Three-dimensional modelling of wheat endosperm development
Article first published online: 15 JUL 2005
Volume 168, Issue 1, pages 253–262, October 2005
How to Cite
Wegel, E., Pilling, E., Calder, G., Drea, S., Doonan, J., Dolan, L. and Shaw, P. (2005), Three-dimensional modelling of wheat endosperm development. New Phytologist, 168: 253–262. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01503.x
- Issue published online: 15 JUL 2005
- Article first published online: 15 JUL 2005
- Received: 29 March 2005 Accepted: 24 May 2005
- 3D modelling;
- wheat (Triticum aestivum)
- • We have developed methods, based on confocal microscopy and three-dimensional (3D) modelling, for the analysis of complex tissues and individual nuclei. These methods were used to study the development of early wheat (Triticum aestivum) endosperm as a whole and of endosperm nuclei undergoing polyploidization.
- • Fixed sections of immature caryopses were either stained with SYTOX Green or used for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to visualize centromeres, telomeres and a rye chromosome arm substitution. Each section was imaged as a confocal image stack. By using Amira 3.0 for computer image processing, rendered models were produced of the whole endosperm and of individual nuclei.
- • We followed endosperm development up to the formation of a complete syncytium, which develops via a dorsal and a ventral plate of nuclei in the central cell. Modelling of nuclei showed that wheat chromosomes are not anchored to the nuclear membrane and become more randomly positioned in endoreduplicated nuclei.
- • This analysis produced a precise description of the positioning of nuclei throughout the developing endosperm and of chromosomal domains in single nuclei.