• 3D modelling;
  • centromere;
  • endosperm;
  • telomere;
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)


  • • 
    We have developed methods, based on confocal microscopy and three-dimensional (3D) modelling, for the analysis of complex tissues and individual nuclei. These methods were used to study the development of early wheat (Triticum aestivum) endosperm as a whole and of endosperm nuclei undergoing polyploidization.
  • • 
    Fixed sections of immature caryopses were either stained with SYTOX Green or used for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to visualize centromeres, telomeres and a rye chromosome arm substitution. Each section was imaged as a confocal image stack. By using Amira 3.0 for computer image processing, rendered models were produced of the whole endosperm and of individual nuclei.
  • • 
    We followed endosperm development up to the formation of a complete syncytium, which develops via a dorsal and a ventral plate of nuclei in the central cell. Modelling of nuclei showed that wheat chromosomes are not anchored to the nuclear membrane and become more randomly positioned in endoreduplicated nuclei.
  • • 
    This analysis produced a precise description of the positioning of nuclei throughout the developing endosperm and of chromosomal domains in single nuclei.