Biological stoichiometry of plant production: metabolism, scaling and ecological response to global change
Article first published online: 10 MAR 2010
© The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010)
Volume 186, Issue 3, pages 593–608, May 2010
How to Cite
Elser, J. J., Fagan, W. F., Kerkhoff, A. J., Swenson, N. G. and Enquist, B. J. (2010), Biological stoichiometry of plant production: metabolism, scaling and ecological response to global change. New Phytologist, 186: 593–608. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03214.x
- Issue published online: 13 APR 2010
- Article first published online: 10 MAR 2010
- Received: 19 May 2009, Accepted: 4 January 2010
- 1988. The effect of increased nutrient availability on vegetation dynamics in wet heathlands. Vegetatio 76: 63–69. , .
- 2004. The C : N : P stoichiometry of autotrophs – theory and observations. Ecology Letters 7: 185–191. .
- 2008. Stoichiometry and nutrition of plant growth in natural communities. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 39: 153–170. .
- 2005. What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy. New Phytologist 165: 351–371. , .
- 2009. Towards an integration of ecological stoichiometry and the metabolic theory of ecology to better understand nutrient cycling. Ecology Letters 12: 369–384. , .
- 1984. The role of maintenance respiration in plant growth. Plant, Cell & Environment 7: 561–569. .
- 1997. Pelagic nutrient cycles: herbivores as sources and sinks. Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag. .
- 2003. Testing for phylogenetic signal in comparative data: behavioral traits are more labile. Evolution 57: 717–745. , , .
- 1988. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on vegetation structure and dominance of Brachypodium pinnatum in chalk grassland. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 37: 231–242. , , .
- 2004. Phylogenetic variation in the shoot mineral concentration of angiosperms. Journal of Experimental Botany 55: 321–336. , , , , , , .
- 1999. Patterns in the fate of production in plant communities. American Naturalist 154: 449–468. .
- 2009. Toward a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351–366. , , , , , .
- 1985. Resource availability and plant anti-herbivore defense. Science 230: 895–899. , , .
- 2003. The resource economics of chemical and structural defenses across nitrogen supply gradients. Oecologia 137: 547–556. , , , , .
- 1998. A meta-analysis of elevated CO2 effects on woody plant mass, form, and physiology. Oecologia 113: 299–313. , .
- 2007. Tissue nutrient concentrations in freshwater aquatic macrophytes: high inter-taxon differences and low phenotypic response to nutrient supply. Freshwater Biology 52: 2073–2086. , .
- 2003. Growth rate–stoichiometry couplings in diverse biota. Ecology Letters 6: 936–943. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2007. Global analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of primary production in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. Ecology Letters 10: 1135–1142. , , , , , , , , , .
- 2000a. Nutritional constraints in terrestrial and freshwater food webs. Nature 408: 578–580. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2007. Stoichiometry and the new biology: the future is now. PLoS Biology 5: e181 doi:110.1371/journal.pbio.0050181. , .
- 2000b. Biological stoichiometry from genes to ecosystems. Ecology Letters 3: 540–550. , , , , , , , , , .
- 2002. Universal scaling in tree and vascular plant allometry: toward a general quantitative theory linking plant form and function from cells to ecosystems. Tree Physiology 22: 1045–1064. .
- 2007a. Adaptive differences in plant physiology and ecosystem paradoxes: insights from metabolic scaling theory. Global Change Biology 13: 591–609. , , , .
- 2007b. A general integrative model for scaling plant growth, carbon flux, and functional trait spectra. Nature 449: 218–222. , , , , , .
- 2002. Global allocation rules for patterns of biomass partitioning in seed plants. Science 295: 1517–1520. , .
- 2009. A general quantitative theory of forest structure and dynamics: theoretical extensions and empirical evaluations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 106: 7046–7051. , , .
- 1999. Allometric scaling of production and life-history variation in vascular plants. Nature 401: 907–911. , , , .
- 2000. The global carbon cycle: a test of our knowledge of Earth as a system. Science 290: 291–296. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2001. Leaf area is stimulated in Populus by free air CO2 enrichment (POPFACE), through increased cell expansion and production. Plant, Cell & Environment 24: 305–315. , , , , .
- 1994. Year 2020: consequences of population growth and development on the deposition of oxidized nitrogen. Ambio 23: 120–123. , , .
- 1976. Correlations between concentrations of elements in plants. Nature 261: 686–688. .
- 2005. The metabolic basis of whole-organism RNA and phosphorus content. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 102: 11923–11927. , , , , , , , , .
- 2002. Effects of size and temperature on developmental time. Nature 417: 70–73. , , , , .
- 2004. N : P ratios in terrestrial plants: variation and functional significance. New Phytologist 164: 243–266. .
- 2005. Leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry across 753 terrestrial plant species in China. New Phytologist 168: 377–385. , , , .
- 2008. High variation in foliage and leaf litter chemistry among 45 tree species of a neotropical rainforest community. New Phytologist 179: 165–175. , , , , .
- 2009. Taxonomic, phylogenetic, and environmental trade-offs between leaf productivity and persistence. Ecology 90: 2779–2791. , , , , , .
