SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  1. References
  2. Appendix
  • Arnone JA. 1999. Symbiotic N-2 fixation in a high Alpine grassland: effects of four growing seasons of elevated CO2. Functional Ecology 13: 383387.
  • Blumenthal JM, Russelle MP. 1996. Subsoil nitrate uptake and symbiotic dinitrogen fixation by alfalfa. Agronomy Journal 88: 909915.
  • Burdon J, Gibson A, Searle S, Woods M, Brockwell J. 1999. Variation in the effectiveness of symbiotic associations between native rhizobia and temperate Australian Acacia: within-species interactions. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 398408.
  • Danso SKA, Hardarson G, Zapata F. 1993. Misconceptions and practical problems in the use of 15N soil enrichment techniques for estimating N2 fixation. Plant and Soil 152: 2552.
  • Doyle JJ, Luckow MA. 2003. The rest of the iceberg. Legume diversity and evolution in a phylogenetic context. Plant Physiology 131: 900910.
  • Eriksen J, Høgh-Jensen H. 1998. Variations in the natural abundance of N-15 in ryegrass/white clover shoot material as influenced by cattle grazing. Plant and Soil 205: 6776.
  • Feng Z, Dyckmans J, Flessa H. 2004. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and N-2 fixation of young Robinia pseudoacacia. Tree Physiology 24: 323330.
  • Handley LL, Scrimgeour CM. 1997. Terrestrial plant ecology and N-15 natural abundance: The present limits to interpretation for uncultivated systems with original data from a Scottish old field. In: Begon M, Fitter AH, eds. Advances in Ecological Research, Vol. 27. London, UK: Academic Press Ltd, 133212.
  • Hansen JP, Vinther FP. 2001. Spatial variability of symbiotic N2 fixation in grass-white clover pastures estimated by the 15N isotope dilution method and the natural 15N abundance method. Plant and Soil 230: 257266.
  • Hartwig UA, Luscher A, Nosberger J, Van Kessel C. 2002. Nitrogen-15 budget in model ecosystems of white clover and perennial ryegrass exposed for four years at elevated atmospheric pCO (2). Global Change Biology 8: 194202.
  • Hobbie SE. 1992. Effects of plant species on nutrient cycling. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7: 336339.
  • Høgh-Jensen H, Schjoerring JK. 1997. Interactions between white clover and ryegrass under contrasting nitrogen availability: N2 fixation, N fertilizer recovery, N transfer and water use efficiency. Plant and Soil 197: 187199.
  • Hooper D, Dukes JS. 2004. Overyielding among plant functional groups in a long-term experiment. Ecology Letters 7: 95105.
  • Hooper DU, Vitousek PM. 1997. The effects of plant composition and diversity on ecosystem processes. Science 277: 13021305.
  • Hungate BA, Dijkstra P, Johnson DW, Hinkle CR, Drake BG. 1999. Elevated CO2 increases nitrogen fixation and decreases soil nitrogen mineralization in Florida scrub oak. Global Change Biology 5: 781789.
  • Hungate BA, Stilling PD, Dijkstra P, Johnson DW, Ketterer ME, Hymus GJ, Hinkle CR, Drake BG. 2004. CO2 elicits long-term decline in nitrogen fixation. Science 304: 1291.
  • Kiers ET, Rousseau RA, West SA, Denison RF. 2003. Host sanctions and the legume–rhizobium mutualism. Nature 425: 7881.
  • Körner C. 2000. Biosphere responses to CO2 enrichment. Ecological Applications 10: 15901619.
  • Leadley PW, Niklaus PA, Stocker R, Körner C. 1999. A field study of the effects of elevated CO2 on plant biomass and community structure in a calcareous grassland. Oecologia 118: 3949.
  • Lee TD, Reich PB, Tjoelker MG. 2003a. Legume presence increases photosynthesis and N concentrations of co-occurring non-fixers but does not modulate their responsiveness to carbon dioxide enrichment. Oecologia 137: 2231.
  • Lee TD, Tjoelker MG, Reich PB, Russelle MP. 2003b. Contrasting growth response of an N-2-fixing and non-fixing forb to elevated CO2: dependence on soil N supply. Plant and Soil 255: 475486.
  • Lewin KF, Hendrey GR, Nagy J, LaMorte R. 1994. Design and application of a free air carbon dioxide enrichment facility. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 70: 1529.
  • Luscher A, Hartwig UA, Suter D, Nosberger J. 2000. Direct evidence that symbiotic N-2 fixation in fertile grassland is an important trait for a strong response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2. Global Change Biology 6: 655662.
