Promoter elements of rice susceptibility genes are bound and activated by specific TAL effectors from the bacterial blight pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

Authors

  • Patrick Römer,

    1. Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale), Germany
    2. Present address: Institute of Genetics, University of Munich (LMU), Großhaderner Straße 2, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Sabine Recht,

    1. Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale), Germany
    2. Present address: Institute of Genetics, University of Munich (LMU), Großhaderner Straße 2, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Tina Strauß,

    1. Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale), Germany
    2. Present address: Institute of Genetics, University of Munich (LMU), Großhaderner Straße 2, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
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  • Janett Elsaesser,

    1. Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale), Germany
    2. Present address: Institute of Genetics, University of Munich (LMU), Großhaderner Straße 2, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
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  • Sebastian Schornack,

    1. Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale), Germany
    2. The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK
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  • Jens Boch,

    1. Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale), Germany
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  • Shiping Wang,

    1. National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, National Center of Plant Gene Research (Wuhan), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, PR China
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  • Thomas Lahaye

    1. Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale), Germany
    2. Present address: Institute of Genetics, University of Munich (LMU), Großhaderner Straße 2, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
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Author for correspondence:
Thomas Lahaye
Tel: +49 (0)89 2180 7470
Email: lahaye@bio.lmu.de

Summary

  • Plant pathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas inject transcription activator-like effector (TALe) proteins that bind to and activate host promoters, thereby promoting disease or inducing plant defense. TALes bind to corresponding UPT (up-regulated by TALe) promoter boxes via tandemly arranged 34/35-amino acid repeats. Recent studies uncovered the TALe code in which two amino acid residues of each repeat define specific pairing to UPT boxes.
  • Here we employed the TALe code to predict potential UPT boxes in TALe-induced host promoters and analyzed these via β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA).
  • We demonstrate that the Xa13, OsTFX1 and Os11N3 promoters from rice are induced directly by the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae TALes PthXo1, PthXo6 and AvrXa7, respectively. We identified and functionally validated a UPT box in the corresponding rice target promoter for each TALe and show that box mutations suppress TALe-mediated promoter activation. Finally, EMSA demonstrate that code-predicted UPT boxes interact specifically with corresponding TALes.
  • Our findings show that variations in the UPT boxes of different rice accessions correlate with susceptibility or resistance of these accessions to the bacterial blight pathogen.

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