• arsenate;
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare);
  • mycorrhizal fungi;
  • Glomus intraradices;
  • phosphate;
  • transporter;
  • gene expression


  • Here, we used barley (Hordeum vulgare) grown in normal and compartmented pots to investigate sensitivity to arsenic (As) in the absence of a positive growth response to arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM).
  • We tested the hypothesis that upon inoculation with AM fungi downregulation of HvPht1;1 and HvPht1;2 genes (encoding high-affinity inorganic orthophosphate (Pi)-uptake systems in a direct pathway via root epidermis and root hairs) and upregulation of the AM-induced HvPht1;8 (encoding the Pi-uptake system responsible for transfer of Pi from the symbiotic interface to cortical cells) play a role in decreased As uptake and hence reduced As sensitivity in AM plants.
  • Barley did not respond, or responded negatively to colonization by Glomus intraradices in terms of growth. In terms of specific phosphorus (P) uptake (P uptake per g of root) barley was nonresponsive. There was a significant interaction between As treatment and colonization, resulting in a lower As concentration and uptake in AM compared with nonmycorrhizal (NM) plants.
  • The decreased uptake of As and higher P : As molar ratios in the AM barley can be explained by the operation of the AM pathway as indicated by induction of HvPht1;8 and by down-regulation of HvPht1;1 and HvPht1;2.