SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Amato M, Pardo A. 1994. Root length and biomass losses during sample preparation with different screen mesh sizes. Plant and Soil 161: 299303.
  • Amato M, Ritchie JT. 2002. Spatial distribution of roots and water uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) as affected by soil structure. Crop Science 42: 773780.
  • Armstrong W. 1979. Aeration in higher plants. Advances in Botanical Research 7: 225330.
  • Asseng S, Ritchie JT, Smucker AJM, Robertson MJ. 1998. Root growth and water uptake during water deficit and recovering in wheat. Plant and Soil 201: 265273.
  • Babel U, Benecke P, Hartge KH, Horn R, Wiechmann H. 1995. Determination of soil structure at various scales. In: HartgeKH, StewartBA, eds. Soil structure: Its Development and Function. Boca Raton, FL, USA: Lewis Publishers, 1130.
  • Bengough AG, Croser C, Pritchard J. 1997. A biophysical analysis of root growth under mechanical stress. Plant and Soil 189: 155164.
  • Böhm W. 1979. Methods of Studying Root Systems. Ecological Studies 33. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
  • Bouma TJ, Nielsen KL, Koutstaal B. 2000. Sample preparation and scanning protocol for computerised analysis of root length and diameter. Plant and Soil 218: 185196.
  • Bresson LMB, Moran CJ. 1998. High-resolution bulk density images, using calibrated X-ray radiography of impregnated soil slices. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62: 299305.
  • Buckland ST, Campbell CD, Mackie-Dawson LA, Horgan GW, Duff EI. 1993. A method for counting roots observed in minirhizotrons and their theoretical conversion to root length density. Plant and Soil 153: 16.
  • Caldwell MM, Dudley LM, Lilieholm B. 1992. Soil solution phosphate, root uptake kinetics and nutrient acquisition: implications for a patchy soil environment. Oecologia 89: 305309.
  • Costa C, Dwyer LM, Zhou X, Dutilleul P, Hamel C, Reid LM, Smith DL. 2002. Root morphology of contrasting maize genotypes. Agronomy Journal 94: 96101.
  • Costa C, Dwyer LM, Hamel C, Muamba DF, Wang XL, Nantais L, Smith DL. 2001. Root contrast enhancement for measurement with optical scanner-based image analysis. Canadian Journal of Botany 79: 2329.
  • Cresswell HP, Kirkegaard JA. 1995. Subsoil amelioration by plant roots – the process and the evidence. Australian Journal of Soil Research 33: 221239.
  • De Ruijter FJ, Veen BW, Van Oijen M. 1996. A comparison of soil core sampling and minirhizotrons to quantify root development of field-grown potatoes. Plant and Soil 182: 301312.
  • Dittmer HJ. 1937. A quantitative study of the roots and root hairs of a winter rye plant (Secale cereale). American Journal of Botany 24: 417420.
  • Dittmer HJ. 1938. A quantitative study of the subterranean members of three field grasses. American Journal of Botany 25: 654657.
  • Dunbabin V, Diggle AJ, Rengel Z, Van Hungten R. 2002a. Modelling the interactions between water and nutrient uptake and root growth. Plant and Soil 239: 1938.
  • Dunbabin V, Diggle AJ, Rengel Z. 2002b. Simulation of field data by a basic three-dimensional model of interactive root growth. Plant and Soil 239: 3954.
  • Ehlers W, Köpke U, Hesse F, Böhm W. 1983. Penetration resistance and root growth of oats in tilled and untilled loess soil. Soil and Tillage Research 3: 261275.
  • Gathumbi SM. 2004. Root recovery of five tropical tree and shrub species by sieves of different mesh sizes. Agroforestry Systems 60: 233237.
  • Hamblin AP, Tennant D. 1987. Root length density and water uptake in cereals and grain legumes: how well are they correlated? Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 38: 513527.
