SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adams HD, Kolb TE. 2005. Tree growth response to drought and temperature along an elevation gradient on a mountain landscape. Journal of Biogeography 32: 16291640.
  • Addington RN, Donovan LA, Mitchell RJ, Vose M, Pecot SD, Jack SB, Hacke UG, Sperry JS, Oren R. 2006. Adjustments in hydraulic architecture of Pinus palustris maintain similar stomatal conductance in xeric and mesic habitats. Plant, Cell & Environment 29: 535545.
  • Allen CD. 2007. Cross-scale interactions among forest dieback, fire, and erosion in northern new mexico landscapes. Ecosystems 10: 797808.
  • Allen CD, Breshears DD. 1998. Drought-induced shift of a forest woodland ecotone: rapid landscape response to climate variation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 95: 1483914842.
  • Allen CD, Breshears DD. 2007. Climate-induced forest dieback as an emergent global phenomenon. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 88: 504505.
  • Amman GD. 1972. Mountain pine beetle brood production in relation to thickness of lodgepole pine phloem. Journal of Economic Entomology 65: 138140.
  • Amman GD, Pasek JE. 1986. Mountain pine beetle in ponderosa pine: effects of phloem thickness and egg gallery density. Research Paper, INT-367. Ogden, Utah: USDA Forest Service Intermountain Research Station.
  • Amthor JS. 2000. The McCree-deWit-Penning de Vries-Thornley respiration paradigms: 30 years later. Annals of Botany 86: 120.
  • Auclair AND. 1993. Extreme climatic fluctuations as a cause of forest dieback in the Pacific Rim. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 66: 207229.
  • Ayres MP, Lombardero MJ. 2000. Assessing the consequences of global change for forest disturbances for herbivores and pathogens. The Total Science of the Environment 262: 263286.
  • Barnard H, Ryan MG. 2003. A test of the hydraulic limitation hypothesis in fast-growing Eucalyptus saligna. Plant, Cell & Environment 26: 12351245.
  • Barnes FJ. 1986. Carbon gain and water relations in pinyon–juniper habitat types. PhD dissertation. Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA: New Mexico State University.
  • Berg EE, Henry D, Fastie JB. 2006. Spruce beetle outbreaks on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, and Kluane National Park and Reserve, Yukon Territory: relationship to summer temperatures and regional differences in disturbance regimes. Forest Ecology and Management 227: 219232.
  • Berry J, Bjorkman O. 1980. Photosynthetic response and adaptation to temperature in higher plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 31: 491543.
  • Berryman AA. 1976. Theoretical explanation of mountain pine beetle dynamics in lodgepole pine forests. Environmental Entomology 5: 12251233.
  • Bigler C, Braker OU, Bugmann H, Dobbertin M, Rigling A. 2006. Drought as an inciting mortality factor in Scots pine stands of the Valais, Switzerland. Ecosystems 9: 330343.
  • Bonal D, Guehl JM. 2001. Contrasting patterns of leaf water potential and gas exchange responses to drought in seedlings of tropical rainforest species. Functional Ecology 15: 490496.
  • Bonan GB, Levis S. 2006. Evaluating aspects of the community land and atmosphere models (CLM3 and CAM3) using a dynamic global vegetation model. Journal of Climate 19: 22902301.
  • Borghetti M, Edwards WRN, Grace J, Jarvis PG, Raschi A. 1991. The refilling of embolized xylem in Pinus sylvestris L. Plant, Cell & Environment 14: 357369.
  • Bosch JM, Hewlett JD. 1982. A review of catchment experiments to determine the effect of vegetation changes on water yield and evapotranspiration. Journal of Hydrology 55: 323.
  • Bossel H. 1986. Dynamics of forest dieback: systems analysis and simulation. Ecological Modeling 34: 259288.
  • Bradley T, Tueller P. 2001. Effects of fire on bark beetle presence on Jeffery pine in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Forest Ecology and Management 142: 205214.
  • Bréda N, Huc R, Granier A, Dreyer E. 2006. Temperate forest trees and stands under severe drought: a review of ecophysiological responses, adaptation processes and long-term consequences. Annals of Forest Science 63: 625544.
  • Breshears DD. 2008. Structure and function of woodland mosaics: consequences of patch-scale heterogeneity and connectivity along the grassland-forest continuum. In: Van AukenOW, ed. Western North American juniperus woodlands: a dynamic vegetation type. New York, NY, USA: Springer, 5892.
  • Breshears DD, Allen CD. 2002. The importance of rapid, disturbance-induced losses in carbon management and sequestration. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 11: 115.
  • Breshears DD, Cobb NS, Rich PM, Price KP, Allen CD, Balice RG, Romme WH, Kastens JH, Floyd ML, Belnap J et al . 2005. Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change type drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 102: 1514415148.
  • Breshears DD, McDowell NG, Goddard KL, Dayem KE, Martens SN, Meyer CW, Brown KM. 2008. Foliar absorption of intercepted rainfall improves plant water status and enables drought recovery. Ecology 89: 4147.
  • Breshears DD, Myers OB, Meyer CW, Barnes FJ, Zou CB, Allen CD, McDowell NG, Pockman WT. (in press). Tree die-off in response to global-change-type drought: mortality insights from a decade of plant water potential measurements. Frontiers in Ecology.
  • Breshears DD, Nyhan JW, Heil CE, Wilcox BP. 1998. Effects of woody plants on microclimate in a semiarid woodland: soil temperature and evaporation in canopy and intercanopy patches. International Journal of Plant Sciences 159: 10101017.
  • Brodribb TJ, Holbrook NM, Edwards EJ, Gutierrez MV. 2003. Relations between stomatal closure, leaf turgor and xylem vulnerability in eight tropical dry forest trees. Plant, Cell & Environment 26: 443450.
  • Bryla DR, Bouma TJ, Eissenstat DM. 1997. Root respiration in citrus acclimates to temperature and slows during drought. Plant, Cell & Environment 20: 14111420.
