosphate uptake in response to a localised supply of phosphate. Journal of Experimental Botany 29: 435451.
  • Drew MC, Saker LR, Ashley TW. 1973. Nutrient supply and the growth of the seminal root system in barley. I. The effect of nitrate concentration on the growth of axes and laterals. Journal of Experimental Botany 24: 11891202.
  • Duke SE, Caldwell MM. 2000. Phosphate uptake kinetics of Artemisia tridentata roots exposed to multiple soil enriched-nutrient patches. Flora 195: 154164.
  • Edwards EJ, Benham DG, Marland LA, Fitter AH. 2004. Root production is determined by radiation flux in a temperate grassland. Global Change Biology (In press.)
  • Einsmann JC, Jones RH, Mou P, Mitchell RJ. 1999. Nutrient foraging traits in 10 co-occurring plant species of contrasting life forms. Journal of Ecology 87: 609619.
  • Eissenstat DM. 1991. On the relationship between specific root length and the rate of root proliferation: a field study using citrus rootstocks. New Phytologist 118: 6368.
  • Eissenstat DM, Caldwell MM. 1988. Seasonal timing of root growth in favorable microsites. Ecology 69: 870873.
  • Eissenstat DM, Yanai RD. 1997. The ecology of root lifespan. Advances in Ecological Research 27: 160.
  • Eissenstat DM, Wells CE, Yanai RD, Whitbeck JL. 2000. Building roots in a changing environment: implications for root longevity. New Phytologist 147: 3342.
  • Evans ML, Ishikawa H, Estelle MA. 1994. Responses of Arabidopsis roots to auxin studied with high temporal resolution: comparison of wild-type and auxin-resistant mutants. Planta 194: 215222.
  • Farley RA, Fitter AH. 1999a. Temporal and spatial variation in soil resources in a deciduous woodland. Journal of Ecology 87: 688696.
  • Farley RA, Fitter AH. 1999b. The response of seven co-occurring woodland herbaceous perennials to localized nutrient-rich patches. Journal of Ecology 87: 849859.
  • Fitter AH. 1982. Influence of soil heterogeneity on the co-existence of grassland species. Journal of Ecology 70: 139148.
  • Fitter AH. 1985. Functional significance of root morphology and root system architecture. In: FitterAH, AtkinsonD, ReadDJ, UsherMB, eds. Ecologicai interactions in soil. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 87106.
  • Fitter AH. 1991. Costs and benefits of mycorrhizas: implications for functioning under natural conditions. Experientia 47: 350355.
  • Fitter AH. 1994. Architecture and biomass allocation as components of the plastic response of root systems to soil heterogeneity. In: CaldwellMM, PearcyRW, eds. Exploitation of environmental heterogeneity of plants. New York, NY, USA: Academic Press, 305323.
  • Fitter AH, Graves JD, Self GK, Brown TK, Bogie D, Taylor K. 1998. Root production, turnover and respiration under two grassland types along an altitudinal gradient: influence of temperature and solar radiation. Oecologia 114: 2030.
  • Fitter AH, Self GK, Brown TK, Bogie DS, Graves JD, Benham D, Ineson P. 1999. Root production and turnover in an upland grassland subjected to artificial soil warming respond to radiation flux and nutrients, not temperature. Oecologia 120: 575581.
  • Fitter AH, Williamson L, Linkohr B, Leyser O. 2002. Root system architecture determines fitness in an Arabidopsis mutant in competition for immobile phosphate ions but not for nitrate ions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 269: 20172022.
  • Forbes PJ, Black KE, Hooker JE. 1997. Temperature-induced alteration to root longevity in Lolium perenne. Plant and Soil 190: 8790.
  • Forde BG. 2002. Local and long-range signaling pathways regulating plant responses to nitrate. Annual Review of Plant Biology 53: 203224.
  • Fransen B, De Kroon H. 2001. Long-term disadvantages of selective root placement: root proliferation and shoot biomass of two perennial grass species in a 2-year experiment. Journal of Ecology 89: 711722.
  • Fransen B, De Kroon H, Berendse F. 1998. Root morphological plasticity and nutrient acquisition of perennial grass species from habitats of different nutrient availability. Oecologia 115: 351358.
