SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aerts R, Wallén B, Malmer N. 1992. Growth-limiting nutrients in Sphagnum-dominated bogs subject to low and high atmospheric nitrogen supply. Journal of Ecology 80: 131140.
  • Allen SE, ed. 1989. Chemical analysis of ecological materials, 2nd edn. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  • Alvarez M, Gieseke A, Godoy R, Härtel S. 2006. Surface-bound phosphatase activity in ectomycorrhizal fungi: a comparative study between a colorimetric and a microscope-based method. Biology and Fertility of Soils 42: 561568.
  • Anderson KA, Downing JA. 2006. Dry and wet atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon in an agricultural region. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 176: 351374.
  • Arens SJT, Sullivan PF, Welker JM. 2008. Nonlinear responses to nitrogen and strong interactions with nitrogen and phosphorus additions drastically alter the structure and function of a high arctic ecosystem. Journal of Geophysical Research 113: G03S09.
  • Armstrong RA. 1993a. Seasonal growth of foliose lichens in successive years in South Gwynedd, Wales. Environmental and Experimental Botany 33: 225232.
  • Armstrong RA. 1993b. Factors determining lobe growth in foliose lichen thalli. New Phytologist 124: 675679.
  • Bartlett EM, Lewis DH. 1973. Surface phosphatase activity of mycorrhizal roots of beech. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 5: 249257.
  • Benner JW, Conroy S, Lunch CK, Toyoda N, Vitousek PM. 2007. Phosphorus fertilization increases the abundance and nitrogenase activity of the cyanolichen Pseudocyphellaria crocata in Hawaiian montane forests. Biotropica 39: 400405.
  • Benner JW, Vitousek PM. 2007. Development of a diverse epiphyte community in response to phosphorus fertilization. Ecology Letters 10: 628636.
  • Boucher VL, Nash TH III. 1990. Growth patterns in Ramalina menziesii in California: coastal vs. inland populations. Bryologist 93: 295302.
  • Bowman WD, Theodose TA, Schardt JC, Conant RT. 1993. Constraints of nutrient availability on primary production in two alpine tundra communities. Ecology 74: 20852097.
  • Bruteig IE. 1993. The epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes as a biomonitor of atmospheric nitrogen and sulphur deposition in Norway. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 26: 2747.
  • Civerolo KL, Hogrefe C, Lynn B, Rosenzweig C, Goldberg R, Rosenthal J, Knowlton K, Kinney PL. 2008. Simulated effects of climate change on summertime nitrogen deposition in the eastern US. Atmospheric Environment 42: 20742082.
  • Crittenden PD. 1983. The role of lichens in the nitrogen economy of subarctic woodlands: nitrogen loss from the nitrogen-fixing lichen Stereocaulon paschale during rainfall. In: Lee JA, McNeill S, Rorison IH, eds. Nitrogen as an ecological factor. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 4368.
  • Crittenden PD. 1989. Nitrogen relations of mat-forming lichens. In: Boddy L, Marchant R, Read DJ, eds. Nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur utilization by fungi. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 243268.
  • Crittenden PD. 1998. Nutrient exchange in an Antarctic macrolichen during summer snowfall–snow melt events. New Phytologist 139: 697707.
  • Davey MR, Webster G, Manders G, Ringrose FL, Power JB, Cocking EC. 1993. Effective nodulation of micro-propagated shoots of the non-legume Parasponia andersonii by Bradyrhizobium. Journal of Experimental Botany 44: 863867.
  • Davies L, Bates JW, Bell JNB, James PW, Purvis OW. 2007. Diversity and sensitivity of epiphytes to oxides of nitrogen in London. Environmental Pollution 146: 299310.
  • Ellis CJ, Crittenden PD, Scrimgeour CM. 2004. Soil as a potential source of nitrogen for mat-forming lichens. Canadian Journal of Botany 82: 145149.
