Methods S1 Site description, root data, characterizing Δ14C values of carbon (C) inputs to the fine-root system, and sensitivity analysis.

Fig. S1 Frequency (from the Monte Carlo simulations) of best-fit turnover time for L1L1) for roots < 0.5 mm diameter in the 0–15 cm depth interval.

Fig. S2 Predicted biomass for roots from 0–15 cm depth and of < 0.5 mm diameter in the (a) live-root pools and (b) dead-root pools.

Fig. S3 Effect of ignoring respiratory CO2 fluxes on the Δ14C value of (a) live and (b) dead fine roots for the background atmosphere (i.e., no pulse) using the nominal best-fit turnover times for roots from 0–15 cm depth and of < 0.5 mm diameter.

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