  • Fransen B, De Kroon H, Berendse F. 2001. Soil nutrient heterogeneity alters competition between two perennial grass species. Ecology 82: 25342546.
  • Genney DR, Alexander IJ, Hartley SE. 2002. Soil organic matter distribution and below-ground competition between Calluna vulgaris and Nardus stricta. Functional Ecology 16: 664670.
  • Gersani M, Sachs T. 1992. Developmental correlations between roots in heterogeneous environments. Plant, Cell & Environment 15: 463469.
  • Gersani M, Abramsky Z, Falik O. 1998. Density-dependent habitat selection in plants. Evolutionary Ecology 12: 223234.
  • Gersani M, Brown JS, O'Brien EE, Maina GM, Abramsky Z. 2001. Tragedy of the commons as a result of root competition. Journal of Ecology 89: 660669.
  • Granato TC, Raper CD Jr. 1989. Proliferation of maize (Zea mays L.) roots in response to localized supply of nitrate. Journal of Experimental Botany 40: 263275.
  • Griffiths BS, Van Vuuren MMI, Robinson D. 1994. Microbial grazer populations in a 15N labelled organic residue and the uptake of residue N by wheat. European Journal of Agronomy 3: 321325.
  • Grime JP. 1979. Plant strategies and vegtation processes. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
  • Grime JP. 1994. The role of plasticity in exploiting environmental heterogeneity. In: CaldwellMM, PearcyRW, eds. Exploitation of environmental heterogeneity of plants. New York, NY, USA: Academic Press, 119.
  • Grime JP, Crick JC, Rincon JE. 1986. The ecological significance of plasticity. In: JenningsDH, TrewavasAJ, eds. Plasticity in plants. Cambridge, UK: Company of Biologists, 530.
  • Grime JP, Campbell BD, Mackey JML, Crick JC. 1991. Root plasticity, nitrogen capture and competitive ability. In: AtkinsonD, ed. Plant root growth: an ecological perspective. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 381397.
  • Gross KL, Peters A, Pregitzer KS. 1993. Fine root growth and demographic responses to nutrient patches in four old-field plant species. Oecologia 95: 6164.
  • Hendrick RL, Pregitzer KS. 1992. The demography of fine roots in a northern hardwood forest. Ecology 73: 10941104.
  • Hodge A. 2001. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence decomposition of, but not plant nutrient capture from, glycine patches in soil. New Phytologist 151: 725734.
  • Hodge A. 2003a. N capture by Plantago lanceolata and Brassica napus from organic material: the influence of spatial dispersion, plant competition and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Journal of Experimental Botany 54: 23312342.
  • Hodge A. 2003b. Plant nitrogen capture from organic matter as affected by spatial dispersion, interspecific competition and mycorrhizal colonization. New Phytologist 157: 303314.
  • Hodge A, Stewart J, Robinson D, Griffiths BS, Fitter AH. 1998. Root proliferation, soil fauna and plant nitrogen capture from nutrient-rich patches in soil. New Phytologist 139: 479494.
  • Hodge A, Robinson D, Griffiths BS, Fitter AH. 1999a. Why plants bother: root proliferation results in increased nitrogen capture from an organic patch when two grasses compete. Plant, Cell & Environment 22: 811820.
  • Hodge A, Robinson D, Griffiths BS, Fitter AH. 1999b. Nitrogen capture by plants grown in N-rich organic patches of contrasting size and strength. Journal of Experimental Botany 50: 12431252.
  • Hodge A, Stewart J, Robinson D, Griffiths BS, Fitter AH. 1999c. Plant, soil fauna and microbial responses to N-rich organic patches of contrasting temporal availability. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 31: 15171530.
  • Hodge A, Robinson D, Fitter AH. 2000a. Are microorganisms more effective than plants at competing for nitrogen? Trends in Plant Science 5: 304308.
  • Hodge A, Robinson D, Fitter AH. 2000b. An arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculum enhances root proliferation in, but not nitrogen capture from, nutrient-rich patches in soil. New Phytologist 145: 575584.
  • Hodge A, Stewart J, Robinson D, Griffiths BS, Fitter AH. 2000c. Spatial and physical heterogeneity of N supply from soil does not influence N capture by two grass species. Functional Ecology 14: 645653.
