SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Axsmith BJ. 2006. The vegetative structure of a Lower Cretaceous conifer from Arkansas: further implications for morphospecies concepts in the Cheirolepidiaceae. Cretaceous Research 27: 309317.
  • Bakker RT. 1978. Dinosaur feeding behaviour and the origin of flowering plants. Nature 274: 661663.
  • Barrett PM, Willis KJ. 2001. Did dinosaurs invent flowers? Dinosaur–angiosperm coevolution revisited. Biological Reviews 76: 411447.
  • Beerling DJ, Osborne CP. 2006. Origin of the savanna biome. Global Change Biology 12: 20232031.
  • Beerling DJ, Woodward FI. 2001. Vegetation and the terrestrial carbon cycle: modelling the first 400 million years. Cambridge, MA, USA: Cambridge University Press.
  • Belcher CM, Collinson ME, Scott AC. 2005. Constraints on the thermal energy released from the Chicxulub impactor: new evidence from multi-method charcoal analysis. Journal of the Geological Society, London 162: 591602.
  • Belcher CM, Collinson ME, Sweet AR, Hildebrand AR, Scott AC. 2003. “Fireball Passes and Nothing Burns” the role of thermal radiation in the K/T event: evidence from the charcoal record of North America. Geology 31: 10611064.
  • Belcher CM, Mander L, Rein G, Jervis FX, Haworth M, Hesselbo SP, Glasspool IJ, McElwain JC. 2010. Increased fire activity at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary in Greenland due to climate-driven floral change. Nature Geoscience 3: 426429.
  • Belcher CM, McElwain JC. 2008. Limits for combustion in low O2 redefine paleoatmospheric predictions for the Mesozoic. Science 321: 11971220.
  • Berendse F, Scheffer M. 2009. The angiosperm radiation revisited, an ecological explanation for Darwin’s abominable mystery. Ecology Letters 12: 865872.
  • Bergman NM, Lenton TM, Watson AJ. 2004. COPSE: a new model of biogeochemical cycling over Phanerozoic time. American Journal of Science 304: 397437.
  • Berner RA. 2001. Modelling atmospheric O2 over Phanerozoic time. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65: 685694.
  • Berner RA. 2006. GEOCARBSULF: a combined model for Phanerozoic atmospheric O2 and CO2. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70: 56535664.
  • Berner RA. 2009. Phanerozoic atmospheric oxygen: new results using the Geocarbsulf model. American Journal of Science 309: 603606.
  • Berner RA, Canfield DE. 1989. A new model of atmospheric oxygen over Phanerozoic time. American Journal of Science 289: 333361.
  • Berner RA, Kothavala Z. 2001. GEOCARB III: a revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time. American Journal of Science 301: 182204.
  • Bond WJ. 1989. The tortoise and the hare: ecology of angiosperm dominance and gymnosperm persistence. Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society 36: 227249.
  • Bond WJ, Keeley JE. 2005. Fire as a global ‘herbivore’: the ecology and evolution of flammable ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 387394.
  • Bond WJ, Midgley JJ. 2003. The evolutionary ecology of sprouting in woody plants. International Journal of Plant Sciences 164(Suppl. 3): S103S114.
  • Bond WJ, Midgley GF, Woodward FI. 2003. The importance of low atmospheric CO2 and fire in promoting the spread of grasslands and savannas. Global Change Biology 9: 973982.
  • Bond WJ, Woodward FI, Midgley GF. 2005. The global distribution of ecosystems in a world without fire. New Phytologist 165: 525538.
  • Bowman DMJS, Balch JK, Artaxo P, Bond WJ, Carlson JM, Cochrane MA, D’Antonio CM, DeFries RS, Doyle JC, Harrison SP et al. 2009. Fire in the earth system. Science 324: 481484.
  • Boyce CK, Brodribb TJ, Feild TS, Zwieniecki MA. 2009. Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B: Biological Sciences 276: 17711776.
  • Brodribb TJ. 2009. Xylem hydraulic physiology: the functional backbone of terrestrial plant productivity. Plant Science 177: 245251.
  • Brodribb TJ, Feild TS. 2010. Leaf hydraulic evolution led a surge in leaf photosynthetic capacity during early angiosperm diversification. Ecology Letters 13: 175183.
