• amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP);
  • cpDNA;
  • Dianthus broteri;
  • internal transcribed spacer (ITS);
  • Mediterranean;
  • polyploidy;
  • radiation;
  • speciation


  • The micro-evolutionary mechanisms that drive large-scale radiations are not completely understood, partly because of a shortage of population-level studies aimed at identifying putative causes of rapid evolutionary change. The Dianthus broteri complex, representing the largest polyploid series known to date for any species in the genus (2×, 4×, 6× and 12× cytotypes), belongs to a lineage that was recently found to have diversified at unusually rapid rates.
  • We used a combination of genome sequencing (internal transcribed spacer (ITS), plus chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions trnH-psbA, psbA-trnK and trnK-matK) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting in 25 populations to infer the evolutionary history of extant polyploid races.
  • The haplotype, ribotype and AFLP reconstructions showed a star-shaped arrangement suggesting a pattern of radiative evolution. The major, widespread haplotype occurred at all ploidy levels, whereas 20 minor haplotypes were restricted to single populations and cytotypes. In addition, AFLP analyses retrieved well-supported cytogeographic groups: six clades were clearly differentiated in terms of ploidy level and geography. Molecular data indicate that gene flow among different cytotypes is rare or nonexistent.
  • Our study supports a scenario of rapid diversification in carnations in which autopolyploidy and allopolyploidy, in interaction with geography and/or isolation, have played prominent roles.