  • Hodge A, Stewart J, Robinson D, Griffiths BS, Fitter AH. 2000d. Competition between roots and soil micro-organisms for nutrients from nitrogen-rich patches of varying complexity. Journal of Ecology 88: 150164.
  • Hodge A, Stewart J, Robinson D, Griffiths BS, Fitter AH. 2000e. Plant N capture and microfaunal dynamics from decomping grass and earthworm residues in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32: 17631772.
  • Hodge A, Campbell CD, Fitter AH. 2001. An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus accelerates decomposition and acquires nitrogen directly from organic material. Nature 413: 297299.
  • Hooker JE, Black KE, Perry RL, Atkinson D. 1995. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi induced alteration to root longevity of poplar. Plant and Soil 172: 327329.
  • Huante P, Rincón E, Chapin FS III. 1998. Foraging for nutrients, responses to changes in light, and competition in tropical deciduous tree seedlings. Oecologia 117: 209216.
  • Huber-Sannwald E, Pyke DA, Caldwell MM. 1996. Morphological plasticity following species–species recognition and competition in two perennial grasses. American Journal of Botany 83: 919931.
  • Huber-Sannwald E, Pyke DA, Caldwell MM. 1997. Perception of neighbouring plants by rhizomes and roots: morphological manifestations of a clonal plant. Canadian Journal of Botany 75: 21462157.
  • Hutchings MJ, De Kroon H. 1994. Foraging in plants: the role of morphological plasticity in resource acquistion. Advances in Ecological Research 25: 159238.
  • Ivans CY, Leffler AJ, Spaulding U, Stark JM, Ryel RJ, Caldwell MM. 2003. Root responses and nitrogen acquisition by Artemisia tridentata and Agropyron desertorum following small summer rainfall events. Oecologia 134: 317324.
  • Jackson RB, Caldwell MM. 1989. The timing and degree of root proliferation in fertile-soil microsites for three cold-desert perennials. Oecologia 81: 149153.
  • Jackson RB, Caldwell MM. 1991. Kinetic responses of Pseudoroegneria root to localized soil enrichment. Plant and Soil 138: 231238.
  • Jackson RB, Caldwell MM. 1992. Shading and the capture of localized soil nutrients: nutrient contents, carbohydrates, and root uptake kinetics of a perennial tussock grass. Oecologia 91: 457462.
  • Jackson RB, Caldwell MM. 1993a. Geostatistical patterns of soil heterogeneity around individual perennial plants. Journal of Ecology 81: 683692.
  • Jackson RB, Caldwell MM. 1993b. The scale of nutrient heterogeneity around individual plants and its quantification with geostatistics. Ecology 74: 612614.
  • Jackson RB, Manwaring JH, Caldwell MM. 1990. Rapid physiological adjustment of roots to localized soil enrichment. Nature 344: 5860.
  • Jackson RB, Canadell J, Ehleringer JR, Mooney HA, Sala OE, Schulze ED. 1996. A global analysis of root distributions for terrestrial biomes. Oecologia 108: 389411.
  • Jackson RB, Moore LA, Hoffmann WA, Pockman WT, Linder CR. 1999. Ecosystem rooting depth determined with caves and DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96: 1138711392.
  • De Jager A. 1982. Effects of localized supply of H2PO4, NO3, SO4, Ca and K on the production and distribution of dry matter in young maize plants. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 30: 193203.
  • Jingguo W, Bakken LR. 1997. Competition for nitrogen during decomposition of plant residues in soil: effect of spatial placement of N-rich and N-poor plant residues. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 29: 153162.
  • Jumpponen A, Högberg P, Huss-Danell K, Mulder CPH. 2002. Interspecific and spatial differences in nitrogen uptake in monocultures and two-species mixtures in north European grasslands. Functional Ecology 16: 454461.
  • Kaye JP, Hart SC. 1997. Competition for nitrogen between plants and soil micro-organisms. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12: 139143.
  • King JS, Albaugh TJ, Allen HL, Buford M, Strain BR, Dougherty P. 2002. Below-ground carbon input to soil is controlled by nutrient availability and fine root dynamics in loblolly pine. New Phytologist 154: 389398.
