The population genomics of plant adaptation

Authors


Author for correspondence:
Mathieu Siol
Tel: +1 416 9785603
Email: mathieu.siol@utoronto.ca

Abstract

Contents

 Summary313
I.Introduction314
II.Methods to detect selection at the molecular level314
III.Population size changes317
IV.Population subdivision321
V.Local adaptation, standing genetic variation, quantitative traits and multiple adaptive substitutions324
VI.Demographic context of selection and future directions326
 Acknowledgements328
 References328

Summary

There has been an enormous increase in the amount of data on DNA sequence polymorphism available for many organisms in the last decade. New sequencing technologies provide great potential for investigating natural selection in plants using population genomic approaches. However, plant populations frequently show significant departures from the assumptions of standard models used to detect selection and many forms of directional selection do not fit with classical population genetics theory. Here, we explore the extent to which plant populations show departures from standard model assumptions, and the implications this has for detecting selection on molecular variation. A growing number of multilocus studies of nucleotide variation suggest that changes in population size, particularly bottlenecks, and strong subdivision may be common in plants. This demographic variation presents important challenges for models used to infer selection. In addition, selection from standing genetic variation and multiple independent adaptive substitutions can further complicate efforts to understand the nature of selection. We discuss emerging patterns from plant studies and propose that, rather than treating population history as a nuisance variable when testing for selection, the interaction between demography and selection is of fundamental importance for evolutionary studies of plant populations using molecular data.

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