  • Burkett VR, Wilcox DA, Stottlemeyer R, Barrow W, Fagre D, Baron J, Price J, Nielsen JL, Allen CD, Peterson DL et al . 2005. Nonlinear dynamics in ecosystem response to climatic change: case studies and policy implications. Ecological Complexity 2: 357394.
  • Campo J, Dirzo R. 2003. Leaf quality and herbivory responses to soil nutrient addition in secondary tropical dry forests of Yucatán, Mexico. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19: 525530.
  • Caspersen JP, Kobe RK. 2001. Interspecific variation in sapling mortality in relation to growth and soil moisture. Oikos 92: 160168.
  • Christiansen E, Waring RH, Berryman AA. 1987. Resistance of conifers to bark beetle attack: searching for general relationships. Forest Ecology and Management 22: 89106.
  • Christensen KM, Whitham TG, Keim P. 1995. Herbivory and tree mortality across a pinyon pine hybrid zone. Oecologia 101: 2936.
  • Ciais P, Reichstein M, Viovy N, Granier A, Ogee J, Allard V, Aubinet M, Buchmann N, Bernhofer C, Carrara A et al . 2005. Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature 437: 529533.
  • Cinnirella S, Magnani F, Saracino A, Borghetti M. 2002. Response of mature Pinus laricio plantation to a three-year restriction of water supply: structural and functional acclimation to drought. Tree Physiology 22: 2130.
  • Clancy KM, Wagner MR, Reich PB. 1995. Ecophysiology and insect herbivory. In: SmithWK, HinkleyTM, eds. Ecophysiology of coniferous forests. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press, 125180.
  • Clark DA. 2004. Sources or sinks? The responses of tropical forests to current and future climate and atmospheric composition. Philosophical Transcripts of the Royal Society of London, Series B 359: 477491.
  • Classen AT, Hart SC, Whitman TG, Cobb NS, Koch GW. 2005. Insect infestations linked to shifts in microclimate: important climate change implications. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69: 20492057.
  • Cobb NS, Mopper S, Gehring CA, Caouette M, Christensen KM, Whitham TG. 1997. Increased moth herbivory associated with environmental stress of pinyon pine at local and regional levels. Oecologia 190: 389397.
  • Comstock JP. 2000. Variation in hydraulic architecture and gas-exchange in two desertsub-shrubs, Hymenoclea salsola (T. & G.) and Ambrosia dumosa (Payne). Oecologia 125: 110.
  • Condit R, Hubbell SP, Foster RB. 1995. Mortality rates of 205 neotropical tree and shrub species and the impact of a severe drought. Ecological Monographs 65: 419439.
  • Cook ER, Woodhouse CA, Eakin CM, Meko DM, Stahle DW. 2004. Long-term aridity changes in the western United States. Science 306: 10151018.
  • Cowan IR, Farquhar GD. 1977. Stomatal function in relation to leaf metabolism and environment. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology 31: 475505.
  • Cox PM, Betts RA, Collins M, Harris PP, Huntingford C, Jones CD. 2004. Amazonian forest dieback under climate-carbon cycle projections for the 21st century. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 78: 137156.
  • Dace H, Sherwin HW, Illing N, Farrant JM. 1998. Use of metabolic inhibitors to elucidate mechanisms of recovery from desiccation stress in the resurrection plant Xerophyta humilis. Plant Growth Regulation 24: 171177.
  • Dale VH, Joyce LA, McNulty S, Neilson RP. 2000. The interplay between climate change, forest, and disturbances. The Science of the Total Environment 262: 201204.
  • Davenport DW, Breshears DD, Wilcox BP, Allen CD. 1998. Viewpoint: sustainability of pinon–juniper ecosystems: a unifying perspective of soil erosion. Journal of Range Management 51: 231240.
  • Davis SD, Ewers FW, Sperry JS, Portwood KA, Crocker MC, Adams GC. 2002. Shoot dieback during prolonged drought in Ceanothus (Rhamnaceae) chaparral of California: a possible case of hydraulic failure. American Journal of Botany 89: 820828.
  • Dawson TE. 1996. Determining water use by trees and forests from isotopic, energy balance and transpiration analyses: the roles of tree size and hydraulic lift. Tree Physiology 16: 263272.
  • Demchik MC, Sharpe WE. 2000. The effect of soil nutrition, soil acidity and drought on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) growth and nutrition on Pennsylvania sites with high and low red oak mortality. Forest Ecology and Management 136: 199207.
  • Dezzeo N, Hernandez L, Folster H. 1997. Canopy dieback in lower montane forests of Alto Uriman, Venezuelan Guayana. Plant Ecology 132: 197209.
  • Diaz-Espejo A, Nicolas E, Fernandez JE. 2007. Seasonal evolution of diffusional limitations and photosynthetic capacity in olive under drought. Plant, Cell & Environment 30: 922933.
  • Dirmeyer PA, Koster RD, Guo Z. 2006. So global models properly represent the feedback between land and atmosphere? Journal of Hydrometeorology 7: 11771198.
  • Domec JC, Meinzer FC, Lachenbruch B, Housset J. 2007. Dynamic variation in sapwood specific conductivity in six woody species. Tree Phsyiology 27: 13891400.
  • Dore S, Kolb TE, Montes-Helu M, Sullivan BW, Winslow WD, Hart SC, Kaye JP, Koch GW, Hungate BA. (in press). The effect of stand-replacing fire on ecosystem CO2 exchange of ponderosa pine forests in northern Arizona. Global Change Biology.
  • Dreyer E, Epron D, Yog Matig OE. 1992. Photochemical efficiency of photosystem II in rapidly dehydrating leaves of 11 temperate and tropical tree species differing in their tolerance to drought. Annales des Sciences Forestieres (Paris) 49: 615625.
  • Ducrey M, Duhoux F, Huc R, Rigolot E. 1996. The ecophysiological and growth responses of Allepo pine (Pinus halepensis) to controlled heating applied to the base of the truck. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 13661374.
