• comparative mapping;
  • gene duplication;
  • gene loss;
  • gene order;
  • synteny


Comparative mapping studies have revealed a great deal about the patterns of gene order and gene content evolution in plants. These findings have practical importance for leveraging genomic information from model to nonmodel plant species. However, there is much to be learned about the processes by which gene order and content evolve. The role of gene duplication and loss in the evolution of plant gene order, in particular, appears to be more important than commonly appreciated. An exciting area of current research is the study of gene order and content polymorphism within species. Some recent findings suggest that there may be a functional, and adaptive, relationship between gene order and phenotype that is mediated by the effects of gene order on transcriptional regulation.