SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adams RM, Hamilton SA, McCarl BA. 1986. The benefits of pollution control: the case for ozone and US agriculture. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 68: 886893.
  • Alban DH, Perala DA. 1990. Ecosystem carbon following aspen harvesting in the Upper Great Lakes. In: AdamsRD, ed. Aspen Symposium’ 89. Proceedings. General Technical Report NC-140. St Paul, MN, USA: USDA Forest Service, 123131.
  • Allen JH. 1990. Plant response to rising carbon dioxide and potential interactions with air pollutants. Journal of Environmental Quality 19: 1534.
  • Amthor JS. 1995. Terrestrial higher-plant response to increasing atmospheric [CO2] in relation to the global carbon cycle. Global Change Biology 1: 243274.
  • Andersen CP. 2003. Source–sink balance and carbon allocation below ground in plants exposed to ozone. New Phytologist 157: 213228.
  • Baskerville GL. 1972. Use of logarithmic regression in the estimation of plant biomass. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 2: 4953.
  • Birdsey RA, Lewis GM. 2002. Current and historical trends in use, management, and disturbance of US forestlands. In: KimbleJM, HeathLS, BirdseyRA, LalR, eds. The Potential of US Forest Soils to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 1533.
  • Broadmeadow MSJ, Jackson SB. 2000. Growth responses of Quercus petraea, Fraxinus excelsior and Pinus sylvestris to elevated carbon dioxide, ozone and water supply. New Phytologist 146: 437451.
  • Calfapietra C, Gielen B, Galema ANJ, Lukac M, DeAngelis P, Moscatelli MC, Ceulemans R, Scarascia-Mugnozza G. 2003. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) enhances biomass production in a short-rotation poplar plantation. Tree Physiology 23: 805814.
  • Cannell MGR. 1985. Dry matter partitioning in tree crops. In: CannellMGR, JacksonJE, eds. Attributes of Trees as Crop Plants. Huntingdon, UK: Natural Environmental Research Council, 160193.
  • Caspersen JP, Pacala SW, Jenkins JC, Hurtt GC, Moorcroft PR, Birdsey RA. 2000. Contributions of land-use history to carbon accumulation in US forests. Science 290: 11481151.
  • Ceulemans R, Mousseau M. 1994. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on woody plants. New Phytologist 127: 425446.
  • Chappelka AH, Samuelson LJ. 1998. Ambient ozone effects on forest trees of the eastern United States: a review. New Phytologist 139: 91108.
  • Curtis PS, Wang X. 1998. A meta-analysis of elevated CO2 effects on woody plant mass, form, and physiology. Oecologia 113: 299313.
  • DeLucia EH, Hamilton JG, Naidu SL, Thomas RB, Andrews JA, Finzi A, Lavine M, Matamala R, Mohan JE, Hendrey GR, Schlesinger WH. 1999. Net primary production of a forest ecosystem with experimental CO2 enrichment. Science 284: 11771179.
  • Dickson RE, Coleman MD, Riemenschneider DE, Isebrands JG, Hogan GD, Karnosky DF. 1998. Growth of five hybrid poplar genotypes exposed to interacting elevated CO2 and O3. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 28: 17061716.
  • Dickson RE, Lewin KF, Isebrands JG, Coleman MD, Heilman WE, Riemenschneider DE, Sober J, Host GE, Zak DR, Hendrey GR, Pregitzer KS, Karnosky DF. 2000. Forest Atmosphere Carbon Transfer and Storage (FACTS-II): The Aspen Free-air CO2 and O3 Enrichment (FACE) Project: An Overview. General Technical Report NC-214. St Paul, MN, USA: USDA Forest Service NCRS.
  • Eamus D, Jarvis PG. 1989. The direct effects of increase in the global atmospheric CO2 concentration on natural and commercial temperate forests. Advances in Ecological Research 19: 155.
  • Felzer B, Kicklighter D, Mellilo J, Wang C, Zhuang Q, Prinn R. 2004. Effects of ozone on net primary production and carbon sequestration in the conterminous United States using a biogeochemistry model. Tellus 56B: 230248.
  • Ford ED. 1984. The dynamics of plantation growth. In: BowenGD, NambiarEKS, eds. Nutrition of Plantation Forests. London, UK: Academic Press, 1752.
  • Fowler D, Cape JN, Coyle M, Flechard C, Kuylenstierna J, Hicks K, Derwent D, Johnson C, Stevenson D. 1999. The global exposure of forests to air pollutants. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 116: 532.
