SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ackerly DD. 1999. Self-shading, carbon gain and leaf dynamics: a test of alternative optimality models. Oecologia 119: 300310.
  • Ackerly DD, Bazzaz FA. 1995. Leaf dynamics, self-shading and carbon gain in seedlings of a tropical pioneer tree. Oecologia 101: 289298.
  • Anten NPR, Ackerly DD. 2001. Canopy-level photosynthetic compensation after defoliation in a tropical understorey palm. Functional Ecology 15: 252262.
  • Anten NPR, Schieving F, Medina E, Werger MJA, Schuffelen P. 1995. Optimal leaf area indices in C3 and C4 mono- and dicotyledonous species at low and high nitrogen availability. Physiologia Plantarum 95: 541550.
  • Boonman A, Anten NPR, Dueck TA, Jordi WJRM, Van Der Werf A, Voesenek LACJ, Pons TL. 2006. Functional significance of shade-induced leaf senescence in dense canopies: an experimental test using transgenic tobacco. American Naturalist 168: 597607.
  • Brodersen CR, Vogelmann TC, Williams WE, Gorton HL. 2008. A new paradigm in leaf-level photosynthesis: direct and diffuse lights are not equal. Plant, Cell & Environment 31: 159164.
  • Brouwer R. 1962a. Distribution of dry matter in the plant. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 10: 361376.
  • Brouwer R. 1962b. Nutritive influences on the distribution of dry matter in the plant. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 10: 399408.
  • Falster D, Westoby M. 2003. Leaf size and angle vary widely across species: what consequences for light interception? New Phytologist 158: 509525.
  • Field C. 1983. Allocating leaf nitrogen for the maximization of carbon gain: leaf age as a control on the allocation program. Oecologia 56: 341347.
  • Field C, Mooney HA. 1983. Leaf age and seasonal effects on light, water, and nitrogen use efficiency in a California shrub. Oecologia 56: 348355.
  • Frazer GW, Canham CD, Lertzman KP. 1999. Gap light analyzer (GLA) 2.0: Imaging software to extract canopy structure and gap light transmission indices from true-colour fisheye photographs. Burnaby, BC, Canada: Simon Fraser University.
  • Givnish TJ. 1987. Comparative studies of leaf form: assessing the relative roles of selective pressures and phylogenetic constraints. New Phytologist 106 (Suppl.): 131160.
  • Givnish TJ. 2002. Adaptive significance of evergreen vs deciduous leaves: solving the triple paradox. Silva Fennica 36: 703743.
  • Hanson PJ, McRoberts RE, Isebrands JG, Dixon, RK. 1987. An optimal sampling strategy for determining CO2 exchange rate as a function of photosynthetic photon flux density. Photosynthetica 21: 98101.
  • Hikosaka K. 2003. A model of dynamics of leaves and nitrogen in a plant canopy: an integration of canopy photosynthesis, leaf life span, and nitrogen use efficiency. American Naturalist 162: 149164.
  • Hom JL, Oechel WC. 1983. The photosynthetic capacity, nutrient content and nutrient use efficiency of different needle age classes of black spruce (Picea mariana) found in interior Alaska, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 13: 834839.
  • Kikuzawa K. 1991. A cost–benefit analysis of leaf habit and leaf longevity of trees and their geographical pattern. American Naturalist 138: 12501263.
  • Kikuzawa K, Ackerly DD. 1999. Significance of leaf longevity in plants. Plant Species Biology 14: 3945.
  • Kitajima K, Mulkey SS, Samaniego M, Wright SJ. 2002. Decline of photosynthetic capacity with leaf age and position in two tropical pioneer tree species. American Journal of Botany 89: 19251932.
  • Kitajima K, Mulkey SS, Wright SJ. 1997. Decline of photosynthetic capacity with leaf age in relation to leaf longevities for five tropical canopy tree species. American Journal of Botany 84: 702708.
  • Kitajima K, Mulkey SS, Wright SJ. 2005. Variation in crown light utilization characteristics among tropical canopy trees. Annals of Botany 95: 535547.
  • Koike T. 1988. Leaf structure and photosynthetic performance as related to the forest succession of deciduous broad-leaved trees. Plant Species Biology 3: 7787.
  • Mediavilla S, Escudero A. 2003. Photosynthetic capacity, integrated over the lifetime of a leaf, is predicted to be independent of leaf longevity in some tree species. New Phytologist 159: 203211.