  • Dunn JP, Lorio PL Jr. 1993. Modified water regimes affect photosynthesis, xylem water potential, and resistance of juvenile Pinus taeda L. to Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera, Scolytidae). Environmental Entomology 22: 948957.
  • Engelbrecht BMJ, Kursar TA, Tyree MT. 2005. Drought effects on seedling survival in a tropical moist forest. Trees-Structure and Function 19: 312321.
  • Erbilgin N, Raffa KF. 2000. Opposing effects of host monoterpenes on responses by two sympatric species of bark beetles to their aggregation pheromones. Journal of Chemical Ecology 26: 25272548.
  • Ewers BE, Oren R, Sperry JS. 2000. Influence of nutrient versus water supply on hydraulic architecture and water balance in Pinus taeda. Plant, Cell & Environment 23: 10551066.
  • Fensham RJ, Holman JE. 1999. Temporal and spatial patterns in drought-related tree dieback in Australian savanna. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 10351050.
  • Fettig CJ, Klepzig KD, Billings RF, Munson AS, Nebeker TE, Negron JF, Nowak JT. 2007. The effectiveness of vegetation management practices for prevention and control of bark beetle infestations in coniferous forests of the western and southern United States. Forest Ecology and Management 238: 2453.
  • Fine PVA, Zachariah JM, Mesones I, Irazuzta S, Appel H, Stevens MHH, Saaksjarvi I, Shultz JC, Coley PD. 2006. The growth-defense trade-off and habitat specialization by plants in Amazonian forests. Ecology 87: S150S162.
  • Fisher RA, Williams M, Do Vale RL, Da Costa AL, Meir P. 2006. Evidence from Amazonian forests is consistent with isohydric control of leaf water potential. Plant, Cell & Environment 29: 151165.
  • Franklin JF, Shugart HH, Harmon ME. 1987. Tree death as an ecological process. Bioscience 27: 259288.
  • Franks PJ, Drake PL, Froend RH. 2007. Anisohydric but isohydrodynamic: seasonally constant plant water potential gradient explained by a stomatal control mechanism incorporating variable plant hydraulic conductance. Plant, Cell & Environment 30: 1930.
  • Frey BR, Liefers VJ, Hogg E, Landhausser SM. 2004. Predicting landscape patters of aspen dieback: mechanisms and knowledge gaps. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34: 13791390.
  • Gaff DF. 1971. Desiccation tolerant flowering plants in southern Africa. Science 174: 10331034.
  • Gan JB. 2004. Risk and damage of southern pine beetle outbreaks under global climate change. Forest Ecology and Management 191: 6171.
  • Gitlin AR, Sthultz CM, Bowker MA, Stumpf S, Paxton KL, Kennedy K, Munoz A, Bailey JA, Whitham TG. 2006. Mortality gradients within and among dominant plant populations as barometers of ecosystem change during extreme drought. Conservation Biology 20: 14771486.
  • Goldstein G, Andrade JL, Meinzer FC, Holbrook NM, Cavelier J, Jackson P, Celis A. 1998. Stem water storage and diurnal patterns of water use in tropical forest canopy trees. Plant, Cell & Environment 21: 397406.
  • Gonzalez P. 2001. Desertification and a shift of forest species in the West African Sahel. Climate Research 17: 217228.
  • Gower ST, Gholz HL, Nakane K, Baldwin VC. 1994. Production and carbon allocation patterns of pine forests. In: GholzHL, LinderS, McMurtrieRE, eds. Pine ecosystems. Copenhagen, Denmark: Ecological Bulletins, 115135.
  • Grier CC, Elliot KJ, McCullough DG. 1992. Biomass distribution and productivity of Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma woodlands of north-central Arizona. Forest Ecology and Management 50: 331350.
  • Grosman DM, Upton WW. 2006. Efficacy of systemic insecticides for protection of loblolly pine against southern fine engraver beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 99: 94101.
  • Guarin A, Taylor AH. 2005. Drought triggered tree mortality in mixed conifer forests in Yosemite National Park, California, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 218: 229244.
  • Güneralp B, Gertner G. 2007. Feedback loop dominance analysis of two tree mortality models: relationship between structure and behavior. Tree Physiology 27: 269280.
  • Gutschick VP, BassiriRad H. 2003. Extreme events as shaping physiology, ecology, and evolution of plants: toward a unified definition and evaluation of their consequences. New Phytologist 160: 2142.
  • Haack RA, Wilkinson RC, Foltz JL, Corneil JA. 1984. Gallery construction and oviposition by Ips calligraphis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in relation to slash pine phloem thickness and temperature. Canadian Entomologist 116: 625632.
  • Hacke UG, Sperry JS, Ewers B, Schafer K, Oren R. 2000. Influence of soil porosity on water use in Pinus taeda. Oecologia 124: 495505.
  • Hacke UG, Stiller V, Sperry JS, Pittermann J, McCulloh KA. 2001. Cavitation fatigue. Embolism and refilling cycles can weaken the cavitation resistance of xylem. Plant Physiology 125: 779786.
  • Hamrick JL. 2004. Response of forest trees to global environmental changes. Forest Ecology and Management 197: 323335.
  • Hanson PJ, Todd DE Jr, Amthor JS. 2001. A six-year study of sapling and large-tree growth and mortality responses to natural and induced variability in precipitation and throughfall. Tree Physiology 21: 345358.
  • Hanson PJ, Weltzin JF. 2000. Drought disturbance from climate change: response of United States forests. Science of the Total Environment 262: 205220.
  • Harrison RD. 2001. Drought and the consequences of El Nino in Borneo: a case study of figs. Population Ecology 43: 6375.
  • Hastings FL, Holsten EH, Shea PJ, Werner RA. 2001. Carbaryl: a review of its use against bark beetles in coniferous forests of North America. Environmental Entomology 30: 803810.
  • Herms DA, Mattson WJ. 1992. The dilemma of plants: to grow or defend. Quarterly Review of Biology 67: 282335.
