SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Albertson FW. 1937. Ecology of mixed prairie in west-central Kansas. Ecological Monographs 7: 481587.
  • Anonymous- 2010. Kruger, Scientific Services, Weather: Kruger National Park. http://www.sanparks.org/parks/kruger/conservation/scientific/weather .
  • Archibald S, Scholes RJ. 2007. Leaf green-up in a semi-arid African savanna – separating tree and grass responses to environmental cues. Journal of Vegetation Science 18: 583594.
  • Asbjornsen H, Shepard G, Helmers M, Mora G. 2008. Seasonal patterns in depth of water uptake under contrasting annual and perennial systems in the Corn Belt Region of the Midwestern US. Plant and Soil 308: 6992.
  • Baldocchi DD, Xu LK, Kiang N. 2004. How plant functional-type, weather, seasonal drought, and soil physical properties alter water and energy fluxes of an oak-grass savanna and an annual grassland. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 123: 1339.
  • Belsky J. 1994. Influences of trees on savanna productivity: tests of shade, nutrients, and tree-grass competition. Ecology 75: 922932.
  • Bishop K, Dambrine E. 1995. Localization of tree water uptake in Scots pine and Norway spruce with hydroiogical tracers. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 25: 286297.
  • Bonanomi G, Rietkerk M, Dekker SC, Mazzoleni S. 2005. Negative plant–soil feedback and positive species interaction in a herbaceous plant community. Plant Ecology 181: 269278.
  • Casper BB, Schenk HJ, Jackson RB. 2003. Defining a plant’s belowground zone of influence. Ecology 84: 23132321.
  • Chapotin SM, Razanameharizaka JH, Holbrook NM. 2006. Baobab trees (Adansonia) in Madagascar use stored water to flush new leaves but not to support stomatal opening before the rainy season. New Phytologist 169: 549559.
  • Chen XY. 2004. Seasonal patterns of fine-root productivity and turnover in a tropical savanna of northern Australia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20: 221224.
  • Childes SL. 1988. Phenology of nine common woody species in semi-arid, deciduous Kalahari Sand vegetation. Vegetation 79: 151163.
  • Chimner RA, Cooper DJ. 2004. Using stable oxygen isotopes to quantify the water source used for transpiration by native shrubs in the San Luis Valley, Colorado USA. Plant and Soil 260: 225236.
  • Daly C, Bachelet D, Lenihan JM, Neilson RP, Parton W, Ojima D. 2000. Dynamic simulation of tree-grass interactions for global change studies. Ecological Applications 10: 449469.
  • Dawson TE, Ehleringer JR. 1993. Isotopic enrichment of water in the woody tissues of plants – implications for plant water source, water-uptake, and other studies which use the stable isotopic composition of cellulose. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 57: 34873492.
  • Ellsworth PZ, Williams DG. 2007. Hydrogen isotope fractionation during water uptake by woody xerophytes. Plant and Soil 291: 93107.
  • Flint AL, Campbell GS, Ellett KM, Calissendorff C. 2002. Calibration and temperature correction of heat dissipation matric potential sensors. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66: 14391445.
  • Foley JA, Prentice IC, Ramankutty N, Levis S, Pollard D, Sitch S, Haxeltine A. 1996. An integrated biosphere model of land surface processes, terrestrial carbon balance, and vegetation dynamics. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10: 603628.
  • Fravolini A, Hultine KR, Brugnoli E, Gazal R, English NB, Williams DG. 2005. Precipitation pulse use by an invasive woody legume: the role of soil texture and pulse size. Oecologia 144: 618627.
  • Goldstein G, Meinzer FC, Bucci SJ, Scholz FG, Franco AC, Hoffmann WA. 2008. Water economy of Neotropical savanna trees: six paradigms revisited. Tree Physiology 28: 395404.
  • Gottlein A, Heim A, Kuhn AJ, Schroder WH. 2005. In-situ application of stable isotope tracers in the rhizosphere of an oak seedling. European Journal of Forest Research 124: 8386.