  • Niklaus PA, Leadley PW, Schmid B, Körner C. 2001. A long-term field study on biodiversity–elevated CO2 interactions in grassland. Ecological Monographs 71: 341356.
  • Ofosubudu KG, Noumura K, Fujita K. 1995. N-2 fixation, N transfer and biomass production of soybean cv. Bragg or it supernodulating NTS1007 and sorghum mixed-cropping at 2 rates of N fertilizer. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 27: 311317.
  • Pearson HL, Vitousek PM. 2001. Stand dynamics, nitrogen accumulation, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in regenerating stands of Acacia koa. Ecological Applications 11: 13811394.
  • Pearson HL, Vitousek PM. 2002. Soil phosphorus fractions and symbiotic nitrogen fixation across a substrate-age gradient in Hawaii. Ecosystems 5: 587596.
  • Poorter H, Navas M-L. 2003. Plant growth and competition at elevated CO2: on winners, losers and functional groups. New Phytologist 157: 175198.
  • Popescu A. 1998. Contributions and limitations to symbiotic nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Romania. Plant and Soil 204: 117125.
  • Provorov NA, Tikhonovich IA. 2003. Genetic resources for improving nitrogen fixation in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 50: 8999.
  • Rastetter EB, Shaver GR. 1992. A model of multiple-element limitation for acclimating vegetation. Ecology 73: 11571174.
  • Reich PB, Knops J, Tilman D, Craine J, Ellsworth D, Tjoelker MG, Lee T, Naeem S, Wedin D, Bahauddin D, Hendrey G, Jose S, Wrage K. 2001a. Plant diversity enhances ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition. Nature 410: 809810.
  • Reich PB, Tilman D, Craine J, Ellsworth D, Tjoelker MG, Knops J, Wedin D, Naeem S, Bahauddin D, Goth J, Bengtson W, Lee TD. 2001b. Do species and functional groups differ in acquisition and use of C, N and water under varying atmospheric CO2 and N availability regimes? A field test with 16 grassland species. New Phytologist 150: 435448.
  • Riffkin PA, Quigley PE, Kearney GA, Cameron FJ, Gault RR, Peoples MB, Thies JE. 1999. Factors associated with biological nitrogen fixation in dairy pastures in south-western Victoria. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 50: 261272.
  • Ritchie ME, Tilman D. 1995. Responses of legumes to herbivores and nutrients during succession on a nitrogen-poor soil. Ecology 76: 26482655.
  • Sabo A. 2003. Responses of phenology and changes in nitrogen uptake of grassland species to elevated carbon dioxide, nitrogen fertilization, and interspecific competition. MS Thesis, University of Minnesota, St Paul, USA.
  • Shabayev VP, Smolin VY, Mudrik VA. 1996. Nitrogen fixation and CO2 exchange in soybeans (Glycine max L.) inoculated with mixed cultures of different microorganisms. Biology and Fertility of Soils 23: 425430.
  • Shearer G, Kohl D. 1991. The 15N natural abundance method for measuring biological nitrogen fixation: practicalities and possibilities. In: Flitton SP, ed. Stable Isotopes in Plant Nutrition, Soil Fertility and Environmental Studies. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Association, 103115.
  • Soussana JF, Hartwig UA. 1996. The effects of elevated CO2 on symbiotic N-2 fixation: a link between the carbon and nitrogen cycles in grassland ecosystems. Plant and Soil 187: 321332.
  • Sprent JI. 2001. Nodulation in Legumes. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.
  • Sprent J. 2002. Knobs, knots and nodules – the renaissance in legume symbiosis research. New Phytologist 153: 26.
  • Teyssonneyre F, Picon-cochard C, Falcimagne R, Soussana JF. 2002. Effects of elevated CO2 and cutting frequency on plant community structure in a temperate grassland. Global Change Biology 8: 10341046.
  • Tilman D. 1984. Plant dominance along an experimental nutrient gradient. Ecology 65: 14451453.
  • Tilman D. 1987. Secondary succession and the patterns of plant dominance along experimental nitrogen gradients. Ecological Monographs 57: 189214.
  • Uliassi DD, Ruess RW. 2002. Limitations to symbiotic nitrogen fixation in primary succession on the Tanana River floodplain. Ecology 83: 88103.
  • Vitousek PM, Cassman K, Cleveland C, Crews T, Field C, Grimm N, Howarth R, Marino R, Martinelli L, Rastetter EB, Sprent J. 2002. Towards an ecological understanding of biological nitrogen fixation. Biogeochemistry 57/58: 145.