  • Hicke JA, Logan JA, Powell J, Ojima DS. 2006. Changing temperatures influence suitability for modeled mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks in the western United States. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences 111: GO2019.
  • Hietz P, Baier P, Offenthaler I, Fuhrer E, Rosner S, Richter H. 2005. Tree temperatures, volatile organic emissions, and primary attraction of bark beetles. Phyton 45: 341354.
  • Holbrook NM, Zwieniecki MA. 1999. Embolism repair and xylem tension: do we need a miracle? Plant Physiology 120: 710.
  • Holste EK, Jerke MJ, Matzner SL. 2006. Long-term acclimation of hydraulic properties, xylem conduit size, wall strength and cavitation resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris in response to different environmental effects. Plant, Cell & Environment 29: 836843.
  • Horton JL, Kolb TE, Hart SH. 2001. Physiological response to ground water depth varies among species and with river flow regulation. Ecological Applications 11: 10461059.
  • Houston DR. 1987. Forest tree declines of past and present: current understanding. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 9: 349360.
  • Hughes RF, Archer SR, Asner GP, Wessman CA, McMurtry C, Nelson J, Ansley RJ. 2006. Changes in aboveground primary production and carbon and nitrogen pools accompanying woody plant encroachement in a temperate savanna. Global Change Biology 12: 17331747.
  • Hui X, Jin C. 2004. Interspecific variation of plant traits associated with resistance to herbivory among four species of Ficus (Moraceae). Annals of Botany 94: 377.
  • Hultine KR, Koepke DF, Pockman WT, Fravolini A, Sperry JS, Williams DG. 2006. Influence of soil texture on hydraulic properties and water relations of a dominant warm-desert Phreatophyte. Tree Physiology 26: 313323.
  • IPCC. 2007. Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Forth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1009.
  • Jenkins MA, Pallardy SG. 1995. The influence of drought on red oak group species growth and mortality in the Missouri Ozarks. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 25: 11191127.
  • Jentsch A, Kreyling J, Beierkuhnlein C. 2007. A new generation of climate-change experiments: events, not trends. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5: 365374.
  • Jurskis V. 2005. Eucalypt decline in Australia, and a general concept of tree decline and dieback. Forest Ecology and Management 215: 120.
  • Katul G, Leuning R, Oren R. 2003. Relationship between plant hydraulic and biochemical properties derived from a steady-state coupled water and carbon transport model. Plant, Cell & Environment 26: 339350.
  • Kavanagh KL, Bond BJ, Aiken SN, Gartner BL, Knowe S. 1999. Shoot and root vulnerability to xylem cavitation in four populations of Douglas-fir seedlings. Tree Physiology 19: 3137.
  • Keane RE, Austin M, Field C, Huth A, Lexer MJ, Peters D, Solomon A, Wyckoff P. 2001. Tree mortality in gap models: application to climate change. Climatic Change 51: 509540.
  • Kelsey RG. 2001. Chemical indicators of stress in trees: their ecological significance and implication for forestry in Eastern Oregon and Washington. Northwest Science 75: 7076.
  • Kelsey RG, Joseph G. 2003. Ethanol in ponderosa pine as an indicator of physiological injury from fire and its relationship to secondary beetles. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33: 870884.
  • Kimmerer TW, Kozlowski TT. 1982. Ethylene, ethane, acetaldehyde, and ethanol production by plants under stress. Plant Physiology 69: 840847.
  • King AW, Gunderson CA, Post WM, Weston DJ, Wullschleger SD. 2006. Plant respiration in a warmer world. Science 312: 536537.
  • Kolb TE, Holmberg KM, Wagner MR, Stone JE. 1998. Regulation of ponderosa pine foliar physiology and insect resistance mechanisms by basal area treatments. Tree Physiology 18: 375381.
  • Kolb TE, McCormick LH. 1993. Etiology of sugar maple decline in four Pennsylvania stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23: 23952402.
  • Kolb PF, Robberecht R. 1996. High temperature and drought stress effects on survival of Pinus ponderosa seedlings. Tree Physiology 16: 665672.
  • Kolb KJ, Sperry JS. 1999. Differences in drought adaptation between subspecies of sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). Ecology 80: 23732384.
  • Kozlowski TT, Pallardy SG. 2002. Acclimation and adaptive responses of woody plants to environmental stresses. Botanical Review 68: 270334.
  • Kurz WA, Apps MJ. 1999. A 70-year retrospective analysis of carbon fluxes in the Canadian forest sector. Ecological Applications 9: 526547.
  • Lajtha K, Barnes FJ. 1991. Carbon gain and water use in pinyon–juniper woodlands of northern New Mexico: field vs phytotron chamber measurements. Tree Physiology 9: 5967.
  • Larsson S, Oren R, Waring RH, Barrett JW. 1983. Attacks of mountain pine beetle as related to tree vigor of ponderosa pine. Forest Science 29: 395402.
  • Law BE, Thornton PE, Irvine J, Anthoni PM, Van Tuyl S. 2001. Carbon storage and fluxes in ponderosa pine forests at different developmental stages. Global Change Biology 7: 755777.
  • Lewinsohn E, Gijzen M, Muzika R, Barton K, Croteau R. 1993. Oleoresinosis in Grand Fir (Abies grandis) saplings and mature trees. Plant Physiology 101: 10211028.
  • Liang EY, Shao XM, Kong ZC, Lin JX. 2003. The extreme drought in the 1920s and its effect on tree growth deduced from tree ring analysis: a case study in North China. Annals of Forest Science 60: 145162.
  • Linton MJ, Sperry JS, Williams DG. 1998. Limits to water transport in Juniperus osteosperma and Pinus edulis: implications for drought tolerance and regulation of transpiration. Functional Ecology 12: 906911.
  • Litton CM, Raich JW, Ryan MG. 2007. Carbon allocation in forest ecosystems. Global Change Biology 13: 20892109.
