The novel herbicide oxaziclomefone inhibits cell expansion in maize cell cultures without affecting turgor pressure or wall acidification

Authors

  • Nichola O'Looney,

    1. The Edinburgh Cell Wall Group, Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, The King's Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JH, UK
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  • Stephen C. Fry

    Corresponding author
    1. The Edinburgh Cell Wall Group, Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, The King's Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JH, UK
      Author for correspondence: Stephen C. Fry Tel: +44 131 650 5320 Fax: +44 131 650 5392 Email: S.Fry@ed.ac.uk
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Author for correspondence: Stephen C. Fry Tel: +44 131 650 5320 Fax: +44 131 650 5392 Email: S.Fry@ed.ac.uk

Summary

  • • Oxaziclomefone [OAC; IUPAC name 3-(1-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1-methylethyl)-3,4-dihydro-6-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,3-oxazin-4-one] is a new herbicide that inhibits cell expansion in grass roots. Its effects on cell cultures and mode of action were unknown. In principle, cell expansion could be inhibited by a decrease in either turgor pressure or wall extensibility.
  • • Cell expansion was estimated as settled cell volume; cell division was estimated by cell counting. Membrane permeability to water was measured by a novel method involving simultaneous assay of the efflux of 3H2O and [14C]mannitol from a ‘bed’ of cultured cells. Osmotic potential was measured by depression of freezing point.
  • • OAC inhibited cell expansion in cultures of maize (Zea mays), spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and rose (Rosa sp.), with an ID50 of 5, 30 and 250 nm, respectively. In maize cultures, OAC did not affect cell division for the first 40 h. It did not affect the osmotic potential of cell sap or culture medium, nor did it impede water transport across cell membranes. It did not affect cells’ ability to acidify the apoplast (medium), which may be necessary for ‘acid growth’.
  • • As OAC did not diminish turgor pressure, its ability to inhibit cell expansion must depend on changes in wall extensibility. It could be a valuable tool for studies on cell expansion.

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