  • Harris K, Young IM, Ritzb K, Gilligana CA, Otten W. 2003. Effect of bulk density on the spatial organisation of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani in soil. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 44: 4556.
  • Heeraman DA, Juma NG. 1993. A comparison of minirhizotron, core and monolith methods for quantifying barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) root distribution. Plant and Soil 148: 2941.
  • Heeraman DA, Hopmans JW, Clausnitzer V. 1997. Three dimensional imaging of plant roots in situ with X-ray computed tomography. Plant and Soil 189: 167179.
  • Hodge A. 2004. The plastic plant: root responses to heterogeneous supplies of nutrients. New Phytologist 162: 924.
  • Hodge A, Robinson D, Griffiths BS, Fitter AH. 1999. Why plants bother: root proliferation results in increased nitrogen capture from an organic patch when two grasses compete. Plant, Cell & Environment 22: 811820.
  • Jackson RB, Canadell J, Ehleringer JR, Mooney HA, Sala OE, Schulze ED. 1996. A global analysis of root distributions for terrestrial biomes. Oecologia 108: 389411.
  • Jackson RB, Mooney HA, Schulze ED. 1997. A global budget for fine root biomass, surface area, and nutrient contents. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94: 73627366.
  • Johnson MG, Tingey DT, Phillips DL, Storm MJ. 2001. Advancing fine root research with minirhizotrons. Environmental and Experimental Botany 45: 263289.
  • King JS, Albaugh TJ, Allen HL, Buford M, Strain BR, Dougherty P. 2002. Below-ground carbon input to soil is controlled by nutrient availability and fine root dynamics in loblolly pine. New Phytologist 154: 389398.
  • King J, Gay A, Sylvester-Bradley R, Bingham I, Foulkes J, Gregory P, Robinson D. 2003. Modelling cereal root systems for water and nitrogen capture: towards an economic optimum. Annals of Botany 91: 383390.
  • Kirkham MB, Grecu SJ, Kanemasu ET. 1998. Comparison of minirhizotrons and the soil-water-depletion method to determine maize and soybean root length and depth. European Journal of Agronomy 8: 117125.
  • Kooistra MJ, Schoonderbeek D, Boone FR, Veen BW, Van Noordwijk M. 1992. Root–soil contact of maize, as measured by a thin-section technique. II. Effects of soil compaction. Plant and Soil 139: 119129.
  • Krebs M, Kretzschmar A, Babel U, Chadoeuf J, Goulard M. 1994. Investigations on distribution patterns in soil: basic and relative distributions of roots, channels and cracks. Developments in Soil Science 22: 437449.
  • Kucke M, Schmid H, Spiess A. 1995. A comparison of four methods for measuring roots of field crops in three contrasting soils. Plant and Soil 172: 6371.
  • Liedgens M, Richner W. 2001. Relation between maize (Zea mays L.) leaf area and root density observed with minirhizotrons. European Journal of Agronomy 15: 131141.
  • Livesley SJ, Stacey CL, Gregory PJ, Buresh RJ. 1998. Sieve size effects on root length and biomass measurements of maize (Zea mays) and Grevillea robusta. Plant and Soil 207: 183193.
  • McCully ME. 1999. Roots in soil: unearthing the complexities of roots and their rhizospheres. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 50: 695718.
  • Melhuish FW, Lang ARG. 1968. Quantitative studies of roots in soil: I. Length and diameters of cotton roots in a clay-loam soil by the analysis of surface-ground blocks of resin-impregnated soil. Soil Science 106: 1622.
  • Melhuish FM, Lang ARG. 1970. Quantitative studies of roots in soil. 2. Analysis of non-random populations. Soil Science 112: 161166.
  • Merrill SD, Upchurch DR. 1994. Converting root numbers observed at minirhizotrons to equivalent root length density. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58: 10611067.
  • Merrill SD, Tanaka DL, Hanson JD. 2002. Root length growth of eight crop species in Haplustoll soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66: 913923.