  • Lloret F, Siscart D, Dalmases C. 2004. Canopy recovery after drought dieback in holm-oak Mediterranean forests of Catalonia (NE Spain). Global Change Biology 10: 20922099.
  • Loewenstein NJ, Pallardy SG. 1998a. Drought tolerance, xylem sap abscisic acid and stomatal conductance during soil drying: a comparison of young plants of four temperate deciduous angiosperms. Tree Physiology 18: 421430.
  • Loewenstein NJ, Pallardy SG. 1998b. Drought tolerance, xylem sap abscisic acid and stomatal conductance during soil drying: a comparison of canopy trees of three temperate deciduous angiosperms. Tree Physiology 18: 431439.
  • Logan JA, Bentz BJ. 1999. Model analysis of mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) seasonality. Environmental Entomology 28: 924934.
  • Logan JA, Powell JA. 2001. Ghost forests, global warming, and the mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Scotytidae). American Entolmologist 47: 160173.
  • Logan JA, Regniere J, Powell JA. 2003. Assessing the impacts of global warming on forest pest dynamics. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1: 130137.
  • Lorio PL. 1986. Growth-differentiation balance: a basis for understanding southern pine beetle-tree interactions. Forest Ecology and Management 14: 259273.
  • Lwanga JS. 2003. Localized tree mortality following the drought of 1999 at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda 2003. African Journal of Ecology 41: 194196.
  • Magnani F, Mencuccini M, Grace J. 2000. Age-related decline in stand productivity: the role of structural acclimation under hydraulic constraints. Plant, Cell & Environment 23: 251263.
  • Maherali H, DeLucia EH. 2001. Influence of climate-driven shifts in biomass allocation on water transport and storage in ponderosa pine. Oecologia 129: 481491.
  • Maherali H, Pockman WT, Jackson RB. 2004. Adaptive variation in the vulnerability of woody plants to xylem cavitation. Ecology 85: 21842199.
  • Manion PD. 1991. Tree disease concepts. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall.
  • Manter DK, Kelsey RG. 2008. Ethanol accumulation in drought-stressed conifer seedlings. International Journal of Plant Science 169: 361370.
  • Marçais B, Bréda N. 2007. Role of an opportunistic pathogen in the decline of stressed oak trees. Journal of Ecology 94: 12141223.
  • Martin TA, Hinckley TM, Meinzer FC, Sprugel DG. 1999. Boundary layer conductance, leaf temperature and transpiration of Abies amabilis branches. Tree Physiology 19: 35443.
  • Martínez-Vilalta J, Piñol J, Beven K. 2002. A hydraulic model to predict drought-induced mortality in woody plants: an application to climate change in the Mediterranean. Ecological Modelling 155: 127147.
  • Mattson WJ, Haack RA. 1987. The role of drought stress in provoking outbreaks of phytophagous insects. In: BarbosaP, SchultzJC, eds. Insect outbreaks. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press, 365407.
  • McCabe GJ, Palecki MA, Betancourt JL. 2004. Pacific and Atlantic Ocean influences on multi-decadal drought frequency in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 101: 41364141.
  • McDowell NG, Adams HA, Bailey JD, Hess M, Kolb TE. 2006. Homeostatic maintenance of ponderosa pine gas exchange in response to stand density changes. Ecological Applications 16: 11641182.
  • McDowell NG, Adams HD, Bailey JD, Kolb TE. 2007. The role of stand density on growth efficiency, leaf area index and resin flow in southwestern ponderosa pine forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37: 343355.
  • McDowell NG, Barnard H, Bond BJ, Hinckley T, Hubbard R, Ishii H, Köstner B, Meinzer FC, Marshall JD, Magnani F et al . 2002b. The relationship between tree height and leaf area: sapwood area ratio. Oecologia 132: 1220.
  • McDowell NG, Licata J, Bond BJ. 2005. Environmental sensitivity of gas exchange parameters in different-sized trees. Oecologia 145: 920.
  • McDowell NG, Phillips N, Lunch CK, Bond BJ, Ryan MG. 2002a. Hydraulic limitation and compensation in large, old Douglas-fir trees. Tree Physiology 22: 763774.
  • McElrone AJ, Bichler J, Pockman WT, Addington RN, Linder CR, Jackson RB. 2007. Aquaporin-mediated changes in hydraulic conductivity of deep tree roots accessed via caves. Plant, Cell & Environment 30: 14111421.
  • McElrone AJ, Pockman WT, Martinez-Vilalta J, Jackson RB. 2004. Variation in xylem structure and function in stems and roots of trees to 20 m depth. New Phytologist 163: 507517.
  • McHugh CW, Kolb TE. 2003. Ponderosa pine mortality following fire in northern Arizona. International Journal of Wildland Fire 12: 722.
  • Mencuccini M. 2003. The ecological significance of long-distance water transport: short-term regulation, long-term acclimation and the hydraulic costs of stature across plant life forms. Plant, Cell & Environment 26: 163182.
  • Mencuccini M, Bonosi L. 2001. Leaf/sapwood area ratios in Scots pine show acclimation across Europe. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31: 442456.
  • Mitton JB. 1995. Genetics and the physiological ecology of conifers. In: SmithWK, HinckleyTM, eds. Ecophysiology of coniferous forests. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press, 136.
  • Mitton JB, Grant MC, Yoshino AM. 1998. Variation in allozymes and stomatal size in pinyon (Pinus edulis, Pinaceae), associated with soil moisture. American Journal of Botany 85: 12621265.
  • Monteith JL, Unsworth MH. 1990. Principles of environmental physics. New York, NY, USA: Edward Arnold, 291.
  • Mott KA, Parkhurst DF. 1991. Stomatal responses to humidity in air and helox. Plant, Cell & Environment 14: 509515.
  • Mueller RC, Scudder CM, Porter ME, Trotter RT III, Gehring CA, Whitham, TG. 2005. Differential tree mortality in response to severe drought: evidence for long-term vegetation shifts. Journal of Ecology 93: 10851093.