  • Ellis CJ, Crittenden PD, Scrimgeour CM, Ashcroft C. 2003. The natural abundance of 15N in mat-forming lichens. Oecologia 136: 115123.
  • Farmer AM, Bates JW, Bell JNB. 1991. Seasonal variations in acidic pollutant inputs and their effects on the chemistry of stemflow, bark and epiphyte tissues in three oak woodlands in N.W. Britain. New Phytologist 118: 441451.
  • Fisher PJ, Proctor MCF. 1978. Observations on a season’s growth in Parmelia caperata and P. sulcata in south Devon. Lichenologist 10: 8189.
  • Fowler D, O’Donoghue M, Muller JBA, Smith RI, Dragosits U, Skiba U, Sutton MA, Brimblecombe P. 2004. A chronology of nitrogen deposition in the UK between 1900 and 2000. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus 4: 923.
  • Gibson BR, Mitchell DT. 2005. Phosphatases of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi: kinetic properties and the effect of copper on activity. Mycological Research 109: 478486.
  • Güsewell S. 2004. N:P ratios in terrestrial plants: variation and functional significance. New Phytologist 164: 243266.
  • Hayman G, Vincent K, Lawrence H, Smith M, Colbeck C, Davies M, Sutton M, Tang S, Dragosits U, Love L et al. 2007. Management and operation of the UK Acid Deposition Monitoring Network: data summary for 2005 (Report number AEAT/ENV/R/2342). Didcot, UK: AEA Technology plc.
  • Hayman G, Vincent KJ, Lawrence H, Smith M, Davies M, Hasler S, Sutton M, Tang YS, Dragosits U, Love L et al. 2004a. Management and operation of the UK Acid Deposition Monitoring Network: data summary for 2002 (Report AEAT/ENV/R/1696). Abingdon, UK: AEA Technology plc.
  • Hayman G, Vincent KJ, Lawrence H, Smith M, Davies M, Sutton M, Tang YS, Dragosits U, Love L, Fowler D et al. 2004b. Management and operation of the UK Acid Deposition Monitoring Network: data summary for 2003 (Report AEAT/ENV/R/1818). Abingdon, UK: AEA Technology plc.
  • Hayman G, Vincent KJ, Lawrence H, Smith M, Davies M, Sutton M, Tang YS, Dragosits U, Love L, Fowler D et al. 2005. Management and operation of the UK Acid Deposition Monitoring Network: data summary for 2004 (Report AEAT/ENV/R/2093). Didcot, UK: AEA Technology plc.
  • Helal HM. 1990. Varietal differences in root phosphatase activity as related to the utilization of organic phosphates. Plant and Soil 123: 161163.
  • van Herk CM. 1999. Mapping of ammonia pollution with epiphytic lichens in the Netherlands. Lichenologist 31: 920.
  • Hogan EJ 2009. Nitrogen–phosphorus relationships in lichens. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
  • Hogan EJ, Minnullina G, Sheppard LJ, Leith ID, Crittenden PD 2010. Response of phosphomonoesterase activity in the lichen Cladonia portentosa to nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment in a field manipulation experiment. New Phytologist, doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03221.x.
  • Holland EA, Dentener FJ, Braswell BH, Sulzman JM. 1999. Contemporary and pre-industrial global reactive nitrogen budgets. Biogeochemistry 46: 743.
  • Holmes RM, Aminot A, Kérouel R, Hooker BA, Peterson BJ. 1999. A simple and precise method for measuring ammonium in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56: 18011808.
  • Hyvärinen M, Crittenden PD. 1998a. Relationships between atmospheric nitrogen inputs and the vertical nitrogen and phosphorus concentration gradients in the lichen Cladonia portentosa. New Phytologist 140: 519530.
  • Hyvärinen M, Crittenden PD. 1998b. Phosphate uptake in Cladonia portentosa. Lichenologist 30: 297301.