  • Kosola KR, Eissenstat DM, Graham JH. 1995. Root demography of mature citrus trees: the influence of Phytophthora nictianae. Plant and Soil 171: 283288.
  • De Kroon H, Mommer L, Nishiwaki A. 2003. Root competition: towards a mechanistic understanding. In: De KroonH, VisserEJW, eds. Root Ecology. Ecological Studies, Vol. 168. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 215234.
  • Larigauderie A, Richards JH. 1994. Root proliferation characteristics of seven perennial arid-land grasses in nutrient-enriched microsites. Oecologia 99: 102111.
  • Leuschner C, Hertel D, Coners H, Büttner V. 2001. Root competition between beech and oak: a hypothesis. Oecologia 126: 276284.
  • Linder CR, Moore LA, Jackson RB. 2000. A universal molecular method for identifying underground plant parts to species. Molecular Ecology 9: 15491559.
  • Linkohr BI, Williamson LC, Fitter AH, Leyser HMO. 2002. Nitrate and phosphate availability and distribution have different effects on root system architecture of Arabidopsis. Plant Journal 29: 751760.
  • Maina GG, Brown JS, Gersani M. 2002. Intra-plant versus inter-plant root competition in beans: avoidance, resource matching or tragedy of the commons. Plant Ecology 160: 235247.
  • Majdi H, Nylund J-E. 1996. Does liquid fertilization affect fine root dynamics and lifespan of mycorrhizal short roots? Plant and Soil 185: 305309.
  • Mamolos AP, Elisseou GK, Veresoglou DS. 1995. Depth of root activity of coexisting grassland species in relation to N and P additions, measured using nonradioactive tracers. Journal of Ecology 83: 643652.
  • McGonigle TP, Fitter AH. 1988. Ecological consequences of arthropod grazing on VA mycorrhizal fungi. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Series B 94: 2532.
  • Morris EC. 1996. Effect of localized placement of nutrients on root competition in self-thinning populations. Annals of Botany 78: 353364.
  • Mosse B. 1959. Observations on the extramatrical mycelium of a vesicular–arbuscular endophyte. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 42: 439448.
  • Mou P, Mitchell RJ, Jones RH. 1997. Root distribution of two tree species under a heterogeneous nutrient environment. Journal of Applied Ecology 34: 645656.
  • Newman EI. 1988. Mycorrhizal links between plants: their functioning and ecological significance. Advances in Ecological Research 18: 243270.
  • Nicolson TH. 1959. Mycorrhiza in the Gramineae. I. Vesicular–arbuscular endophytes, with special reference to the external phase. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 42: 421438.
  • Ozinga WA, Van Andel J, McDonnell-Alexander MP. 1997. Nutritional soil heterogeneity and mycorrhiza as determinants of plant species diversity. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 46: 237254.
  • Pregitzer KS. 2002. Fine roots of trees – a new perspective. New Phytologist 154: 267270.
  • Pregitzer KS, Hendrick RL, Fogel R. 1993. The demography of fine roots in response to patches of water and nitrogen. New Phytologist 125: 575580.
  • Pregitzer KS, Kubiske ME, Yu CK, Hendrick RL. 1997. Relationships among root branch order, carbon, and nitrogen in four temperate species. Oecologia 111: 302308.
  • Pregitzer KS, Laskowski MJ, Burton AJ, Lessard VC, Zak DR. 1998. Variation in sugar maple root respiration with root diameter and soil depth. Tree Physiology 18: 665670.
  • Pregitzer KS, DeForest JL, Burton AJ, Allen MF, Ruess RW, Hendrick RL. 2002. Fine root architecture of nine North American trees. Ecological Monographs 72: 293309.
  • Reynolds HL, D’Antonio C. 1996. The ecological significance of plasticity in root weight ratio in response to nitrogen: opinion. Plant and Soil 185: 7597.
  • Ritz K, Millar SM, Crawford JW. 1996. Detailed visualization of hyphal distribution in fungal mycelia growing in heterogeneous nutritional environments. Journal of Microbiological Methods 25: 2328.
  • Robinson D. 1994. The responses of plants to non-uniform supplies of nutrients. New Phytologist 127: 635674.