  • Mueller-Dumbois D. 1987. Natural dieback in forests. Bioscience 37: 575583.
  • Narisma GT, Pittman AJ, Eastman J, Watterson IG, Pielke R, Beltran-Przekurat A. 2003. The role of biospheric feedbacks in the simulation of the impact of historical land cover change on the Australian January climate. Geophysical Research Letters 30: 2168.
  • National Research Council. 2007. Understanding multiple environmental stresses. Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press.
  • Neilson RP, Pitelka LF, Solomon AM, Nathan R, Midgley GF, Fragoso JMV, Lischke H, Thompson K. 2005. Forecasting regional to global plant migration in response to climate change. Bioscience 55: 749759.
  • Nepstad DC, Tohver IM, Ray D, Moutinho P, Cardinot G. 2007. Mortality of large trees and lianas following experimental drought in an Amazon forest. Ecology 88: 22592269.
  • Newman BD, Wilcox BP, Archer SR, Breshears DD, Dahm CN, Duffy CJ, McDowell NG, Phillips FM, Scanlon BR, Vivoni ER. 2006. Ecohydrology of water-limited environments: a scientific vision. Water Resources Research 42: W06302.
  • Niinemets U, Sõber A, Kull O, Hartung W, Tenhumen J. 1999. Apparent controls on leaf conductance by soil water availability and via light acclimation of foliage structural and physiological properties in a mixed deciduous temperature forest. International Journal of Plant Sciences 160: 707721.
  • Ogle K, Reynolds JF. 2002. Desert dogma revisited: coupling of stomatal conductance and photosynthesis in the desert shrub Larrea tridentata. Plant, Cell & Environment 25: 909921.
  • Ogle K, Whitham TG, Cobb NS. 2000. Tree-ring variation in pinyon predicts likelihood of death following severe drought. Ecology 81: 32373243.
  • Oliver MJ, Tuba Z, Mishler BD. 2000. The evolution of vegetative desiccation tolerance in land plants. Plant Ecology 151: 85100.
  • Oren R, Sperry JS, Katul GG, Pataki DE, Ewers BE, Phillips N, Schäfer KVR. 1999. Survey and synthesis of intra- and interspecific variation in stomatal sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit. Plant, Cell & Environment 22: 15151526.
  • Parker TJ, Clancy KM, Mathiasen RL. 2006. Interactions among fire, insects, and pathogens in coniferous forests of the interior western United States and Canada. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 8: 167189.
  • Pedersen BS. 1998. The role of stress in the mortality of midwestern oaks as indicated by growth prior to death. Ecology 79: 7993.
  • Perrakis DDB, Agee JK. 2006. Seasonal fire effects on mixed-conifer forest structure and ponderosa pine resin properties. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36: 238254.
  • Phillips N, Bond BJ, McDowell NG, Ryan MG. 2002. Canopy and hydraulic conductance in young, mature and old Douglas-fir trees. Tree Physiology 22: 205211.
  • Phillips N, Ryan MG, Bond BJ, McDowell NG, Hinckley T, Cermak J. 2003. Reliance on stored water increases with tree size in three species in the Pacific Northwest. Tree Physiology 23: 237245.
  • Pittermann J, Sperry JS, Hacke UG, Wheeler JK, Sikkema EH. 2005. Torus-margo pits help conifers compete with angiosperms. Science 310: 1924.
  • Pittermann J, Sperry JS, Hacke UG, Wheeler JK, Sikkema EH. 2006. Inter-tracheid pitting and the hydraulic efficiency of conifer wood: the role of tracheid allometry and cavitation protection. American Journal of Botany 93: 11051113.
  • Pockman WT, Sperry JS. 2000. Vulnerability to xylem cavitation and the distribution of Sonoran vegetation. American Journal of Botany 87: 12871299.
  • Pockman WT, Sperry JS, O’Leary JW. 1995. Sustained and significant negative water pressure in xylem. Nature 378: 715716.
  • Pothier D, Margolis HA, Waring RH. 1989. Patterns of change of saturated sapwood permeability and sapwood conductance with stand development. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19: 432439.
  • Price PW. 1991. The plant vigor hypothesis and herbivore attack. Oikos 62: 244251.
  • Reeve JD, Ayers MP, Lorio PL Jr. 1995. Host suitability, predation, and bark beetle population dynamics. In: CappuccinoN, PricePW, eds. Population dynamics: new approaches and synthesis. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press, 339357.
  • Rice KJ, Matzner SL, Byer W, Brown JR. 2004. Patterns of tree dieback in Queensland, Australia; the importance of drought stress and the role of resistance to cavitation. Oecologia 139: 190198.
  • Rich PM, Breshears DD, White AB. 2008. Phenology of mixed woody-herbaceous ecosystems following extreme events: net and differential responses. Special feature on phenology. Ecology 89: 342352.
  • Rieske LK, Rhoades CC, Miller SP. 2003. Foliar chemistry and gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), hervibory on pure American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Fam: Fagaceae), and a disease-resistant hybrid. Environmental Entomology 32: 359365.
  • Rodriguez ML, Chaves MM, Wendler R, David MM, Quink WP, Leegood RC, Stitt M, Pereira JS. 1993. Osmotic adjustment in water stressed grapevine leaves in related to carbon assimilation. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 20: 309321.
  • Rolland C, Lemperiere G. 2004. Effects of climate on radial growth of Norway spruce and interactions with attacks by the bark beetle Dendroctonus micans (Kug., Coleoptera: Scolytidae): a dendroecological study in the French Massif Central. Forest Ecology and Management 201: 89104.
  • Romme WH, Clement J, Hicke J, Kulakowski D, MacDonald LH, Schoennagel TL, Veblen TT. 2006. Recent forest insect outbreaks and fire risk in colorado forests: a brief synthesis of relevant research. Colorado Forest Research Institute.
  • Ryan MG, Linder S, Vose JM, Hubbard RM. 1994. Dark respiration of pines. Ecological Bulletins 43: 5063.
