SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ågren J, Willson MF. 1991. Gender variation and sexual differences in reproductive characters and seed production in gynodioecious Geranium maculatum. American Journal of Botany 78: 470480.
  • Akaike H. 1974. New look at statistical-model identification. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control Ac19: 716723.
  • Alonso C, Herrera CM. 2001. Neither vegetative nor reproductive advantages account for high frequency of male-steriles in southern Spanish gynodioecious Daphne laureola (Thymelaeaceae). American Journal of Botany 88: 10161024.
  • Alonso C, Mutikainen P, Herrera CM. 2007. Ecological context of breeding system variation: sex, size and pollination in a (predominantly) gynodioecious shrub. Annals of Botany 100: 15471556.
  • Ashman TL. 1999. Determinants of sex allocation in a gynodioecious wild strawberry: implications for the evolution of dioecy and sexual dimorphism. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 12: 648661.
  • Asikainen E, Mutikainen P. 2003. Female frequency and relative fitness of females and hermaphrodites in gynodioecious Geranium sylvaticum (Geraniaceae). American Journal of Botany 90: 226234.
  • Barr CM. 2004. Soil moisture and sex ratio in a plant with nuclear-cytoplasmic sex inheritance. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 271: 19351939.
  • Barrett SCH, Eckert CG. 1990. Variation and evolution of mating systems in seed plants. In: KawanoS, ed. Biological approaches and evolutionary trends in plants. London, UK: Academic Press, 229254.
  • Belhassen E, Trabaud L, Couvet D, Gouyon PH. 1989. An example of nonequilibrium processes – gynodioecy of Thymus vulgaris in burned habitats. Evolution 43: 662667.
  • Budar F, Pelletier G. 2001. Male sterility in plants: occurrence, determinism, significance and use. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences Serie III – Sciences de la Vie – Life Sciences 324: 543550.
  • Caruso CM, Case AL. 2007. Sex ratio variation in gynodioecious Lobelia siphilitica: effects of population size and geographic location. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20: 13961405.
  • Case AL, Barrett SCH. 2004. Environmental stress and the evolution of dioecy: Wurmbea dioica (Colchicaceae) in western Australia. Evolutionary Ecology 18: 145164.
  • Chang S-M. 2006. Female compensation through the quantity and quality of progeny in a gynodioecious plant, Geranium maculatum (Geraniaceae). American Journal of Botany 93: 263270.
  • Chang S-M. 2007. Gender-specific inbreeding depression in a gynodioecious plant, Geranium maculatum (Geraniaceae). American Journal of Botany 94: 11931204.
  • Charlesworth D. 1981. A further study of the problem of the maintenance of females in gynodioecious species. Heredity 46: 2739.
  • Charlesworth D, Ganders FR. 1979. Population-genetics of gynodioecy with cytoplasmic–genic male-sterility. Heredity 43: 213218.
  • Chen JQ, Franklin JF, Spies TA. 1993. Contrasting microclimates among clear-cut, edge, and interior of old-growth Douglas-fir forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 63: 219237.
  • Chen JQ, Franklin JF, Spies TA. 1995. Growing-season microclimatic gradients from clear-cut edges into old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Ecological Applications 5: 7486.
  • Clark DB, Clark DA, Rich PM, Weiss S, Oberbauer SF. 1996. Landscape scale evaluation of understory light and canopy structure: methods and application in a neotropical lowland rain forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research – Revue Canadienne de Recherche Forestiere 26: 747757.
  • Couvet D, Bonnemaison F, Gouyon PH. 1986. The maintenance of females among hermaphrodites – the importance of nuclear–cytoplasmic interactions. Heredity 57: 325330.
  • Darwin CR. 1877. The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species. London, UK: Murray.
  • Delph LF. 1990a. Sex-differential resource-allocation patterns in the subdioecious shrub Hebe subalpina. Ecology 71: 13421351.
  • Delph LF. 1990b. Sex-ratio variation in the gynodioecious shrub Hebe strictissima (Scrophulariaceae). Evolution 44: 134142.
  • Delph LF. 2003. Sexual dimorphism in gender plasticity and its consequences for breeding system evolution. Evolution & Development 5: 3439.
  • Dorken ME, Mitchard ETA. 2008. Phenotypic plasticity of hermaphrodite sex allocation promotes the evolution of separate sexes: an experimental test of the sex-differential plasticity hypothesis using Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae). Evolution 62: 971978.
  • Ennos RA. 2000. Inferences about spatial processes in plant populations from the analysis of molecular markers. In: SilvertownJ, AntonovicsJ, eds. Integrating ecology and evolution in a spatial context. Williston, VT, USA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Fortin MJ, Drapeau P, Legendre P. 1989. Spatial auto-correlation and sampling design in plant ecology. Vegetatio 83: 209222.
  • Frazer GW, Canham CD, Lertzman KP. 1999. Gap Light Analyzer (GLA), Version 2.0: Imaging software to extract canopy structure and gap light transmission indices from true-colour fisheye photographs, users manual and program documentation. Burnaby, BC, Canada: Simon Fraser University and Millbrook, NY, USA: Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
  • Gouyon PH, Couvet D. 1987. A conflict between two sexes, females and hermaphrodites. In: StearnsSC, ed. The evolution of sex and its consequences. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser, 245261.
  • Graff A. 1999. Population sex structure and reproductive fitness in gynodioecious Sidalcea malviflora malviflora (Malvaceae). Evolution 53: 17141722.
