SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ackerman JD. 1986. Mechanisms and evolution of food-deceptive pollination systems in orchids. Lindleyana 1: 108113.
  • Ackerman JD, Montalvo AM. 1990. Short and long term limitations to fruit production in a tropical orchid. Ecology 71: 263272.
  • Ågren J, Schemske DW. 1993. Outcrossing rate and inbreeding depression in two annual monoecious herbs, Begonia hirsuta and B. semiovata. Evolution 47: 125135.
  • Arditti J. 1992. Fundamentals of orchid biology. New York, USA: Wiley.
  • Ballou JD. 1997. Ancestral inbreeding only minimally affects inbreeding depression in mammalian populations. Journal of Heredity 88: 169178.
  • Bateman RM, Pridgeon AM, Chase MW. 1997. Phylogenetics of subtribe Orchidinae (Orchidoideae, Orchidaceae) based on nuclear ITS sequences. 2. Infrageneric relationships and reclassification to achieve monophyly of Orchis sensu stricto. Lindleyana 12: 113141.
  • Byers DL, Waller DM. 1999. Do plant populations purge their genetic load? Effects of population size and mating history on inbreeding depression. Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics 30: 479513.
  • Calvo RN, Horvitz CC. 1990. Pollinator limitation, cost of reproduction, and fitness in plants: a transition-matrix demographic approach. American Naturalist 136: 499516.
  • Carr DE, Dudash MR. 1995. Inbreeding depression under a competitive regime in Mimulus guttatus– consequences for potential male and female function. Heredity 75: 437445.
  • Carr DE, Dudash MR. 2003. Recent approaches into the genetic basis of inbreeding depression in plants. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 358: 10711084.
  • Charlesworth D, Charlesworth B. 1987. Inbreeding depression and its evolutionary consequences. Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics 18: 237268.
  • Charlesworth B, Charlesworth D. 1999. The genetic basis of inbreeding depression. Genetics Research 74: 329340.
  • Charlesworth D, Morgan MT, Charlesworth B. 1990. Inbreeding depression, genetic load, and the evolution of outcrossing rates in a multilocus system with no linkage. Evolution 44: 14691489.
  • Cheptou PO. 2004. Allee effect and self-fertilization in hermaphrodites: Reproductive assurance in demographically stable populations. Evolution 58: 26132621.
  • Cozzolino S, Aceto S, Caputo P, Widmer A, Dafni A. 2001. Speciation processes in Eastern Mediterranean Orchis s.1. species: Molecular evidence and the role of pollination biology. Israeli Journal of Plant Sciences 49: 91103.
  • Crnokrak P, Barrett SCH. 2002. Perspective: purging the genetic load: a review of the experimental evidence. Evolution 56: 23472358.
  • Dafni A. 1987. Pollination in Orchis and related genera: evolution from reward to deception. Orchid Biology: Reviews and Perspectives 4: 79104.
  • Darwin C. 1862. On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insects. London, UK: John Murray.
  • Dudash MR. 1990. Relative fitness of selfed and outcrossed progeny in a self-compatible, protandrous species, Sabatia angularis L. (Gentianaceae): a comparison in three environments. Evolution 44: 11291139.
  • Ellis AG, Johnson SD. 1999. Do pollinators determine hybridization patterns in sympatric Satyrium (Orchidaceae) species? Plant Systematics and Evolution 219: 137150.
  • Ferdy JB, Loriot S, Sandmeier M, Lefranc M, Raquin C. 2001. Inbreeding depression in a rare deceptive orchid. Canadian Journal of Botany 79: 11811188.
  • Fisher RA. 1941. Average excess and average effect of a gene substitution. Annals of Eugenics 11: 5363.
  • Fritz A-L. 1990. Deceit pollination of Orchis spitzelii (Orchidaceae) on the island of Gotland in the Baltic: a suboptimal system. Nordic Journal of Botany 9: 577587.
  • Gill DE. 1989. Fruiting failure, pollinator inefficiency, and speciation in orchids. In: Otte D, Endler JA, eds. Speciation and its consequences. Sunderland, MA, USA: Sinauer, 458481.
  • Husband BC, Schemske DW. 1996. Evolution and timing of inbreeding depression in plants. Evolution 50: 5470.
  • Johnson SD. 1994. Evidence for Batesian mimicry in a butterfly-pollinated orchid. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 53: 91104.
  • Johnson SD. 2000. Batesian mimicry in the non-rewarding orchid Disa pulchra, and its consequences for pollinator behaviour. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 71: 119132.
  • Johnson SD, Nilsson LA. 1999. Pollen carryover, geitonogamy, and the evolution of deceptive pollination systems in orchids. Ecology 80: 26072619.
  • Johnson SD, Peter CI, Ågren J. 2004. The effects of nectar addition on pollen removal and geitonogamy in the non-rewarding orchid Anacamptis morio. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series of London B 271: 803809.
  • De Jong TJ, Waser NM, Klinkhamer PGL. 1993. Geitonogamy: the neglected side of selfing. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8: 321325.
  • Kallunki JA. 1981. Reproductive biology of mixed-species populations of Goodyera (Orchidaceae) in northern Michigan. Brittonia 33: 137155.
  • Klinkhamer PGL, De Jong TJ. 1993. Attractiveness to pollinators: a plant's dilemma. Oikos 66: 180184.
  • Krebs CJ. 1985. Ecology, the experimental analysis of distribution and abundance, 3rd edn. New York, USA: Harper & Row.
  • Lande R, Schemske DW. 1985. The evolution of self-fertilization and inbreeding depression in plants. I. Genetic model. Evolution 39: 2440.