  • Sack L. 2004. Responses of temperate woody seedlings to shade and drought: do trade-offs limit potential niche differentiation? Oikos 107: 110127.
  • Sage RF, Kubien DS. 2007. The temperature response of C3 and C4 photosynthesis. Plant, Cell & Environment 30: 10861106.
  • Salleo S, Lo Gullo MA, Trifilo P, Nardini A. 2004. New evidence for a role of vessel associated cells and phloem in the rapid xylem refilling of cavitated stems of Laurus nobilis L. Plant, Cell & Environment 27: 10651076.
  • Schäfer KVR, Oren R, Tenhunen JD. 2000. The effect of tree height on crown level stomatal conductance. Plant, Cell & Environment 23: 365375.
  • Schoeneweiss DF. 1981. Water stress as a predisposing factor in plant disease. In: KozlowskiTT, ed. Water Deficits and Plant Growth. New York, NY, USA: Academic Press.
  • Scholze M, Knorr W, Arnell NW, Prentice IC. 2006. A climate-change risk analysis for worlds ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 103: 1311613120.
  • Seager R, Ting M, Held I, Kushnir Y, Lu J, Vecchi G, Huang HP, Harnik N, Lau NC, Li C et al . 2007. Model projections on an inminent transition to a more arid climate in southwestern North America. Science 316: 11811184.
  • Shaw JD, Steed BE, DeBlander L. 2005. Forest inventory and analysis (FIA) annual inventory answers the question: what is happening to pinyon–juniper woodlands? Journal of Forestry 103: 80285.
  • Sherwin HN, Pammenter NW, February E, Vander Willigen C, Farrant JM. 1998. Xylem hydraulic characteristics, water relations and wood anatomy of the resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolius Welw. Annals of Botany 81: 567575.
  • Sieg CH, McMillin JD, Fowler JF, Allen KK, Negron JF, Wadleigh LL, Anhold JA, Gibson KE. 2006. Best predictors for postflre mortality of ponderosa pine trees in the intermountain west. Forest Science 52: 718728.
  • Simberloff D. 2000. Global climate change and introduced species in United States forests. Science of the Total Environment 262: 253261.
  • Simonin K, Kolb TE, Montes-Helu M, Koch GW. 2007. The influence of thinning on components of stand water balance in a ponderosa pine forest stand during and after extreme drought. Agricultural and Forest Metereology 143: 266276.
  • Slik JWF. 2004. El nino droughts and their effects on tree species composition and diversity in tropical rain forests. Oecologia 141: 114120.
  • Sparks JP, Black RA. 1999. Regulation of water loss in populations of Populus trichocarpa: the role of stomatal control in preventing xylem cavitation. Tree Physiology 19: 453459.
  • Sperry JS, Adler FR, Campbell GS, Comstock JP. 1998. Limitation of plant water use by rhizosphere and xylem conductance: results from a model. Plant, Cell & Environment 21: 347359.
  • Sperry JS, Hacke UG. 2002. Desert shrub water relations with respect to soil characteristics and plant functional type. Functional Ecology 16: 367378.
  • Sperry JS, Hacke UG, Oren R, Comstock JP. 2002. Water deficits and hydraulic limits to leaf water supply. Plant, Cell & Environment 25: 251263.
  • Sperry JS, Holbrook NM, Zimmerman MH, Tyree MT. 1987. Spring filling of xylem vessels in wild grapevine. Plant Physiology 83: 414417.
  • Sperry JS, Ikeda T. 1997. Xylem cavitation in roots and stems of Douglas-fir and white fir. Tree Physiology 17: 275228.
  • Stamp N. 2003. Out of the quagmire of plant defense hypotheses. Quarterly Review of Biology 78: 2355.
  • Stirzaker RJ, Passioura JB. 1996. The water relations of the root-soil interface. Plant, Cell & Environment 19: 201208.
  • Stone WE, Wolfe ML. 1996. Response of understory vegetation to variable tree mortality following a mountain pine beetle epidemic in lodge pine stands in northen Utah. Vegetatio 122: 112.
  • Suarez ML, Ghermandi L, Kitzberger T. 2004. Factors predisposing episodic drought-induced tree mortality in Nothofagus – site, climatic sensitivity, and growth trends. Journal of Ecology 92: 954966.
  • Swaty RL, Deckert RJ, Whitham TG, Gehring CA. 2004. Ectomycorrhizal abundance and community composition shifts with drought: predictions from tree rings. Ecology 85: 10721084.
  • Swetnam TW, Betancourt JL. 1998. Mesoscale disturbance and ecological response to decadal climatic variability in the American southwest. Journal of Climate 11: 31283147.
  • Swetnam TW, Lynch AM. 1993. Multicentury, regional-scale patterns of western spruce budworm outbreaks. Ecological Monographs 64: 399424.
  • Tadege M, Dupuis I, Kuhlemeier C. 1999. Ethanolic fermentation: new functions for an old pathway. Trends in Plant Science 4: 320325.
  • Tardieu F. 1993. Will increases in our understanding of soil-root relations and root signaling substantially alter water flux models? The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Serie B 341: 5766.
  • Tardieu F, Davies WJ. 1992. Stomatal response to abscisic acid is a function of current plant water status. Plant Physiology 98: 540545.
  • Tardieu F, Simonneau T. 1998. Variability of species among stomatal control under fluctuating soil water status and evaporative demand: modeling isohydric and anisohydric behaviours. Journal of Experimental Botany 49: 419432.
  • Thoss V, Byers JA. 2006. Monoterpene chemodiversity of ponderosa pine in relation to herbivory and bark beetle colonization. Chemoecology 16: 5158.
  • Tognetti R, Michelozzi M, Giovannelli A. 1997. Geographic variation in water relations, hydraulic architecture and terpene composition of Aleppo pine seedlings from Italian provenances. Tree Physiology 17: 241250.
