Identification of two novel phytosiderophores secreted by perennial grasses


Author for correspondence: Jian Feng Ma Tel/Fax: +81 86 4341209 Email:


  • • It has been suggested that some perennial grasses secrete phytosiderophores in response to iron (Fe) deficiency, but the compounds have not been identified. Here, we identified and characterized the phytosiderophores secreted by two perennial grasses, Lolium perenne cv. Tove and Poa pratensis cv. Baron.
  • • Root exudates were collected from the roots of Fe-deficient grasses and then purified with various chromatographies. The structure of the purified compounds was determined using both nuclear magnetic resonance and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry.
  • • Both species secreted phytosiderophores in response to Fe deficiency, and the amount of phytosiderophores secreted increased with the development of Fe deficiency. The type of phytosiderophores secreted differed with plant species; L. perenne cv. Tove secreted 3-epihydroxy-2′-deoxymugineic acid (epiHDMA), 2′-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) and an unknown compound, whereas P. pratensis cv. Baron secreted DMA, avenic acid A (AVA) and an unknown compound.
  • • Purification and subsequent analysis with nuclear magnetic resonance and mass led to identification of the two novel phytosiderophores; 3-hydroxy-2′-deoxymugineic acid (HDMA) from L. perenne, and 2′-hydroxyavenic acid A (HAVA) from P. pratensis. Both novel phytosiderophores have similar chelating activity to known phytosiderophores.