  • Hyvärinen M, Crittenden PD. 1998c. Growth of the cushion-forming lichen, Cladonia portentosa, at nitrogen-polluted and unpolluted heathland sites. Environmental and Experimental Botany 40: 6776.
  • Jayakumar P, Tan TK. 2005. Phosphorus solubilization by ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus tinctorius in pure culture and in association with Acacia mangium. Symbiosis 39: 125130.
  • Johnson D, Leake JR, Lee JA. 1999. The effects of quantity and duration of simulated pollutant nitrogen deposition on root-surface phosphatase activities in calcareous and acid grassland: a bioassay approach. New Phytologist 141: 433442.
  • Johnson D, Leake JR, Lee JA, Campbell CD. 1998. Changes in soil microbial biomass and microbial activities in response to 7 years simulated pollutant nitrogen deposition on a heathland and two grasslands. Environmental Pollution 103: 239250.
  • Kärenlampi L. 1971. Studies on the relative growth rate of some fruticose lichens. Reports from the Kevo Subarctic Research Station 7: 3339.
  • Kirkham FW. 2001. Nitrogen uptake and nutrient limitation in six hill moorland species in relation to atmospheric nitrogen deposition in England and Wales. Journal of Ecology 89: 10411053.
  • Köchy M, Wilson SD. 2001. Nitrogen deposition and forest expansion in the northern Great Plains. Journal of Ecology 89: 807817.
  • Lamarque J-F, Kiehl JT, Brasseur GP, Butler T, Cameron-Smith P, Collins WD, Collins WJ, Granier C, Hauglustaine D, Hess PG et al. 2005. Assessing future nitrogen deposition and carbon cycle feedback using a multimodel approach: analysis of nitrogen deposition. Journal of Geophysical Research 110: D19303.
  • Lane I, Puckett KJ. 1979. Responses of the phosphatase activity of the lichen Cladina rangiferina to various environmental factors including metals. Canadian Journal of Botany 14: 15341540.
  • LeSueur P, Puckett KJ. 1980. Effect of vanadium on the phosphatase activity of lichens. Canadian Journal of Botany 58: 502504.
  • Magnani F, Mencuccini M, Borghetti M, Berbigier P, Berninger F, Delzon S, Grelle A, Hari P, Jarvis PG, Kolari P et al. 2007. The human footprint in the carbon cycle of temperate and boreal forests. Nature 447: 848850.
  • Marner BB, Harrison RM. 2004. A spatially refined monitoring based study of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Atmospheric Environment 38: 50455056.
  • McCune B, Caldwell BA. 2009. A single phosphorus treatment doubles growth of cyanobacterial lichen transplants. Ecology 90: 567570.
  • Paragas VB, Kramer JA, Fox C, Haugland RP, Singer VL. 2002. The ELF®-97 phosphatase substrate provides a sensitive, photostable method for labelling cytological targets. Journal of Microscopy 206: 106119.
  • Phoenix GK, Booth RE, Leake JR, Read DJ, Grime JP, Lee JA. 2003. Simulated pollutant nitrogen deposition increases P demand and enhances root-surface phosphatase activities of three plant functional types in a calcareous grassland. New Phytologist 161: 279289.
  • Phuyal M, Artz RRE, Sheppard L, Leith ID, Johnson D. 2008. Long-term nitrogen deposition increases phosphorus limitation of bryophytes in an ombrotrophic bog. Plant Ecology 196: 111121.
  • Pilkington MG, Caporn SJM, Carroll JA, Cresswell N, Lee JA, Emmett BA, Johnson D. 2005. Effects of increased deposition of atmospheric nitrogen on an upland Calluna moor: N and P transformations. Environmental Pollution 135: 469480.
  • Press MC, Lee JA. 1983. Acid phosphatase activity in Sphagnum species in relation to phosphate nutrition. New Phytologist 93: 567573.
  • Read ND, Kalkman ER. 2003. Does endocytosis occur in fungal hyphae? Fungal Genetics and Biology 39: 199203.
