Molecular phylogeography of East Asian Kirengeshoma (Hydrangeaceae) in relation to Quaternary climate change and landbridge configurations

Authors

  • Ying-Xiong Qiu,

    1. Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany of Zhejiang University, and Conservation Center for Gene Resources of Endangered Wildlife, and the Key Laboratory of Conservation Genetics and Reproductive Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, Hangzhou 310058, China
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  • Yi Sun,

    1. Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany of Zhejiang University, and Conservation Center for Gene Resources of Endangered Wildlife, and the Key Laboratory of Conservation Genetics and Reproductive Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, Hangzhou 310058, China
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  • Xiao-Ping Zhang,

    1. The Key Laboratory of Conservation and Employment of Biological Resources of Anhui, College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, 241000, China
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  • Joongku Lee,

    1. Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-333, South Korea
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  • Cheng-Xin Fu,

    1. Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany of Zhejiang University, and Conservation Center for Gene Resources of Endangered Wildlife, and the Key Laboratory of Conservation Genetics and Reproductive Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, Hangzhou 310058, China
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  • Hans Peter Comes

    1. Department of Organismic Biology, Salzburg University, A–5020 Salzburg, Austria
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Authors for correspondence:
Hans Peter Comes
Tel:+43 (0)662 8044 5505
Email: peter.comes@sbg.ac.at
Cheng-Xin Fu
Tel: +86 (0)571 88206607
Email: cxfu@zju.edu.cn

Summary

  • • Kirengeshoma comprises two species inhabiting warm temperate-deciduous forests in East China/South Japan (Kirengeshoma palmata) and South Korea (Kirengeshoma koreana). A survey of chloroplast (cp) DNA and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) variation in Kirengeshoma was carried out to determine the population history of a plant taxon around the East China Sea (ECS).
  • • CpDNA and ISSRs revealed lower genetic divergence between China and Japan relative to the other contrasts, in line with intrageneric classification. Molecular dating suggests that K. koreana diverged at the Plio-Pleistocene boundary from the Japanese populations, whereas the latter migrated into China during the early-to-mid Pleistocene via the ECS basin. Vicariant segregation of Chinese and Japanese populations likely occurred during the mid-Pleistocene.
  • • Mismatch distributions and neutrality tests indicated that Chinese populations expanded their range during the Late Pleistocene, probably during a cold period, whereas those from Japan showed no significant population growth.
  • • We conclude that the current distribution and differentiation of components of presently isolated warm temperate-deciduous forests in China, Japan and Korea likely resulted from a combination of relatively ancient vicariant and immigration events, and those from Japan were particularly sensitive to range fragmentation and long-term refugial isolation throughout the Late Pleistocene.

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