Item S2 Locations of and references for the late glacial and postglacial pollen sites in Europe reported in Figs 4, 7 and 8.

Item S3 Location map of the fossil records.

Item S4 Selection of the Fagus pollen threshold.

Item S5 Location of and references for the macrofossil sites reported in Figs 4, 7 and 8.

Item S6 List of primer pairs used for polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCRRFLP) resulting in polymorphism.

Item S7 Overview of methods of enzyme extraction and electrophoretic separation used within the isozyme studies in the laboratories in Bordeaux and Zvolen.

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