  • Hawkins HJ, Hettasch H, West AG, Cramer MD. 2009. Hydraulic redistribution by Protea‘Sylvia’ (Proteaceae) facilitates soil water replenishment and water acquisition by an understorey grass and shrub. Functional Plant Biology 36: 752760.
  • Hipondoka MHT, Aranibar JN, Chirara C, Lihavha M, Macko SA. 2003. Vertical distribution of grass and tree roots in arid ecosystems of Southern Africa: niche differentiation or competition? Journal of Arid Environments 54: 319325.
  • Jackson PC, Meinzer FC, Bustamante M, Goldstein G, Franco A, Rundel PW, Caldas L, Igler E, Causin F. 1999. Partitioning of soil water among tree species in a Brazilian Cerrado ecosystem. Tree Physiology 19: 717724.
  • Kulmatiski A, Beard KH, Stark JM. 2006. Exotic plant communities shift water-use timing in a shrub-steppe ecosystem. Plant and Soil 288: 271284.
  • Leroux X, Bariac T, Mariotti A. 1995. Spatial partitioning of the soil-water resource between grass and shrub components in a west African humid savanna. Oecologia 104: 147155.
  • Li H, Robock A, Wild M. 2007. Evaluation of intergovernmental panel on climate change fourth assessment soil moisture simulations for the second half of the twentieth century. Journal of Geophysical Research. doi: 10.1029/2006JD007455
  • Ludwig F, Dawson TE, Prins HHT, Berendse F, de Kroon H. 2004. Below-ground competition between trees and grasses may overwhelm the facilitative effects of hydraulic lift. Ecology Letters 7: 623631.
  • Mamolos AP, Elisseou GK, Veresoglou DS. 1995. Depth of root activity of coexisting grassland species in relation to N-addition and P-addition, measured using nonradioactive tracers. Journal of Ecology 83: 643652.
  • McKane RB, Johnson LC, Shaver GR, Nadelhoffer KJ, Rastetter EB, Fry B, Giblin AE, Kielland K, Kwiatkowski BL, Laundre JA et al. 2002. Resource-based niches provide a basis for plant species diversity and dominance in arctic tundra. Nature 415: 6871.
  • Meinzer FC, Brooks JR, Domec JC, Gartner BL, Warren JM, Woodruff DR, Bible K, Shaw DC. 2006. Dynamics of water transport and storage in conifers studied with deuterium and heat tracing techniques. Plant, Cell & Environment 29: 105114.
  • Mordelet P, Menaut JC, Mariotti A. 1997. Tree and grass rooting patterns in an African humid savanna. Journal of Vegetation Science 8: 6570.
  • Moreira MZ, Sternberg LDL, Nepstad DC. 2000. Vertical patterns of soil water uptake by plants in a primary forest and an abandoned pasture in the eastern Amazon: an isotopic approach. Plant and Soil 222: 95107.
  • Netshiluvhi TR, Scholes RJ. 2001. Allometry of South African woodland trees. Pretoria, South Africa: CSIR, 65.
  • Newman BD, Wilcox BP, Archer SR, Breshears DD, Dahm CN, Duffy CJ, McDowell NG, Phillips FM, Scanlon BR, Vivoni ER. 2006. Ecohydrology of water-limited environments: a scientific vision. Water Resources Research. doi: 10.1029/2005wr004141
  • Ogle K, Wolpert RL, Reynolds JF. 2004. Reconstructing plant root area and water uptake profiles. Ecology 85: 19671978.
  • Peek MS, Leffler AJ, Ivans CY, Ryel RJ, Caldwell MM. 2005. Fine root distribution and persistence under field conditions of three co-occurring Great Basin species of different life form. New Phytologist 165: 171180.
  • Penuelas J, Filella I. 2003. Deuterium labelling of roots provides evidence of deep water access and hydraulic lift by Pinus nigra in a Mediterranean forest of NE Spain. Environmental and Experimental Botany 49: 201208.