- 2005. Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology 25: 1965–1978. , , , , .
- 1990. Effects of soil resources on plant invasion and community structure in California serpentine grassland. Ecology 71: 478–491. , , , , .
- 2004. Response of net ecosystem gas exchange to a simulated precipitation pulse in a semi-arid grassland: the role of native versus non-native grasses and soil texture. Oecologia 141: 295–305. , , , , , , .
- 2007. The likely impact of elevated [CO2], nitrogen deposition, increased temperature and management on carbon sequestration in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems: a literature review. New Phytologist 173: 463–480. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- IPCC. 2001. Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. New York: Cambridge University Press.
- 2007. Plasticity in metabolic allometry: the role of dietary stoichiometry. Ecology Letters 10: 282–289. .
- 2006. Ecosystem allometry: the scaling of nutrient stocks and primary productivity across plant communities. Ecology Letters 9: 419–427. , .
- 2005. Plant allometry, stoichiometry and the temperature-dependence of primary productivity. Global Ecology and Biogeography 14: 585–598. , , , .
- 2006. Phylogenetic and functional variation in the scaling of nitrogen and phosphorus in the seed plants. American Naturalist 168: E103–E122. , , , .
- 2004. Optimal nitrogen-to-phosphorus stoichiometry of phytoplankton. Nature 429: 171–174. , , , .
- 2006. Plant CO2 responses: an issue of definition, time and resource supply. New Phytologist 172: 393–411. .
- 2008. Functional traits and niche-based tree community assembly in an Amazonian forest. Science 322: 580–582. , , .
- 2007. Nitrogen and calcium additions increase forest growth in northeastern USA spruce–fir forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37: 1574–1585. , , , , , , , .
- 1994. Relation between carbon and nitrogen assimilation, tissue composition and whole plant function. In: RoyJ, GarnierE, eds. A whole plant perspective on carbon–nitrogen interactions. The Hague, The Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishing, 47–60. .
- 2006. Elevated CO2 stimulates net accumulations of carbon and nitrogen in land ecosystems: a meta-analysis. Ecology 87: 53–63. , , .
- 1996. Effect of CO2 concentration on carbonic anhydrase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase expression in pea. Plant Physiology 112: 569–574. , .
- 2003. Are bacteria more like plants or animals? Growth rate and substrate dependence of bacterial C : N : P stoichiometry. Functional Ecology 17: 121–130. , , , .
- 2007. Allometric scaling of plant life history. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 15777–15780. , , .
- 1998. Aboveground biomass and nitrogen allocation of ten deciduous southern Appalachian tree species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne de Recherche Forestiere 28: 1648–1659. , , , , .
- 1997. Phylogenies and the comparative method: a general approach to incorporating phylogenetic information into the analysis of interspecific data. American Naturalist 149: 646–667. , .
- 1980. Herbivory in relation to plant nitrogen content. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11: 119–161. .
- 2009. N : P stoichiometry and protein : RNA ratios in vascular plants: an evaluation of the growth-rate hypothesis. Ecology Letters 12: 765–771. , .
- 2004. Scaling of C : N : P stoichiometry in forest ecosystems worldwide: implications of terrestrial Redfield-type ratios. Ecology 85: 2390–2401. , , .
- Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: general synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press.
- 2006. Niche breadth, competitive strength and range size of tree species: a trade-off based framework to understand species distribution. Ecology Letters 9: 185–195. , .
- 2006. Testing metabolic ecology theory for allometric scaling of tree size, growth and mortality in tropical forests. Ecology Letters 9: 575–588. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 1996. Scaling maximum growth rates across photosynthetic organisms. Functional Ecology 10: 167–175. , , , .
- 1994. Plant allometry: the scaling of form and process. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press. .
- 2006. Plant allometry, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry, and interspecific trends in annual growth rates. Annals of Botany 97: 155–163. .
- 2007. “Diminishing returns” in the scaling of functional leaf traits across and within species groups. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 104: 8891–8896. , , , , , , .
- 2005. Nitrogen/phosphorus leaf stoichiometry and the scaling of plant growth. Ecology Letters 8: 636–642. , , , .
- 1975. Cost of maintenance processes in plant cells. Annals of Botany 39: 77–92. .
- 2003. Leaf traits and herbivore selection in the field and in cafeteria experiments. Austral Ecology 28: 642–650. , , , , , .
- 1999. The photosynthesis leaf nitrogen relationship at ambient and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis. Global Change Biology 5: 331–346. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 1989. Interspecific variation in relative growth rate: on ecological causes and physiological consequences. In: LambersH, CambridgeML, KoningsH, PonsTL, eds. Causes and consequences of variation in growth rate and productivity in higher plants. The Hague, The Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishing, 45–68. .
- 1994. Construction costs and payback time of biomass: a whole plant perspective. In: RoyJ, GarnierE, eds. A whole plant perspective on carbon–nitrogen interactions. The Hague, The Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishing, 111–127. .
- 2007. A general model for allometric covariation in botanical form and function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 104: 13204–13209. , , .
- 2006. Temperature influences carbon accumulation in moist tropical forests. Ecology 87: 76–87. , , , , .