  • Gebauer RLE, Reynolds JF, Strain BR. 1996. Allometric relations and growth in Pinus taeda: the effect of elevated CO2 and changing N availability. New Phytologist 134: 8593.
  • Gower ST, Gholz HL, Nakane K, Baldwin VC. 1994. Production and carbon allocation patterns of pine forests. Ecological Bulletins 43: 115135.
  • Hamilton JG, Delucia EH, George K, Naidu SL, Finzi AC, Schlesinger WH. 2002. Forest carbon balance under elevated CO2. Oecologia 131: 250260.
  • Heck WW, Cure WW, Rawlings JO, Zaragoza LJ, Heagle AS, Heggestad HE, Kohut RJ, Kress LW, Temple PJ. 1984. Assessing impacts of ozone on agricultural crops. I. Overview. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 34: 729735.
  • Hendrey GR, Ellsworth DS, Lewin KF, Nagy J. 1999. A free-air enrichment system for exposing tall forest vegetation to elevated atmospheric CO2. Global Change Biology 5: 293309.
  • Hendrick RL, Pregitzer KS. 1996. Temporal and depth-related patterns of fine root dynamics in northern hardwood forests. Journal of Ecology 84: 167176.
  • Holmes WE, Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, King JS. 2003. Soil nitrogen transformations under Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Acer saccharum following 3 years exposure to elevated CO2 and O3. Global Change Biology 9: 17431750.
  • Holmes WE, Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, King JS. 2005. Elevated CO2 and O3 alter soil nitrogen transformations beneath trembling aspen, paper birch, and sugar maple. Ecosystems. (in press.)
  • Houghton JT, Ding Y, Griggs DJ, Noguer M, Van Der Linden PJ, Dai X, Maskell K, Johnson CA. 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
  • Houghton RA, Hackler JL, Lawrence KT. 1999. The US carbon budget: contributions from land-use change. Science 285: 574578.
  • Isebrands JG, McDonald EP, Kruger E, Hendrey G, Pregitzer K, Percy K, Sôber J, Karnosky DF. 2001. Growth responses of Populus tremuloides clones to interacting carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone. Environmental Pollution 115: 359371.
  • Johnson DW. 1999. Simulated nitrogen cycling response to elevated CO2 in Pinus taeda and mixed deciduous forests. Tree Physiology 19: 321327.
  • Karberg NJ, Pregitzer KS, King JS, Friend AL, Wood JR. 2005. Soil carbon dioxide partial pressure and dissolved inorganic carbonate chemistry under elevated carbon dioxide and ozone. Oecologia 142: 296306.
  • Karnosky DF, Gagnon ZE, Dickson RE, Coleman MD, Lee EH, Isebrands JG. 1996. Changes in growth, leaf abscission, and biomass associated with seasonal tropospheric ozone exposures of Populus tremuloides clones and seedlings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 2337.
  • Karnosky DF, Mankovska B, Percy K, Dickson RE, Podila DG, Sober J, Noormets A, Hendrey GR, Coleman MD, Kubiske M, Pregitzer KS, Isebrands JG. 1999. Effects of tropospheric O3 on trembling aspen and interaction with CO2: results from an O3-gradient and a FACE experiment. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 116: 311322.
  • Karnosky DF, Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, Awmack CS, Bockheim JG, Dickson RE, Hendrey GR, Host GE, King JS, Kopper BJ, Kruger EL, Kubiske ME, Lindroth RL, Mattson WJ, McDonald EP, Noormets A, Oksanen E, Parsons WFJ, Percy KE, Podila GK, Riemenschneider DE, Sharma P, Thakur R, Sôber J, Jones WS, Anttonen S, Vapaavuori E, Mankovska B, Heilman W, Isebrands JG. 2003. Tropospheric O3 moderates responses of temperate hardwood forests to elevated CO2: a synthesis of molecular to ecosystem results from the Aspen FACE project. Functional Ecology 17: 289304.
  • Karnosky DF, Pregitzer KS, Zak DR, Kubiske ME, Hendrey GR, Weinstein D, Nosal M, Percy KE. 2005. Scaling ozone responses of forest trees to the ecosystem level in a changing climate. Plant, Cell & Environment 28: 965981.
  • King JS, Thomas RB, Strain BR. 1996. Growth and carbon accumulation in root systems of Pinus taeda and Pinus ponderosa seedlings as affected by varying CO2, temperature, and nitrogen. Tree Physiology 16: 635642.