  • Meyer WS, Barrs HD. 1991. Roots in irrigated clay soils: Measurement techniques and responses to root zone conditions. Irrigation Science 12: 125134.
  • Moran CJ, McBratney AB, Koppi AJ. 1989. A rapid method for analysis of soil macropore structure. I. Specimen preparation and digital binary image production. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53: 921928.
  • Moran CJ, Pierret A, Stevenson AW. 2000. X-ray absorption and phase contrast imaging to study the interplay between plant roots and soil structure. Plant and Soil 223: 99115.
  • Norby RJ, Ledford J, Reilly CD, Miller NE, O'Neill EG. 2004. Fine-root production dominates response of a deciduous forest to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 101: 96899693.
  • Van Noordwijk M, Brouwer G. 1991. Review of quantitative root length data in agriculture. In: McMichaelBL, PerssonH, eds. Plant Roots and their Environment. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Elsevier, 515525.
  • Van Noordwijk M, Kooistra MJ, Boone FRFR, Veen BW, Schoonderbeek D. 1992. Root–soil contact of maize, as measured by a thin-section technique. I. Validity of the method. Plant and Soil 139: 109118.
  • Van Noordwijk M, Brouwer G, Meijboom F, Do Rosario M, Oliveira G, Bengough AG. 2000. Trench profile techniques and core break methods. In: SmitAL, BengoughAG, EngelsC, NoordwijkM, PellerinS, GeijnSC, eds. Root Methods: A Handbook. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 211233.
  • Otten W, Harris K, Young IM, Ritzb K, Gilligana CA. 2004. Preferential spread of the pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani through structured soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 36: 203210.
  • Pallant E, Holmgren RA, Schuler GE, McCracken KL, Drbal B. 1993. Using a fine-root extraction device to quantify small-diameter corn roots (≤0.025 mm) in field soils. Plant and Soil 153: 273279.
  • Pankhurst CE, Pierret A, Hawke BG, Kirby JM. 2002. Microbiological and chemical properties of soil associated with macropores at different depths in a red-duplex soil in NSW Australia. Plant and Soil 238: 1120.
  • Pardo A, Amato M, Chiaranda FQ. 2000. Relationships between soil structure, root distribution and water uptake of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Plant growth and water distribution. European Journal of Agronomy 13: 3945.
  • Pavlychenko TK. 1937. Quantitative study of the entire root systems of weed and crop plants under field conditions. Ecology 18: 6279.
  • Pearson CJ, Jacobs BC. 1985. Root distribution in space and time in Trifolium subterraneum. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 36: 601614.
  • Pierret A, Moran CJ, Pankhurst C. 1999. Differentiation of soil properties related to the spatial association of wheat roots and soil macropores. Plant and Soil 211: 5158.
  • Pierret A, Moran CJ, McLachlan CB, Kirby JM. 2000. Measurement of root length density in intact samples using X-radiography and image analysis. Image Analysis and Stereology 19: 145149.
  • Pierret A, Doussan C, Garrigues E, Kirby JM. 2003. Observing plant roots in their environment: current imaging options and specific contribution of two-dimensional approaches. Agronomie 23: 471479.
  • Pregitzer KS. 2002. Fine roots of trees – a new perspective. New Phytologist 154: 267273.
  • Pregitzer KS, Laskowski MJ, Burton AJ, Lessard VC, Zak DR. 1998. Variation in sugar maple root respiration with root diameter and soil depth. Tree Physiology 18: 665670.
  • Pregitzer KS, DeForest JL, Burton AJ, Allen MF, Ruess RW, Hendrick RL. 2002. Fine root architecture of nine North American trees. Ecological Monographs 72: 293309.