  • Remke E, Brouwer E, Kooijman A, Blindow I, Esselink H, Roelofs JGM. 2009. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea. Environmental Pollution 157: 792800.
  • Ryaboshapko A, Gallardo L, Kjellström E, Gromov S, Paramonov S, Afinogenova O, Rodhe H. 1998. Balances of oxidised sulfur and nitrogen over the former Soviet Union territory. Atmospheric Environment 32: 647658.
  • Sala OE, Chapin FS III, Armesto JJ, Berlow E, Bloomfield J, Dirzo R, Huber-Sanwald E, Huenneke LF, Jackson RB, Kinzig A et al. 2000. Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science 287: 17701774.
  • Sanderson MG, Collins WJ, Johnson CE, Derwent RG. 2006. Present and future acid deposition to ecosystems: the effect of climate change. Atmospheric Environment 40: 12751283.
  • Sardans J, Peñuelas J, Estiarte M. 2007. Seasonal patterns of root-surface phosphatase activities in a Mediterranean shrubland. Responses to experimental warming and drought. Biology and Fertility of Soils 43: 779786.
  • Smith RI, Fowler D. 2001. Uncertainty in estimation of wet deposition of sulphur. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus 1: 341354.
  • Søchting U. 1995. Lichens as monitors of nitrogen deposition. Cryptogamic Botany 5: 264269.
  • Steinberg G. 2007. On the move: endosomes in fungal growth and pathogenicity. Nature Reviews Microbiology 5: 309316.
  • Stevens CJ, Dise NB, Gowing DJ, Mountford JO. 2006. Loss of forb diversity in relation to nitrogen deposition in the UK: regional trends and potential controls. Global Change Biology 12: 18231833.
  • Stevens CJ, Dise NB, Mountford JO, Gowing DJ. 2004. Impact of nitrogen deposition on the species richness of grasslands. Science 303: 18761879.
  • Stevenson PARJ. 1994. Surface phosphatase activity of Peltigera and Cladonia lichens. MSc thesis, University of Durham, Durham, UK.
  • Tilman D, Fargione J, Wolff B, D'Antonio C, Dobson A, Howarth R, Schindler D, Schlesinger WH, Simberloff D, Swackhamer D. 2001. Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change. Science 292: 281284.
  • Treseder KK, Vitousek PM. 2001. Effects of soil nutrient availability on investment in acquisition of N and P in Hawaiian rain forests. Ecology 82: 946954.
  • Turner BL, Baxter R, Ellwood NTW, Whitton BA. 2001. Characterization of the phosphatase activities of mosses in relation to their environment. Plant, Cell and Environment 24: 11651176.
  • Turner BL, Baxter R, Ellwood NTW, Whitton BA. 2003. Seasonal phosphatase activities of mosses from Upper Teesdale, northern England. Journal of Bryology 25: 189200.
  • Turner BL, Baxter R, Whitton BA. 2002. Seasonal phosphatase activity in three characteristic soils of the English uplands polluted by long-term atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Environmental Pollution 120: 313317.
  • van Veldhoven PP, Mannaerts GP. 1987. Inorganic and organic phosphate measurements in the nanomolar range. Analytical Biochemistry 161: 4548.
  • Walker TR, Crittenden PD, Young SD. 2003. Regional variation in the chemical composition of winter snow pack and terricolous lichens in relation to sources of acid emissions in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia. Environmental Pollution 125: 401412.
  • Whitton BA, Al-Shehri AM, Ellwood NTW, Turner BL. 2005. Ecological aspects of phosphatase activity in cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae and bryophytes. In: Turner BL, Frossard E, Baldwin DS, eds. Organic phosphorus in the environment. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 205241.
  • Wolseley PA, James PW, Theobald MR, Sutton MA. 2006. Detecting changes in epiphytic lichen communities at sites affected by atmospheric ammonia from agricultural sources. Lichenologist 38: 161176.