- 1998. Leaf structure (specific leaf area) modulates photosynthesis–nitrogen relations: evidence from within and across species and functional groups. Functional Ecology 12: 948–958. , , .
- 2006a. Nitrogen limitation constrains sustainability of ecosystem response to CO2. Nature 440: 922–925. , , , , , , , .
- 2006b. Carbon–nitrogen interactions in terrestrial ecosystems in response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 37: 611–636. , , .
- 2004. Global patterns of plant leaf N and P in relation to temperature and latitude. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 101: 11001–11006. , .
- 2010. Consistent 2/3-power leaf nitrogen to phosphorus scaling among major plant groups and biomes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 277: 877–883. , , , , , .
- 2006c. Universal scaling of respiratory metabolism, size and nitrogen in plants. Nature 439: 457–461. , , , .
- 2008. Scaling of respiration to nitrogen in leaves, stems and roots of higher land plants. Ecology Letters 11: 793–801. , , , , , .
- 1992. Leaf life-span in relation to leaf, plant, and stand characteristics among diverse ecosystems. Ecological Monographs 62: 365–392. , , .
- 1997. From tropics to tundra: global convergence in plant functioning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94: 13730–13734. , , .
- 1986. Complementary models for ecosystems. American Naturalist 127: 59–73. .
- 1978. Effects of N : P atomic ratios and nitrate limitation on algal growth, cell composition, and nitrate uptake. Limnology and Oceanography 23: 10–25. .
- 1995. Root and leaf attributes accounting for the performance of fast- and slow-growing grasses at different nutrient supply. Plant and Soil 170: 251–265. , .
- 2005. Biomass production, N : P ratio and nutrient limitation in a Caucasian alpine tundra plant community. Journal of Vegetation Science 16: 399–406. , , , .
- 2002. Rubisco: structure, regulatory interactions, and possibilities for a better enzyme. Annual Review of Plant Biology 53: 449–475. , .
- 1990. The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus resupplied by herbivores: zooplankton and the algal competitive arena. American Naturalist 136: 209–229. .
- 2002. Ecological stoichiometry: the biology of elements from molecules to the biosphere. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press. , .
- 2007. Ecological and evolutionary determinants of a key plant functional trait: wood density and its community-wide variation across latitude and elevation. American Journal of Botany 94: 451–459. , .
- 2008. Effects of elevated CO2 on the protein concentration of food crops: a meta-analysis. Global Change Biology 14: 565–575. , , .
- 2008. Why are nitrogen concentrations in plant tissues lower under elevated CO2? A critical examination of the hypotheses. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 50: 1365–1374. , .
- 2006. Despite slow catalysis and confused substrate specificity, all ribulose bisphosphate carboxylases may be nearly perfectly optimized. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 103: 7246–7251. , , .
- 2002. Photosynthetic differences between saplings and adult trees: an integration of field results by meta-analysis. Tree Physiology 22: 117–127. , .
- 1997. A comparative study of leaf nutrient concentrations in a regional herbaceous flora. New Phytologist 136: 679–689. , , , .
- 1987. Secondary succession and the pattern of plant dominance along experimental nitrogen gradients. Ecological Monographs 57: 189–214. .
- 1996. Biodiversity: population versus ecosystem stability. Ecology 77: 350–363. .
- 2008. The biogeochemical heterogeneity of tropical forests. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23: 424–431. , , .
- 2007. Controls over foliar N : P ratios in tropical rain forests. Ecology 88: 107–118. , , , .
- 1994. Respiration as dependent on a species inherent growth rate and on the nitrogen supply to the plant. In: RoyJ, GarnierE, eds. A whole plant perspective on carbon–nitrogen interactions. The Hague, The Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishing, 91–110. , , .
- 1997. Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecological Applications 7: 737–750. , , , , , , , .
- 1991. Nitrogen limitation on land and in the sea: how can it occur? Biogeochemistry 13: 87–115. , .
- 1993. Agriculture, the global nitrogen cycle, and trace gas flux. In: OremlandRS, ed. The biogeochemistry of global change: radiative trace gases. New York, USA: Chapman & Hall, 193–208. , .
- 2004. Scaling up evolutionary responses to elevated CO2: lessons from Arabidopsis. Ecology Letters 7: 427–440. , .
- 2007. Latitudinal patterns of range size and species richness of New World woody plants. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16: 679–688. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 1997. A general model for the origin of allometric scaling laws in biology. Science 276: 122–126. , , .
- 2002. Plant ecological strategies: some leading dimensions of variation between species. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33: 125–159. , , , , .
- 2004. Long-term ecosystem level experiments at Toolik lake, Alaska, and at Abisko, northern Sweden: generalizations and differences in ecosystem and plant type responses to global change. Global Change Biology 10: 105–123. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2005. Assessing the generality of global leaf trait relationships. New Phytologist 166: 485–496. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2001. Strategy shifts in leaf physiology, structure and nutrient content between species of high- and low-rainfall and high- and low-nutrient habitats. Functional Ecology 15: 423–434. , , .
- 2004. The worldwide leaf economics spectrum. Nature 428: 821–827. , , , , , , , , , et al.