SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ahlholm J, Helander ML, Elamo P, Saloniemi I, Neuvonen S, Hanhimäki S, Saikkonen K. 2002a. Micro-fungi and invertebrate herbivores on birch trees: fungal mediated plant–herbivore interactions or responses to host quality? Ecology Letters 5: 648655.
  • Ahlholm JU, Helander M, Henriksson J, Metzler M, Saikkonen K. 2002b. Environmental conditions and host genotype direct genetic diversity of Venturia ditricha, a fungal endophyte of birch trees. Evolution 56: 15661573.
  • Barengo N, Sieber TN, Holdenrieder O. 2000. Diversity of endophytic mycobiota in leaves and twigs of pubescent birch (Betula pubescens). Sydowia 52: 305320.
  • Barklund P. 1987. Occurrence and pathogenicity of Lophodermium piceae appearing as an endophyte in needles of Picea abies. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 89: 307313.
  • Barr ME. 1968. Venturiaceae in North America. Canadian Journal of Botany 46: 799964.
  • Carlsson-Granér U, Thrall PH. 2002. The spatial distribution of plant populations, disease dynamics and evolution of resistance. Oikos 97: 97110.
  • Carroll G. 1995. Forest endophytes – pattern and process. Canadian Journal of Botany 73: S1316S1324.
  • Clay K. 1988. Fungal endophytes of grasses: a defensive mutualism between plants and fungi. Ecology 69: 1016.
  • Clay K, Schardl C. 2002. Evolutionary origins and ecological consequences of endophyte symbiosis with grasses. American Naturalist 160: S99S127.
  • Colhoun J. 1973. Effects of environmental factors on plant disease. Annual Review of Phytopathology 11: 343364.
  • Danti R, Sieber TN, Sanguineti G. 2002. Endophytic mycobiota in bark of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) in the Apennines. Mycological Research 106: 13431348.
  • Elamo P, Helander ML, Saloniemi I, Neuvonen S. 1999. Birch family and environmental conditions affect endophytic fungi in leaves. Oecologia 188: 151156.
  • Fitt BDL, McCartney HA, Walkate PJ. 1989. The role of rain in dispersal of pathogen inoculum. Annual Review of Phytopathology 27: 241270.
  • Gennaro M, Gonthier P, Nicolotti G. 2003. Fungal endophytic communities in healthy and declining Quercus robur L. & Q. cerris L. trees in northern Italy. Journal of Phytopathology 151: 529534.
  • Granö O, Roto M, Laurila L. 1999. Environmental and land use in the shore zone of the coast of Finland. Publicationes Institute Geographyraphici Universitatis Turkuensis 160: 176.
  • Grove WB. 1937. British stem- and leaf-fungi (Coelomycetes). Sphaeropsidales and Melanconiales. London, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hata K, Futai K, Tsuda M. 1998. Seasonal and needle age-dependent changes of the endophytic mycobiota in Pinus thunbergii and Pinus densiflora needles. Canadian Journal of Botany 76: 245250.
  • Helander ML. 1995. Responses of pine needle endophytes to air pollution. New Phytologist 131: 223229.
  • Helander ML, Neuvonen S, Sieber T, Petrini O. 1993. Simulated acid rain affects birch leaf endophyte populations. Microbial Ecology 26: 227234.
  • Helander ML, Sieber T, Petrini O, Neuvonen S. 1994. Ecology of pine needle endophytes: Spatial variation and consequenses of acid irrigation. Canadian Journal of Botany 72: 11081113.
  • Helander M, Wäli P, Kuuluvainen T, Saikkonen K. 2006. Birch leaf endophytes in managed and natural boreal forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 53: 2029.
  • Kessler KJ Jr. 1978. Gnomonia canker, shoot blight, and leaf spot of yellow birch. USDA Forest Service Research Paper NC-152. St Paul, MN, USA: North Central Forest Experiment Station.
  • Kumaresan V, Suryanarayanan TS. 2002. Endophyte assemblages in young, mature and senescent leaves of Rhizophora apiculata: evidence for the role of endophytes in mangrove litter degradation. Fungal Diversity 9: 8191.
  • Lappalainen J, Koricheva J, Helander ML, Haukioja E. 1999. Densities of endophytic fungi and performance of leafminers (Lepidoptera: Ericocraniidae) on birch along a pollution gradient. Environmental Pollution 104: 99105.
  • MacArthur RH, Wilson EO. 1967. The theory of island biogeography. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press.
  • Saikkonen K, Faeth SH, Helander M, Sullivan TJ. 1998. Fungal endophytes: a continuum of interactions with host plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 319343.
  • Saikkonen K, Helander ML, Ranta H, Neuvonen S, Virtanen T, Suomela J, Vuorinen P. 1996. Endophyte–mediated interactions between woody plants and insect herbivores. Entomological et Experimentalis Applicata 80: 269271.
  • Saikkonen K, Helander M, Rousi M. 2003. Endophytic foliar fungi in Betula spp. & their F1 hybrids. Forest Pathology 33: 215222.
  • Saikkonen K, Lehtonen P, Helander M, Koricheva J, Faeth SH. 2006. Conventional wisdom and model systems in ecology: dissecting the grass-endophyte literature. Trends in Plant Science 11: 428433.
  • Saikkonen K, Wäli P, Helander M, Faeth SH. 2004. Evolution of endophyte-plant symbioses. Trends in Plant Science 9: 275280.
  • Stone JK. 1987. Initiation and development of latent infections by Rhabdocline parkeri on Douglas fir. Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 26142621.
  • Wilson D. 1995. Endophyte – the evolution of a term, and clarification of its use and definition. Oikos 73: 274276.
  • Wilson D, Carroll GC. 1994. Infection studies of Discula quercina, an endophyte of Quercus garryana. Mycologia 86: 635647.