  • Mooney HA, Field C, Gulmon SL, Bazzaz FA. 1981. Photosynthetic capacity in relation to leaf position in desert versus old-field annuals. Oecologia 50: 109112.
  • Naumburg E, Ellsworth DS, Pearcy RW. 2001. Crown carbon gain and elevated [CO2] responses of understorey saplings with differing allometry and architecture. Functional Ecology 15: 263273.
  • New M, Lister D, Hulme M, Makin I. 2002. A high-resolution data set of surface climate over global land areas. Climate Research 21: 125.
  • Oleksyn J, Reich PB, Chalupka W, Tjoelker MG. 1997. CO2 exchange, buffer capacity, chlorophyll, carbohydrate and phenols content in relation to needle age of Pinus heldreichii Christ – a relict of Tertiary flora. Trees 12: 8289.
  • Oikawa S, Hikosaka K, Hirose T. 2006. Leaf lifespan and lifetime carbon balance of individual leaves in a stand of an annual herb, Xanthium canadense. New Phytologist 172: 104116.
  • Pearcy RW, Yang WM. 1996. A three-dimensional crown architecture model for assessment of light capture and carbon gain by understory plants. Oecologia 108: 112.
  • Reich PB, Ellsworth DS, Walters MB. 1991. Leaf development and season influence the relationships between leaf nitrogen, leaf mass per area, and photosynthesis in maple and oak trees. Plant, Cell & Environment 14: 251259.
  • Reich PB, Ellsworth DS, Walters MB, Vose JM, Gresham C, Volin JC, Bowman WD. 1999. Generality of leaf trait relationships: a test across six biomes. Ecology 80: 19551969.
  • Reich PB, Tjoelker MG, Machado JL, Oleksyn J. 2006. Universal scaling of respiratory metabolism, size and nitrogen in plants. Nature 439: 457461.
  • Reich PB, Uhl C, Walters MB, Prugh L, Ellsworth DS. 2004. Leaf demography and phenology in Amazonian rain forest: a census of 40 000 leaves of 23 tree species. Ecological Monographs 74: 323.
  • Rich PM. 1990. Characterizing plant canopies with hemispherical photographs. In: GoelNS, NormanJM, eds. Instrumentation for studying vegetation canopies for remote sensing in optical and thermal infrared regions. New York, NY, USA: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1329.
  • Schoettle AW, Smith WK. 1991. Interrelation between shoot characteristics and solar irradiance in the crown of Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia. Tree Physiology 9: 245254.
  • Singsaas EL, Ort DR, Delucia EH. 2001. Variation in measured values of photosynthetic quantum yield in ecophysiological studies. Oecologia 128: 1523.
  • Ter Steege H. 1996. Winphot 5: a programme to analyze vegetation indices, light and light quality from hemispherical photographs. Tropenbos Guyana Reports. Georgetown, Guyana: Tropenbos Guyana Programme.
  • Tjoelker MG, Oleksyn J, Reich PB. 2001. Modelling respiration of vegetation: evidence for a general temperature-dependent Q 10. Global Change Biology 7: 223230.
  • Vaupel JW, Carey JR, Christensen K, Johnson TE, Yashin AI, Holm NV, Iachine IA, Kannisto V, Khazaeli AA, Liedo P et al . 1998. Biodemographic trajectories of longevity. Science 280: 855860.
  • Walters MB, Reich PB. 2000. Trade-offs in low-light CO2 exchange: a component of variation in shade tolerance among cold temperate tree seedlings. Functional Ecology 14: 155165.
  • Wright IJ, Leishman MR, Read C, Westoby M. 2006. Gradients of light availability and leaf traits with leaf age and canopy position in 28 Australian shrubs and trees. Functional Plant Biology 33: 407419.
  • Wright IJ, Reich PB, Westoby M. 2001. Strategy-shifts in leaf physiology, structure and nutrient content between species of high and low rainfall, and high and low nutrient habitats. Functional Ecology 15: 423434.
  • Wright IJ, Westoby M. 2002. Leaves at low versus high rainfall: coordination of structure, lifespan and physiology. New Phytologist 155: 403416.
  • Wright IJ, Westoby M, Reich PB. 2002. Convergence towards higher leaf mass per area in dry and nutrient-poor habitats has different consequences for leaf life span. Journal of Ecology 90: 534543.