  • Luyt R, Johnson SD. 2001. Hawkmoth pollination of the African epiphytic orchid Mystacicium venosum, with reference to flower and pollen longevity. Plant Systematics and Evolution 228: 4962.
  • McKendrick SL, Leake JR, Taylor DL, Read DJ. 2000. Symbiotic germination and development of myco-heterotrophic plants in nature: ontogeny of Corallorhiza trifida and characterization of its mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist 145: 523537.
  • McKendrick SL, Leake JR, Taylor DL, Read DJ. 2002. Symbiotic germination and development of the myco-heterotrophic orchid Neottia nidus-avis in nature and its requirement for locally distributed Sebacina spp. New Phytologist 154: 233247.
  • Meléndez-Ackerman EJ, Ackerman JD. 2001. Density-dependent variation in reproductive success in a terrestrial orchid. Plant Systematics and Evolution 227: 2736.
  • Montalvo AM, Ackerman JD. 1987. Limitations to fruit production in Ionopsis utricularioides. Biotropica 19: 2431.
  • Neiland MRM, Wilcock CC. 1995. Maximisation of reproductive success by European Orchidaceae under conditions of infrequent pollination. Protoplasma 187: 3948.
  • Neiland MRM, Wilcock CC. 1998. Fruit set, nectar reward, and rarity in the Orchidaceae. American Journal of Botany 85: 16571671.
  • Nilsson LA. 1980. The pollination ecology of Dactylorhiza sambucina (Orchidaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany 1: 461480.
  • Nilsson LA. 1983a. Processes of isolation and introgressive interplay between Platanthera bifolia (L.) and P. chlorantha (Custer) Reichb. (Orchidaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 87: 325350.
  • Nilsson LA. 1983b. Anthecology of Orchis mascula (Orchidaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany 3: 157179.
  • Nilsson LA. 1984. Anthecology of Orchis morio (Orchidaceae) at its outpost in the north. Nova Acta Regiae Societatia Scientiarum Upsaliensia 3: 167179.
  • Nilsson LA. 1992. Orchid pollination biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7: 255258.
  • Nilsson LA, Rabakonandrianina E, Razananaivo R, Randriamanindry JJ. 1992. Long pollinia on eyes: hawk-moth pollination of Cynorkis uniflora Lindley (Orchidaceae) in Madagascar. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 109: 145160.
  • Ortiz-Barney E, Ackerman JD. 1999. The cost of selfing in Encyclia cochleata (Orchidaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 219: 5564.
  • Peakall R. 1989. The unique pollination of Leporella fimbriata (Orchidaceae): pollination by pseudocopulating male ants (Myrmecia urens, Formicidae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 167: 137148.
  • Peakall R, Beattie AJ. 1996. Ecological and genetic consequences of pollination by sexual deception in the orchid Caladenia tentaculata. Ecology 50: 22072220.
  • Peakall R, James SH. 1989. Outcrossing in an ant pollinated clonal orchid. Heredity 62: 161167.
  • Perkins AJ, McGee PA. 1995. Distribution of the orchid mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizoctonia solani, in relation to its host, Pterostylis acuminata, in the field. Australian Journal of Botany 43: 565575.
  • Van Der Pijl L, Dodson CH. 1966. Orchid flowers, their pollination and evolution. Coral Gables, FL, USA: University of Miami Press.
  • Pridgeon AM, Bateman RM, Cox AV, Hapeman JR, Chase MW. 1997. Phylogenetics of subtribe Orchidinae (Orchidoideae, Orchidaceae) based on nuclear ITS sequences. 1. Intergeneric relationships and polyphyly of Orchis sensu lato. Lindleyana 12: 89109.
  • Pyke GH. 1991. What does it cost a plant to produce floral nectar? Nature 350: 5859.
  • Rasmussen HN, Whigham DF. 1993. Seed ecology of dust seeds in-situ– a new study technique and its application in terrestrial orchids. American Journal of Botany 80: 13741378.
  • Rice WR. 1989. Analyzing tables of statistical tests. Evolution 43: 223225.
  • Salguero-Faria JA, Ackerman JD. 1999. A nectar reward: is more better? Biotropica 31: 303311.
  • Smithson A. 2002. The consequences of rewardlessness in orchids: reward-supplementation experiments with Anacamptis morio (Orchidaceae). American Journal of Botany 89: 15791587.
  • Smithson A, Gigord LDB. 2001. Are there fitness advantages in being a rewardless orchid? Reward supplementation experiments with Barlia robertiana. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 268: 17.
  • Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ. 1981. Biometry, 2nd edn. New York, USA: WH Freeman.
  • Steiner KE, Whitehead VB, Johnson SD. 1994. Floral and pollinator divergence in two sexually deceptive South African orchids. American Journal of Botany 81: 185194.
  • Tremblay RL, Ackerman JD, Zimmerman JK, Calvo RN. 2005. Variation in sexual reproduction in orchids and its evolutionary consequences: a spasmodic journey to diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 84: 154.
  • Uyenoyama MK, Holsinger KE, Waller DM. 1993. Ecological and genetic factors directing the evolution of self-fertilization. Oxford Surveys of Evolutionary Biology 9: 327381.
  • Vallius E. 2000. Position-dependent reproductive success of flowers in Dactylorhiza maculata (Orchidaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 135: 8995.
  • Van Waes JM, Derbergh PC. 1986. In vitro germination of some Western European orchids. Physiologia Plantarum 67: 253261.
  • Wallace LA. 2003. The cost of inbreeding in Platanthera leucophaea (Orchidaceae). American Journal of Botany 90: 235242.
  • Wolfe LM. 1993. Inbreeding depression in Hydrophyllum appendiculatum: role of maternal effects, crowding, and parental mating history. Evolution 47: 374386.