  • Brodribb TJ, Feild TS, Jordan GJ. 2007. Leaf maximum photosynthetic rate and venation are linked by hydraulics. Plant Physiology 144: 18901898.
  • Brooks M, D’Antonio CM, Richardson DM, Grace JB, Keeley JE, DiTomaso JM, Hobbs RJ, Pellant M, Pyke D. 2004. Effects of invasive alien plants on fire regimes. BioScience 54: 677688.
  • Burnham RJ, Johnson KR. 2004. South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical rainforests. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 359: 15951610.
  • Butler RJ, Barrett PM, Kenrick P, Penn MG. 2009. Diversity patterns amongst herbivorous dinosaurs and plants during the Cretaceous: implications for hypotheses of dinosaur/angiosperm co-evolution. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22: 446459.
  • Chaloner WG. 1989. Fossil charcoal as an indicator of palaeoatmospheric oxygen level. Journal of the Geological Society 146: 171174.
  • Chuvieco E, Giglio L, Justice C. 2008. Global characterization of fire activity: toward defining fire regimes from Earth observation data. Global Change Biology 14: 14881502.
  • Collinson ME. 1990. Plant evolution and ecology during the early Cainozoic diversification. Advances in Botanical Research 17: 198.
  • Collinson ME. 2000. Cainozoic evolution of modern plant communities and vegetation. In: CulverSJ, RawsonPF, eds. Biotic response to global change: the last 145 million years. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 223243.
  • Collinson ME, Featherstone C, Cripps JA, Nichols GJ, Scott AC. 2000. Charcoal-rich plant debris accumulations in the Lower Cretaceous of the Isle of Wight, England. Acta Palaeobotanica 2(Suppl.): 93105.
  • Collinson ME, Hooker JJ. 1991. Fossil evidence of interactions between plants and plant-eating mammals. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 333: 197208.
  • Collinson ME, Hooker JJ. 2003. Paleogene vegetation of Eurasia: framework for mammalian faunas. Deinsea 10: 4183.
  • Collinson ME, Steart D, Scott AC, Glasspool IJ, Hooker JJ. 2007. Fire and episodic runoff and deposition at the Paleocene–Eocene boundary. Journal of the Geological Society, London 164: 8797.
  • Crane PR, Herendeen PS. 1996. Cretaceous floras containing angiosperm flowers and fruits from eastern North America. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 90: 321340.
  • Crane PR, Lidgard S. 1989. Angiosperm diversification and paleolatitudinal gradients in Cretaceous floristic diversity. Science 246: 675678.
  • D’Antonio CM, Vitousek PM. 1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23: 6387.
  • Davis CC, Webb CO, Wurdack KJ, Jaramillo CA, Donoghue MJ. 2005. Explosive radiation of Malpighiales supports a Mid-Cretaceous origin of modern tropical rain forests. American Naturalist 165: E36E65.
  • Diessel CFK. 2010. The stratigraphic distribution of inertinite. International Journal of Coal Geology 81: 251268.
  • Ehleringer JR, Cerling TE, Helliker BR. 1997. C4 photosynthesis, atmospheric CO2, and climate. Oecologia 112: 285299.
  • Eklund H. 2003. First Cretaceous flowers from Antarctica. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 127: 187217.
  • Eriksson O. 2008. Evolution of seed size and biotic seed dispersal in angiosperms: paleoecological and neoecological evidence. International Journal of Plant Sciences 169: 863870.
  • Falcon-Lang HJ. 2000. Fire ecology of the Carboniferous tropical zone. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 164: 339355.
  • Falcon-Lang HJ, Fensome RA, Gibling MR, Malcolm J, Fletcher KR, Holleman M. 2007. Karst-related outliers of the Cretaceous Chaswood Formation of Maritime Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 44: 619642.
  • Falcon-Lang HJ, MacRae A, Csank AZ. 2004. Palaeoecology of Late Cretaceous polar vegetation preserved in the Hansen Point Volcanics. NW Ellesmere Island. Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 212: 4564.
  • Feild TS, Arens NC. 2005. Form, function and environments of the early angiosperms: merging extant phylogeny and ecophysiology with fossils. New Phytologist 166: 383408.
