Repeated evolution of dioecy from androdioecy in Acer
Article first published online: 12 NOV 2004
Volume 165, Issue 2, pages 633–640, February 2005
How to Cite
Gleiser, G. and Verdú, M. (2005), Repeated evolution of dioecy from androdioecy in Acer. New Phytologist, 165: 633–640. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01242.x
- Issue published online: 12 NOV 2004
- Article first published online: 12 NOV 2004
- Received: 13 July 2004 Accepted: 25 August 2004
- comparative method;
- evolution of dioecy;
- evolutionary trends;
- sexual specialization
- • The evolution of breeding systems was studied in the genus Acer, with special attention to the origin of androdioecy and dioecy, using a phylogenetic approach.
- • Parsimony and maximum-likelihood techniques were used to infer the ancestral character state and trends in the evolution of breeding systems. Information on breeding systems was obtained from the literature, and phylogenetic relationships were taken from three published phylogenies.
- • Although a general trend from duodichogamy to dioecy through heterodichogamy has been proposed for the genus Acer, our results show that a general trend is not detected when phylogenetic relationships are taken into account. Dioecy appeared as a derived state that evolved at least three times and never reversed towards other states.
- • Three different paths to dioecy have been followed in the genus Acer: from heterodichogamous androdioecy; from heterodichogamous trioecy; and from dichogamous subdioecy. Therefore, although the best documented cases of evolution of androdioecy indicate that this breeding system evolves from dioecy, in the genus Acer the opposite situation occurs (androdioecy leading to dioecy). Here we discuss the role of inbreeding avoidance and sexual specialization as selective forces driving the evolution of dioecy in the genus Acer.