  • Herrera J. 2005. Flower size variation in Rosmarinus officinalis: individuals, populations and habitats. Annals of Botany 95: 431437.
  • Hu XS, Ennos RA. 1997. On estimation of the ratio of pollen to seed flow among plant populations. Heredity 79: 541552.
  • Hutchison BA, Matt DR. 1977. Distribution of solar-radiation within a deciduous forest. Ecological Monographs 47: 185207.
  • Jonas CS, Geber MA. 1999. Variation among populations of Clarkia unguiculata (Onagraceae) along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. American Journal of Botany 86: 333343.
  • Klaas AL, Olson MS. 2006. Spatial distributions of cytoplasmic types and sex expression in Alaskan populations of Silene acaulis. International Journal of Plant Sciences 167: 179189.
  • Lambrecht SC, Dawson TE. 2007. Correlated variation of floral and leaf traits along a moisture availability gradient. Oecologia 151: 574583.
  • Legendre P. 1993. Spatial autocorrelation – trouble or new paradigm. Ecology 74: 16591673.
  • McCauley DE, Bailey MF, Sherman NA, Darnell MZ. 2005. Evidence for paternal transmission and heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial genome of Silene vulgaris, a gynodioecious plant. Heredity 95: 5058.
  • McCauley DE, Sundby AK, Bailey MF, Welch ME. 2007. Inheritance of chloroplast DNA is not strictly maternal in Silene vulgaris (Caryophyllaceae): evidence from experimental crosses and natural populations. American Journal of Botany 94: 13331337.
  • Nicotra AB, Chazdon RL, Iriarte SVB. 1999. Spatial heterogeneity of light and woody seedling regeneration in tropical wet forests. Ecology 80: 19081926.
  • Olson MS, Graf AV, Niles KR. 2006. Fine scale spatial structuring of sex and mitochondria in Silene vulgaris. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19: 11901201.
  • Olson MS, McCauley DE. 2002. Mitochondrial DNA diversity, population structure, and gender association in the gynodioecious plant Silene vulgaris. Evolution 56: 253262.
  • Olson MS, McCauley DE, Taylor D. 2005. Genetics and adaptation in structured populations: sex ratio evolution in Silene vulgaris. Genetica 123: 4962.
  • Palmer TM. 2003. Spatial habitat heterogeneity influences competition and coexistence in an African acacia ant guild. Ecology 84: 28432855.
  • Pannell J. 1997. The maintenance of gynodioecy and androdioecy in a metapopulation. Evolution 51: 1020.
  • Peakall R, Smouse PE. 2006. genalex 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Molecular Ecology Notes 6: 288295.
  • Pearl SA, Welch ME, McCauley DE. 2009. Mitochondrial heteroplasmy and paternal leakage in natural populations of Silene vulgaris, a gynodioecious plant. Molecular Biology and Evolution 26: 537545.
  • Radford AE, Ahles HE, Bell CR. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC, USA: University of North Carolina Press.
  • Ribeiro PJ Jr, Diggle PJ. 2001. geor: a package for geostatistical analysis. R-News 1: 1517.
  • Robertson GP, Crum JR, Ellis BG. 1993. The spatial variability of soil resources following long-term disturbance. Oecologia 96: 451456.
  • Rosenberg NJ, Blad BL, Verma SB. 1983. Microclimate – the biological environment. New York, NY, USA: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
  • Rossi RE, Mulla DJ, Journel AG, Franz EH. 1992. Geostatistical tools for modeling and interpreting ecological spatial dependence. Ecological Monographs 62: 277314.
  • Sarkissian TS, Barrett SCH, Harder LD. 2001. Gender variation in Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae): is size all that matters? Ecology 82: 360373.
  • Schabenberger O, Gotway CA. 2005. Statistical methods for spatial data analysis. Boca Raton, FL, USA: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press.
  • Shykoff JA, Kolokotronis SO, Collin CL, Lopez-Villavicencio M. 2003. Effects of male sterility on reproductive traits in gynodioecious plants: a meta-analysis. Oecologia 135: 19.
  • Smouse PE, Peakall R. 1999. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of individual multiallele and multilocus genetic structure. Heredity 82: 561573.
  • Sokal RR, Oden NL. 1978. Spatial autocorrelation in biology. 1. Methodology. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 10: 199228.
  • Stamp NE, Lucas JR. 1983. Ecological correlates of explosive seed dispersal. Oecologia 59: 272278.
  • Van Etten ML, Prevost LB, Deen AC, Ortiz BV, Donovan LA, Chang S-M. 2008. Gender differences in reproductive and physiological traits in a gynodioecious species, Geranium maculatum (Geraniaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 169: 271279.
  • Vaughton G, Ramsey M. 2005. Dry environments promote the establishment of females in monomorphic populations of Wurmbea biglandulosa (Colchicaceae). Evolutionary Ecology 18: 323341.
  • Wackernagel H. 2003. Multivariate geostatistics: an introduction with applications. New York, NY, USA: Springer.
  • Wolfe LM, Shmida A. 1997. The ecology of sex expression in a gynodioecious Israeli desert shrub (Ochradenus baccatus). Ecology 78: 101110.
  • Xu M, Chen JQ, Brookshire BL. 1997. Temperature and its variability in oak forests in the southeastern Missouri Ozarks. Climate Research 8: 209223.