  • Feild TS, Chatelet DS, Brodribb TJ. 2009. Ancestral xerophobia: a hypothesis on the whole plant ecophysiology of early angiosperms. Geobiology 7: 237264.
  • Finkelstein DB, Pratt LM, Curtin TM, Brassell SC. 2005. Wildfires and seasonal aridity recorded in Late Cretaceous strata from south-eastern Arizona, USA. Sedimentology 52: 587599.
  • Flematti GR, Ghisalberti EL, Dixon KW, Trengove RD. 2004. A compound from smoke that promotes seed germination. Science 305: 977.
  • Fletcher BJ, Brentnall SJ, Anderson CW, Berner RA, Beerling DJ. 2008. Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked with Mesozoic and early Cenozoic climate change. Nature Geoscience 1: 4348.
  • Frakes LA. 1999. Estimating the global thermal state from Cretaceous sea surface and continental temperature data. In: BarreraE, JohnsonCC, eds. Evolution of the Cretaceous ocean–climate system. Geological Society of America Special Paper 332: 4957.
  • Friis EM, Pedersen KR, Crane PR. 1999. Early angiosperm diversification: the diversity of pollen associated with angiosperm reproductive structures in Early Cretaceous floras from Portugal. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 86: 259296.
  • Friis EM, Pedersen KR, Crane PR. 2000. Reproductive structure and organization of basal angiosperms from the Early Cretaceous (Barremian or Aptian) of western Portugal. International Journal of Plant Sciences 161: S169S182.
  • Friis EM, Pedersen KR, Crane PR. 2006. Cretaceous angiosperm flowers: innovation and evolution in plant reproduction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 232: 251293.
  • Friis EM, Pedersen KR, Schonenberger J. 2003. Endressianthus, a new Normapolles producing plant genus of fagalean affinity from the Late Cretaceous of Portugal. International Journal of Plant Sciences 164(5 Suppl.): S201S223.
  • Friis EM, Skarby A. 1981. Structurally preserved angiosperm flowers from the Upper Cretaceous of southern Sweden. Nature 291: 484486.
  • Frumin S, Friis EM. 1999. Magnoliid reproductive organs from the Cenomanian–Turonian of north-western Kazakhstan: Magnoliaceae and Illiciaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution 216: 265288.
  • Gill AM. 1975. Fire and the Australian flora: a review. Australian Forestry 38: 425.
  • Glasspool IJ, Edwards D, Axe L. 2004. Charcoal in the Silurian as evidence for the earliest wildfire. Geology 32: 381383.
  • Glasspool IJ, Scott AC. 2010. Phanerozoic atmospheric oxygen concentrations reconstructed from sedimentary charcoal. Nature Geoscience, doi: 10.1038/NGEO923.
  • Gliessman SR. 1978. The establishment of bracken following fire in tropical habitats. American Fern Journal 68: 4144.
  • Grime JP. 1979. Plant strategies and vegetation processes. Chichester, UK: Wiley and Sons.
  • Harris TM. 1958. Forest fire in the Mesozoic. Journal of Ecology 46: 447453.
  • Harris TM. 1981. Burnt ferns from the English Wealden. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 92: 4758.
  • Herendeen PS, Skog JE. 1998. Gleichenia chaloneri– a new fossil fern from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) of England. International Journal of Plant Sciences 159: 870879.
  • Herring JR. 1985. Charcoal fluxes into sediments of the North Pacific Ocean: the Cenozoic record of burning. In: The carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2: natural variations Archean to Present. Geophysical Monographs 32: 419442.
  • Hickey LJ, Doyle JA. 1977. Early Cretaceous fossil evidence for angiosperm evolution. Botanical Review 43: 2104.
  • Hu S, Dilcher DL, Schneider H, Jarzeny DM. 2006. Eusporangiate ferns from the Dakota formation, Minnesota, U.S.A. International Journal of Plant Sciences 167: 579589.
  • Jones TP, Chaloner WG. 1991. Fossil charcoal its recognition and palaeoatmospheric significance. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 97: 3950.
  • Keeley JE. 1991. Seed germination and life history syndromes in the California chaparral. Botanical Review 57: 81116.
  • Keeley JE, Fotheringham CJ. 2000. Role of fire in germination from seed. In: FennerM, ed. Seeds: the ecology of regeneration in plant communities, 2nd edn. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 311330.