  • King JS, Albaugh TJ, Allen LH, Kress LW. 1999. Stand-level allometry in Pinus taeda as affected by irrigation and fertilization. Tree Physiology 19: 769778.
  • King JS, Pregitzer KS, Zak DR, Sober J, Isebrands JG, Dickson RE, Hendrey GR, Karnosky DF. 2001. Fine-root biomass and fluxes of soil carbon in young stands of paper birch and trembling aspen as affected by elevated atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3. Oecologia 128: 237250.
  • King JS, Albaugh TJ, Allen LH, Buford M, Strain BR, Dougherty P. 2002. Below-ground carbon input to soil is controlled by nutrient availability and fine root dynamics in loblolly pine. New Phytologist 154: 389398.
  • King JS, Hanson PJ, Bernhardt E, DeAngelis P, Norby RJ, Pregitzer KS. 2004. A multi-year synthesis to elevated atmospheric CO2 from four forest FACE experiments. Global Change Biology 10: 10271042.
  • Kopp RJ, Vaughn WJ, Hazilla M, Carson R. 1985. Implications of environmental policy for US agriculture: the case of ambient ozone standards. Journal of Environmental Management 20: 321331.
  • Krupa S, McGrath MT, Andersen CP, Booker FL, Burkey KO, Chappelka AH, Chevone BI, Pell EJ, Zilinskas BA. 2000. Ozone and plant health. Plant Disease 85: 412.
  • Kurz WA, Beukema SJ, Apps MJ. 1996. Estimation of root biomass and dynamics for the carbon budget model of the Canadian forest sector. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 19731979.
  • Larson J, Zak DR, Sinsabaugh RL. 2002. Extracellular enzyme activity and metabolism of root-derived substrates beneath temperate trees growing under elevated CO2 and O3. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66: 18481856.
  • Levy HII, Kasibhatla PS, Moxim WJ, Klonecki AA, Hirsch AI, Oltmans SJ, Chameides WL. 1997. The global impact of human activity on tropospheric ozone. Geophysical Research Letters 24: 791794.
  • Liu X, Kozovits AR, Grams TEE, Blaschke H, Rennenberg H, Matyssek R. 2004. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruce and European beech. Tree Physiology 24: 10451055.
  • Loya WM, Pregitzer KS, Karberg NJ, King JS, Giardina CP. 2003. Reduction of soil carbon formation by tropospheric ozone under increased carbon dioxide levels. Nature 425: 705707.
  • Matyssek R, Innes JL. 1999. Ozone – a risk factor for trees and forests in Europe? Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 116: 199226.
  • McDonald EP, Kruger EL, Riemenschneider DE, Isebrands JG. 2002. Competitive status influences tree-growth responses to elevated CO2 and O3 in aggrading stands. Functional Ecology 16: 792801.
  • McGuire AD, Melillo JM, Joyce LA. 1995. The role of nitrogen in the response of forest net primary production to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26: 473503.
  • Miller HG. 1995. The influence of stand development on nutrient demand, growth and allocation. Plant Soil 168–169: 225232.
  • Murphy JJ, Deluki MA, McCubbin DR, Kim HJ. 1999. The cost of crop damage caused by ozone air pollution from motor vehicles. Journal of Environmental Management 55: 273289.
  • Myneni RB, Dong J, Tucker CJ, Kaufman RK, Kauppi PE, Liski J, Zhou L, Alexeyev V, Hughes MK. 2001. A large carbon sink in the woody biomass of Northern forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 98: 1478414789.
  • Nadelhoffer KJ. 2000. The potential effects of nitrogen deposition on fine root production in forest ecosystems. New Phytologist 147: 131139.
  • Noormets A, Sober A, Pell EJ, Dickson RE, Podila GK, Sober J, Isebrands JG, Karnosky DF. 2001. Stomatal and non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis in two trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones exposed to elevated CO2 and/or O3. Plant, Cell & Environment 24: 327336.
  • Norby RJ, Wullschleger SD, Gunderson CA, Johnson DW, Ceulemans R. 1999. Tree responses to rising CO2 in field experiments: implications for the future forest. Plant, Cell & Environment 22: 683714.
  • Norby RJ, Hanson PJ, O'Neill EG, Tschaplinski TJ, Weltzin JF, Hansen RA, Cheng W, Wullschleger SD, Gunderson CA, Edwards NT, Johnson DW. 2002. Net primary production of a CO2-enriched deciduous forest and the implications for carbon storage. Ecological Applications 12: 12611266.