  • Plamboeck AH, Grip H, Nygren U. 1999. A hydrological tracer study of water uptake depth in a Scots pine forest under two different water regimes. Oecologia 119: 452460.
  • Quesada CA, Miranda AC, Hodnett MG, Santos AJB, Miranda HS, Breyer LM. 2004. Seasonal and depth variation of soil moisture in a burned open savanna (campo sujo) in central Brazil. Ecological Applications 14: S33S41.
  • Reynolds JF, Kemp PR, Ogle K, Fernandez RJ. 2004. Modifying the ‘pulse-reserve’ paradigm for deserts of North America: precipitation pulses, soil water, and plant responses. Oecologia 141: 194210.
  • Rodriguez MV, Bertiller MB, Bisigato A. 2007. Are fine roots of both shrubs and perennial grasses able to occupy the upper soil layer? A case study in the arid Patagonian Monte with non-seasonal precipitation. Plant and Soil 300: 281288.
  • Sankaran M, Hanan NP, Scholes RJ, Ratnam J, Augustine DJ, Cade BS, Gignoux J, Higgins SI, Le Roux X, Ludwig F et al. 2005. Determinants of woody cover in African savannas. Nature 438: 846849.
  • Scheiter S, Higgins SI. 2007. Partitioning of root and shoot competition. The American Naturalist 170: 587601.
  • Schenk HJ. 2008a. The shallowest possible water extraction profile: a null model for global root distributions. Vadose Zone Journal 7: 11191124.
  • Schenk HJ. 2008b. Soil depth, plant rooting strategies and species’ niches. New Phytologist 178: 223225.
  • Schenk HJ, Jackson RB. 2002. Rooting depths, lateral root spreads and below-ground/above-ground allometries of plants in water-limited ecosystems. Journal of Ecology 90: 480494.
  • Scholes RJ, Archer SR. 1997. Tree-grass interations in savannas. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 28: 517544.
  • Schulze ED, Caldwell MM, Canadell J, Mooney HA, Jackson RB, Parson D, Scholes R, Sala OE, Trimborn P. 1998. Downward flux of water through roots (i.e., inverse hydraulic lift) in dry Kalahari sands. Oecologia 115: 460462.
  • Schwinning S, Davis K, Richardson L, Ehleringer JR. 2002. Deuterium enriched irrigation indicates different forms of rain use in shrub/grass species of the Colorado Plateau. Oecologia 130: 345355.
  • Seyfried MS, Schwinning S, Walvoord MA, Pockman WT, Newman BD, Jackson RB, Phillips EM. 2005. Ecohydrological control of deep drainage in arid and semiarid regions. Ecology 86: 277287.
  • Sperry TM. 1935. Root systems in an Illinois prairie. Ecology 16: 178202.
  • Sternberg LDL, Bucci S, Franco A, Goldstein G, Hoffman WA, Meinzer FC, Moreira MZ, Scholz F. 2005. Long range lateral root activity by neo-tropical savanna trees. Plant and Soil 270: 169178.
  • Takahashi K. 1998. Oxygen isotope ratios between soil water and stem water of trees in pot experiments. Ecological Research 13: 15.
  • Vendramini PF, Sternberg L. 2007. A faster plant stem-water extraction method. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 21: 164168.
  • Verweij RT. 2009. Water relations in a subtropical savanna. PhD thesis, University of Cape Town Rondebosch, Rondebosch, South Africa.
  • Walter H. 1971. Ecology of tropical and subtropical vegetation. Edinburgh, UK: Oliver and Boyd.
  • Webb EA, Longstaffe FJ. 2003. The relationship between phytolith- and plant-water delta O-18 values in grasses. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 67: 14371449.
  • Weltzin JF, McPherson GR. 1997. Spatial and temporal soil moisture resource partitioning by trees and grasses in a temperate savanna, Arizona, USA. Oecologia 112: 156164.
  • Weng E, Luo Y. 2008. Soil hydrological properties regulate grassland ecosystem responses to multifactor global change: a modeling analysis. Journal of Geophysical Research. doi: 10.1029/2007JG000539