  • Robinson D. 1996. Resource capture by localized root proliferation: Why do plants bother? Annals of Botany 77: 179186.
  • Robinson D. 2001. Root proliferation, nitrate inflow and their carbon costs during nitrogen capture by competing plants in patchy soil. Plant and Soil 232: 4150.
  • Robinson D, Rorison IH. 1983. A comparison of the responses of Lolium perenne L. Holcus lanatus L. and Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. to a localized supply of nitrogen. New Phytologist 94: 263273.
  • Robinson D, Van Vuuren MMI. 1998. Responses of wild plants to nutrient patches in relation to growth rate and life-form. In: LambersH, PoorterH, Van VuurenMMI, eds. Variation in plant growth. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys, 237257.
  • Robinson D, Linehan DJ, Gordon DC. 1994. Capture of nitrate from soil by wheat in relation to root length, nitrogen inflow and availability. New Phytologist 128: 297305.
  • Robinson D, Hodge A, Griffiths BS, Fitter AH. 1999. Plant root proliferation in nitrogen-rich patches confers competitive advantage. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 265: 431435.
  • Robinson D, Hodge A, Fitter AH. 2003. Constraints on the form and function of root systems. In: De KroonH, VisserEJW, eds. Root ecology. Ecological studies, Vol. 168. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 131.
  • Schenk HJ, Callaway RM, Mahall BE. 1999. Spatial root segregation: are plants territorial? Advances in Ecological Research 28: 145180.
  • Scott BJ, Robson AD. 1991. The distribution of Mg, P and K in the split roots of subterranean clover. Annals of Botany 67: 251256.
  • Silberbush M, Barber SA. 1983. Sensitivity of simulated phosphorus uptake to parameters used by a mechanistic-mathematical model. Plant and Soil 36: 461473.
  • Smith SE, Read DJ. 1997. Mycorrhizal symbiosis. London, UK: Academic Press.
  • St John TV, Coleman DC, Reid CPP. 1983a. Association of vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae with soil organic particles. Ecology 64: 957959.
  • St John TV, Coleman DC, Reid CPP. 1983b. Growth and spatial distribution of nutrient-absorbing organs: selective exploitation of soil heterogeneity. Plant and Soil 71: 487493.
  • Tibbett M. 2000. Roots, foraging and the exploitation of soil nutrient patches: the role of mycorrhizal symbiosis. Functional Ecology 14: 397399.
  • Tinker PB, Nye PH. 2000. Solute movement in the rhizosphere. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  • Veresoglou DS, Fitter AH. 1984. Spatial and temporal patterns of growth and nutrient uptake of five co-existing grasses. Journal of Ecology 72: 259272.
  • Van Vuuren MMI, Robinson D, Griffiths BS. 1996. Nutrient inflow and root proliferation during the exploitation of a temporally and spatially discrete source of nitrogen in soil. Plant and Soil 178: 185192.
  • Wells CE, Eissenstat DM. 2001. Marked differences in survivorship among apple roots of different diameters. Ecology 82: 882892.
  • Van Der Werf A, Kooijman A, Welschen R, Lambers H. 1988. Respiratory energy costs for the maintenance of biomass, for growth and for ion uptake in roots of Carex diandra and Carex acutiformis. Physiologia Plantarum 72: 483491.
  • Wiesler F, Horst WJ. 1994. Root growth amd nitrate utilization of maize cultivars under field conditions. Plant and Soil 163: 267277.
  • Wijesinghe DK, John EA, Beurskens S, Hutchings MJ. 2001. Root system size and precision in nutrient foraging: responses to spatial pattern of nutrient supply in six herbaceous species. Journal of Ecology 89: 972983.
  • Williamson LC, Ribrioux SPCP, Fitter AH, Leyser HMO. 2001. Phosphate availability regulates root system architecture in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 126: 875890.
  • Zhang H, Forde BG. 1998. An Arabidopsis MADS box gene that controls nutrient-induced changes in root architecture. Science 279: 407409.
  • Zhang H, Forde BG. 2000. Regulation of Arabidopsis root development by nitrate availability. Journal of Experimental Botany 51: 5159.
  • Zhang H, Jennings A, Barlow PW, Forde BG. 1999. Dual pathways for regulation of root branching by nitrate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96: 65296534.