  • Oren R, Ellsworth DS, Johnsen KH, Phillips N, Ewers BE, Maier C, Schafer KVR, McCarthy H, Hendrey G, McNulty SG, Katul GG. 2001. Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. Nature 411: 469472.
  • Ovington JD. 1957. Dry-matter production by Pinus sylvestris L. Annals of Botany 21: 287314.
  • Pacala SW, Hurtt GC, Baker D, Peylin P, Houghton RA, Birdsey RA, Heath L, Sundquist ET, Stallard RF, Ciais P, Moorcroft P, Caspersen JP, Shevliakova E, Moore B, Kohlmaier G, Holland E, Gloor M, Harmon ME, Fan S-M, Sarmiento JL, Goodale CL, Schimel D, Field CB. 2001. Consistent land- and atmosphere-based US carbon sink estimates. Science 292: 23162319.
  • Paré D, Van Cleve K. 1993. Aboveground biomass production and nutrient accumulation on postharvested white spruce sites in interior Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23: 12331239.
  • Percy KE, Awmack CS, Lindroth RL, Kubiske ME, Kopper BJ, Isebrands JG, Pregitzer KS, Hendrey GR, Dickson RE, Zak DR, Oksanen E, Sober J, Harrington R, Karnosky DF. 2002. Altered performance of forest pests under atmospheres enriched by CO2 and O3. Nature 420: 403407.
  • Pregitzer KS. 2002. Fine roots of trees – a new perspective. New Phytologist 154: 267273.
  • Pregitzer KS, Euskirchen ES. 2004. Carbon cycling and storage in world forests: biome patterns related to forest age. Global Change Biology 10: 20522077.
  • Pye JM. 1988. Impact of ozone on the growth and yield of trees: a review. Journal of Environmental Quality 17: 347360.
  • Rao MV, Hale BA, Ormrod DP. 1995. Amelioration of ozone-induced oxidative damage in wheat plants grown under high carbon dioxide. Plant Physiology 109: 421432.
  • Rebbeck J, Scherzer AJ. 2002. Growth responses of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) exposed to 5 years of O3 alone or combined with elevated CO2. Plant, Cell & Environment 25: 15271537.
  • Riikonen J, Lindsberg M-M, Holopainen T, Oksanen E, Lappi J, Peltonen P, Vapaavuori E. 2004. Silver birch and climate change: variable growth and carbon allocation responses to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone. Tree Physiology 24: 12271237.
  • Ruark GA, Bockheim JG. 1988. Biomass, net primary production, and nutrient distribution for an age sequence of Populus tremuloides ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 18: 435443.
  • Samuelson L, Kelly JM. 2001. Scaling ozone effects from seedlings to forest trees. New Phytologist 149: 2141.
  • Schlesinger WH. 1997. Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press.
  • Strain BR, Bazzaz FA. 1983. Terrestrial plant communities. In: LemonER, ed. CO2 and Plants: The Response of Plants to Rising Levels of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Boulder, CO, USA: Westview Press, 177222.
  • Strain BR, Cure JD. 1994. Direct Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Plants and Ecosystems: An Updated Bibliographic Database. ORNL/CDIAC-70. Oak Ridge, TN, USA: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
  • Takeuchi Y, Kubiske ME, Isebrands JG, Pregitzer KS, Hendrey G, Karnosky DF. 2001. Photosynthesis, light and nitrogen relationships in a young deciduous forest canopy under open-air CO2 enrichment. Plant, Cell & Environment 24: 12571268.
  • Wustman BA, Oksanen E, Karnosky DF, Noormets A, Isebrands JG, Pregitzer KS, Hendrey GR, Sober J, Podila GK. 2003. Effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on aspen clones of varying O3 sensitivity. In: KarnoskyDF, PercyKE, ChappelkaAH, SimpsonC, PikkarainenJ, eds. Air Pollution, Global Change and Forests in the New Millennium. Boston, MA, USA: Elsevier, 391410.
  • Zak DR, Holmes WE, Finzi AC, Norby RJ, Schlesinger WH. 2003. Soil nitrogen cycling under elevated CO2: a synthesis of forest FACE experiments. Ecological Applications 13: 15081514.
  • Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, Curtis PS, Vogel CS, Holmes WE, Lussenhop J. 2000. Atmospheric CO2, soil-N availability, and allocation of biomass and nitrogen by Populus tremuloides. Ecological Applications 10: 3446.