  • Vitousek PM, Field CB. 1999. Ecosystem constraints to symbiotic nitrogen fixers: a simple model and its implications. Biogeochemistry 46: 179202.
  • Wedin DA, Tilman D. 1990. Species effects on nitrogen cycling – a test with perennial grasses. Oecologia 84: 433441.
  • West JB, Espeleta JF, Donovan LA. 2003. Differences in root longevity and phenology between two co-occurring, native sandhill bunchgrasses. Functional Ecology 17: 2028.
  • Zanetti S, Hartwig UA, VanKessel C, Luscher A, Hebeisen T, Frehner M, Fischer BU, Hendrey GR, Blum H, Nosberger J. 1997. Does nitrogen nutrition restrict the CO2 response of fertile grassland lacking legumes? Oecologia 112: 1725.

Appendix

  1. References
  2. Appendix

References used for constructing the normal distribution of B-values in the bootstrap analysis (values from references marked with an asterisk were taken from Boddey et al., 2000).

  • Bergerson FJ, Peoples MB, Turner GL. 1986. Strain of Rhizobium lupine determines natural abundance of 15N in root nodules of Lupinus spp. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 18: 97101.
  • Boddey RM, Peoples MB, Palmer B, Dart PJ. 2000. Use of the 15N natural abundance technique to quantify biological nitrogen fixation by woody perennials. Nutrient cycling in Agroecosystems 57: 235270.
  • Byun J, Sheaffer CC, Russelle MP, Ehlke NJ, Wyse DL, Graham PH. 2004. Dinitrogen fixation in Illinois bundleflower. Crop Science 44: 493500.
  • Dulormne M, Sierra J, Nygren P, Cruz P. 2003. Nitrogen-fixation dynamics in a cut-and-carry silvopastoral system in the subhumid conditions of Guadeloupe, French Antilles. Agroforestry Systems 59: 121129.
  • Kilian S, Von Berswordt-Wallrabe P, Steele H, Werner D. 2001. Cultiver-specific dinitrogen fixation in Vicia faba studied with the nitrogen-15 natural abundance method. Biology and Fertility of Soils 33: 358364.
  • Kohl DH, Shearer G. 1980. Isotopic fractionation associated with symbiotic N2 fixation and uptake of -NO3 by plants. Plant Physiology 66: 5156.
  • Ladha JK, Peoples MB, Garrity DP, Capuno VT, Dart PJ. 1993. Estimating dinitrogen fixation of hedgerow vegetation using the nitrogen-15 natural abundance method. Journal of the Soil Science Society of America 57: 732737.
  • Muofhe ML, Dakora FD. 1999. Nitrogen nutrition in nodulated field plants of the shrub tea legume Aspalathus linearis assessed using 15N natural abundance. Plant and Soil 209: 181186.
  • Myrold DD, Huss-Danell K. 2003. Alder and Lupine enhance nitrogen cycling in a degraded forest soil in Northern Sweden. Plant and Soil 254: 4756.
  • Peoples MB, Palmer B, Lilley DM, Duc LM, Herridge DF. 1996. Application of N-15 and xylem ureide methods for assessing N2 fixation of three shrub legumes periodically pruned for forage. Plant and Soil 182: 125137.
  • Sanborn P, Preston C, Brockley R. 2002. N2-fixation by Sitka alder in a young lodgepole pine stand in central interior British Columbia, Canada. Forest Ecology and Management 167: 223231.
  • Shearer G, Kohl DH, Harper JE. 1980. Distribution of 15N among plant parts of nodulating and non-nodulating isolines of soybeans. Plant Physiology 66: 5760.
  • Shearer G, Kohl DH. 1986. N2-fixation in field settings, estimations based on natural 15N abundance. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 13: 699756.
  • Steele KW, Bonish PM, Daniel RM, O'Hara GW. 1983. Effect of rhizobial strain and host plant on nitrogen isotopic fractionation in legumes. Plant Physiology 72: 10011004.
  • Wanek W, Arndt SK. 2002. Difference in δ15N signatures between nodulated roots and shoots of soybean is indicative of the contribution of symbiotic N2 fixation to plant N. Journal of Experimental Botany 53: 11091118.
  • Yoneyama T, Fujita K, Yoshida T, Matsumoto T, Kambayashi I. 1986. Variation in natural abundance of 15N among plant parts and in 15N/14N fractionation during N2 fixation in the legume rhizobia symbiotic system. Plant and Cell Physiology 27: 791799.