Seasonally dynamic fungal communities in the Quercus macrocarpa phyllosphere differ between urban and nonurban environments
Article first published online: 17 FEB 2010
© The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010)
Volume 186, Issue 2, pages 496–513, April 2010
How to Cite
Jumpponen, A. and Jones, K. L. (2010), Seasonally dynamic fungal communities in the Quercus macrocarpa phyllosphere differ between urban and nonurban environments. New Phytologist, 186: 496–513. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03197.x
- Issue published online: 25 MAR 2010
- Article first published online: 17 FEB 2010
- Received: 13 October 2009, Accepted: 14 December 2009
- •The fungal richness, diversity and community composition in the Quercus macrocarpa phyllosphere were compared across a growing season in trees located in six stands within and outside a small urban center using 454-sequencing and DNA tagging. The approaches did not differentiate between endophytic and epiphytic fungal communities.
- •Fungi accumulated in the phyllosphere rapidly and communities were temporally dynamic, with more than a third of the analyzed operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and half of the BLAST-inferred genera showing distinct seasonal patterns. The seasonal patterns could be explained by fungal life cycles or environmental tolerances.
- •The communities were hyperdiverse and differed between the urban and nonurban stands, albeit not consistently across the growing season. Foliar macronutrients (nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and sulfur (S)), micronutrients (boron (B), manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se)) and trace elements (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) were enriched in the urban trees, probably as a result of anthropogenic activities. Because of correlations with the experimental layout, these chemical elements should not be considered as community drivers without further empirical studies.
- •We suggest that a combination of mechanisms leads to differences between urban and nonurban communities. Among those are stand isolation and size, nutrient and pollutant accumulation plus stand management, including fertilization and litter removal.