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Keywords:

  • Golgi apparatus;
  • green fluorescent protein;
  • membrane trafficking

Contents

  • Summary 1

  • I. 
    Introduction 1
  • II. 
    What is the plant Golgi apparatus? 2
  • III. 
    Out of the ER 3
  • IV. 
    Regulation of ER to Golgi transport 4
  • V. 
    Retrograde transport – Golgi to ER – the role of ARF  and COPI 7
  • VI. 
    Transport down the stack 9
  • VII. 
    Targeting within the Golgi 9
  • VIII. 
    Holding it all together 10
  • IX. 
    Exit from the stack 11
  • X. 
    Roles for lipids 12
  • XI. 
    Conclusions 12
  • Acknowledgements 12

  • Note added in proof 13

  • References 13

Summary

The higher plant Golgi apparatus, comprising many individual stacks of membrane bounded cisternae, is one of the most enigmatic of the cytoplasmic organelles. Not only can the stacks receive material from the endoplasmic reticulum, process it and target it to the correct cellular destination, but they can also synthesise and export complex carbohydrates and lipids and most likely act as one end point of the endocytic pathway. In many cells such processing and sorting can take place while the stacks are moving within the cytoplasm and, remarkably, the organelle manages to retain its structural integrity. This review considers some of the latest data and views on transport both to and from the Golgi and the mechanisms by which such activity is regulated.