  • Tran JK, Ylioja T, Billings RF, Regniere J, Ayres MP. 2007. Impact of minimum winter temperatures on the population dynamics of Dendroctonus frontalis. Ecological Applications 17: 882899.
  • Tuberosa R, Salvi S, Sanguineti MC, Maccaferri M, Giuliani S, Landi P. 2003. Searching for quantitative trait loci controlling root traits in maize: a critical appraisal. Plant and Soil 255: 3554.
  • Tyree MT, Cochard H, Cruiziat P, Sinclair B, Ameglio T. 1993. Drought-induced leaf shedding in walnut: evidence for vulnerability segmentation. Plant, Cell & Environment 16: 879882.
  • Tyree M, Salleo S, Nardini A, Lo Gullo M, Mosca R. 1999. Refilling of embolized vessels in young stems of Laurel. Do we need a new paradigm? Plant Physiology 120: 1121.
  • Tyree MT, Sperry JS. 1988. Do woody plants operate near the point of catastrophic xylem dysfunction caused by dynamic water stress? Plant Physiology 88: 574580.
  • Tyree MT, Sperry JS. 1989. Vulnerability of xylem to cavitation and embolism. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology 40: 1938.
  • Ungerer MJ, Ayers MP, Lombardero MJ. 1999. Climate and the northern distribution limits of Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Journal of Biogeography 26: 11331145.
  • Van Nieewstadt MGL, Sheil D. 2005. Drught, fire and tree survival in a Borneo rain forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Journal of Ecology 93: 191201.
  • VanSplunder I, Voesenek LACJ, Coops H, DeVries XJA, Blom CWPM. 1996. Morphological responses of seedlings of four species of Salicaceae to drought. Canadian Journal of Botany 74: 19881995.
  • Villalba R, Veblen TT. 1998. Influences of large-scale climatic variability on episodic tree mortality in northern Patagonia. Ecology 79: 26242640.
  • Volaire F, Thomas H, Lelievre F. 1998. Survival and recovery of perennial forage grasses under prolonged Mediterranean drought. I. Growth, death, water relations and solute content in herbage and stubble. New Phytologist 140: 439449.
  • Wallin KF, Kolb TE, Skov KR, Wagner MR. 2003. Effects of crown scorch on ponderosa pine resistance to bark beetles in northern Arizona. Environmental Entomology 32: 652661.
  • Wardle JA, Allen RB. 1983. Dieback in New Zealand Nothofagus forests. Pacific Science 37: 397404.
  • Waring GL, Cobb NS. 1992. The impacts of plant stress on herbivore population dynamics. In: BernaysEA, ed. Plant-insect interactions, Vol. 4. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC, 167226.
  • Waring RH. 1987. Characteristics of trees predisposed to die. Bioscience 37: 569577.
  • Waring RH, Landsberg JJ, Williams M. 1998. Net primary production of forests: a constant fraction of gross primary production? Tree Physiology 18: 129134.
  • Waring RH, Pitman GB. 1985. Modifying lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands to change susceptibility to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) attack. Ecology 66: 889897.
  • Warren JM, Allen HL, Booker FL. 1999. Mineral nutrition, resin flow and phloem phytochemistry in loblolly pine. Tree Physiology 19: 655663.
  • West AG, Hultine KR, Burtch KG, Ehleringer JR. 2007b. Seasonal variations in moisture use in a piñon–juniper woodland. Oecologia 153: 787798.
  • West AG, Hultine KR, Jackson TL, Ehleringer JR. 2007a. Contrasting hydraulic strategies explain differential summer moisture use of Pinus edulis and Juniperus osteosperma. Tree Physiology 27: 17111720.
  • West AG, Hultine KR, Sperry JS, Bush SE, Ehleringer JR. 2008. Transpiration and hydraulic strategies in a piñon–juniper woodland. Ecological Applications 18: 911927.
  • Westerling AL, Hidalgo HG, Cayan DR, Swetnam TW. 2006. Warming and earlier spring increases western US forest wildfire activity. Science 313: 940943.
  • White TCR. 1984. The abundance of invertebrate herbivores in relation to the availability of nitrogen in stressed food plants. Oecologia 63: 90105.
  • Whitehead D. 1998. Regulation of stomatal conductance and transpiration in forest canopies. Tree Physiology 18: 633644.
  • Whitehead D, Jarvis PG. 1981. Coniferous forest and plantations. In: KozlowskiTT, ed. Water deficits and growth, Vol. 6. New York, NY, USA: Academic Press, 49152.
  • Wilcox BP, Breshears DD, Allen CD. 2003. Ecohydrology of a resource-conserving semiarid woodland: temporal and spatial scaling and disturbance. Ecological Monographs 73: 223239.
  • Williams DG, Ehleringer JR. 2000. Intra- and interspecific variation for summer precipitation use in pinyon–juniper woodlands. Ecological Monographs 70: 517537.
  • Williams JE, Davis SD, Portwood KA. 1997. Xylem embolism in seedlings and resprouts of Adenostema fasciculatum after fire. Australian Journal of Botany 45: 291300.
  • Williamson GB, Laurance WF, Oliveira AA, Delamonica P, Gascon C, Lovejoy TE, Pohl L. 2000. Amazonia tree mortality during the 1997 El Niño drought. Conservation Biology 14: 15381542.
  • Wullschleger SD, McLaughlin SB, Ayres MP. 2004. High-resolution analysis of stem increment and sap flow for loblolly pine trees attacked by southern pine beetle. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34: 23872393.
  • Wyckoff PH, Clark JS. 2002. The relationship between growth and mortality for seven co-occurring tree species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Journal of Ecology 90: 604615.
  • Yoder BJ, Ryan MG, Waring RH, Schoettle AW, Kaufmann MR. 1994. Evidence of reduced photosynthetic rates in old trees. Forest Science 40: 513527.
  • Zhang J, Marshall JD, Jaquish BC. 1995. Genetic differentiation in carbon isotope discrimination and gas exchange in Pseudotsuga menziesii. Oecologia 101: 8087.