  • Do Rosario G, Oliveira M, Van Noordwijk M, Gaze SR, Brouwer G, Bona S, Mosca G, Hairiah K. 2000. Auger sampling, ingrowth cores and pinboard methods. In: SmitAL, BengoughAG, EngelsC, NoordwijkM, PellerinS, GeijnSC, eds. Root Methods: A Handbook. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 175210.
  • Smit AL, George E, Groenwold J. 2000. Root observations and measurements at (transparent) interfaces with soil. In: SmitAL, BengoughAG, EngelsC, NoordwijkM, PellerinS, GeijnSC, eds. Root Methods: A Handbook. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 235271.
  • Smucker AJM. 1984. Carbon utilization and losses by plant root systems. In: BarberSA, BouldenDR, eds. Roots, Nutrient and Water Influx, and Plant Growth. Special Publication no. 49. Madison, WI, USA: American Society of Agronomy, 2746.
  • Smucker AJM, Aiken RM. 1992. Dynamic root responses to water deficits. Soil Science 154: 281289.
  • Smucker AJM, McBurney SL, Strivastava AK. 1982. Quantitative separation of roots from compacted soil profiles by the hydropneumatic elutriation system. Agronomy Journal 7: 500503.
  • Soil Survey Staff. 1998. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. 7th edn. Washington, DC, USA: USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service, US Government Printing Office.
  • Staddon PL, Ramsey CB, Ostle N, Ineson P, Fitter AH. 2003. Rapid turnover of hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi determined by AMS microanalysis of C-14. Science 300: 11381140.
  • Stewart JB. 1997. The Spatial Distribution of Plant Roots and their Interaction with Soil Structure. PhD thesis, University of Sydney, Australia.
  • Stewart JB, Moran CJ, McBratney AB. 1994. Measurement of root distribution from sections through undisturbed soil specimen. Developments in Soil Science 22: 507514.
  • Stewart JB, Moran CJ, Wood JT. 1999. Macropore sheath: quantification of plant root and soil macropore association. Plant and Soil 211: 5967.
  • Thomas CD, Cameron A, Green RE, Bakkenes M, Beaumont LJ, Collingham YC, Erasmus BFN, De Siqueira MF, Grainger A, Hannah L, Hughes L, Huntley B, Van Jaarsveld AS, Midgley G, Miles L, Ortega-Huerta MA, Peterson AT, Phillips OL, Williams SE. 2004. Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427: 145148.
  • Tierney GL, Fahey TJ. 2002. Fine root turnover in a northern hardwood forest: a direct comparison of the radiocarbon and minirhizotron methods. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 32: 16921697.
  • Vamerali T, Ganis A, Bona S, Mosca G. 1999. An approach to minirhizotron root image analysis. Plant and Soil 217: 183193.
  • Veen BW, Van Noordwijk M, De Willigen P, Boone FR, Kooistra MJ. 1992. Root-soil contact of maize, as measured by a thin-section technique: III. Effects on shoot growth, nitrate and water uptake efficiency. Plant and Soil 139: 131138.
  • Vogt KA, Vogt DJ, Bloomfield J. 1998. Analysis of some direct and indirect methods for estimating root biomass and production of forests at an ecosystem level. Plant and Soil 200: 7189.
  • Wells CE, Eissenstat DM. 2001. Marked differences in survivorship among apple roots of different diameters. Ecology 82: 882892.
  • Xue Q, Zhu Z, Musick JT, Stewart BA, Dusek DA. 2003. Root growth and water uptake in winter wheat under deficit irrigation. Plant and Soil 257: 151161.
  • Yano K, Yamauchi A, Kono Y. 1998. Arbuscular mycorrhizal formation in undisturbed soil counteracts compacted soil stress for pigeon pea. Applied Soil Ecology 10: 95102.
  • Zobel R. 2003. Fine roots – discarding flawed assumptions. New Phytologist 160: 276278.
  • Zuo Q, Jie F, Zhang R, Meng L. 2004. A generalized function of wheat's root length density distributions. Vadose Zone Journal 3: 271277.