  • Keeley JE, Rundel PW. 2005. Fire and the Miocene expansion of C4 grasslands. Ecology Letters 8: 683690.
  • Knobloch E, Mai DH. 1991. Evolution of Middle and Upper Cretaceous floras in Central and Western Europe. Geologisches Jahrbuch Reihe A 134: 257270.
  • Krawchuk MA, Moritz MA, Parisien M, Van Dorn J, Hayhoe K. 2009. Global pyrogeography: the current and future distribution of wildfire. PLoS One 4: e5102.
  • Kuypers MMM, Pancost RD, Damste JSS. 1999. A large and abrupt fall in atmospheric CO2 concentration during Cretaceous times. Nature 399: 342345.
  • Kvaček J, Eklund H. 2003. A report on newly recovered reproductive structures from the Cenomanian of Bohemia (Central Europe). International Journal of Plant Sciences 164: 10211039.
  • Lamberson MN, Bustin RM, Kalkreuth WD, Pratt KC. 1996. The formation of inertinite-rich peats in the mid-Cretaceous Gates Formation: implications for the interpretation of mid-Albian history of paleowildfire. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 120: 235260.
  • LeMaitre DC, Midgley JJ. 1992. Plant reproductive ecology. In: CowlingRM, ed. The ecology of fynbos. Nutrients, fire and diversity. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 35174.
  • Light ME, Daws MI, VanStaden J. 2009. Smoke-derived butenolide: towards understanding its biological effects. South African Journal of Botany 75: 17.
  • Lupia R, Lidgard S, Crane PR. 1999. Comparing palynological abundance and diversity: implications for biotic replacement during the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation. Paleobiology 25: 305340.
  • McElwain JC, Willis KJ, Lupia R. 2005. Cretaceous CO2 decline and the radiation and diversification of angiosperms. In: EhleringerJR, CerlingTE, DearingMD, eds. A history of atmospheric CO2 and its effect on plants, animals, and ecosystems. New York, USA: Springer, 133165.
  • Mohr BAR, Friis EM. 2000. Early angiosperms from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation (Brazil), a preliminary report. International Journal of Plant Sciences Supplement 161: S155S167.
  • Moles AT, Ackerly DD, Webb CO, Tweddle JC, Dickie JB, Pitman AJ, Westoby M. 2005. Factors that shape seed mass evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 102: 10 54010 544.
  • Nagalingum NS, Drinnan AN, Lupia R, McLoughlin S. 2002. Fern spore diversity and abundance in Australia during the Cretaceous. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 119: 6992.
  • Oakley D, Falcon-Lang HJ. 2009. Morphometric analysis of Cretaceous (Cenomanian) angiosperm woods from the Czech Republic. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 153: 375385.
  • Osborne CP. 2008. Atmosphere, ecology and evolution: what drove the Miocene expansion of C-4 grasslands? Journal of Ecology 96: 3545.
  • Pagani M, Zachos JC, Freeman KH, Tipple B, Bohaty S. 2005. Marked decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Paleogene. Science 309: 600603.
  • Passalia MG. 2007. A mid-Cretaceous flora from the Kachaike Formation, Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 28: 830840.
  • Passey BH, Ayliffe LK, Kaakinen A, Zhang Z, Eronen JT, Zhu Y, Zhou L, Cerling TE, Fortelius M et al. 2009. Strengthened East Asian summer monsoons during a period of high-latitude warmth? Isotopic evidence from Mio-Pliocene fossil mammals and soil carbonates from northern China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 277: 443452.
  • Pausas JG, Bradstock RA, Keith DA, Keeley JE, the GCTE (Global Change of Terrestrial Ecosystems) Fire Network. 2004. Plant functional traits in relation to fire in crown-fire ecosystems. Ecology 85: 10851100.
  • Pausas JG, Keeley JE. 2009. A burning story: the role of fire in the history of life. BioScience 59: 593601.
  • Philippe M, Gomeza B, Girard V, Coiffard C, Daviero-Gomez V, Thevenard F, Billon-Bruyat J-P, Myette G, Latil J-L, Leloeuff J et al. 2008. Woody or not woody? Evidence for early angiosperm habit from the Early Cretaceous fossil wood record of Europe. Palaeoworld 17: 142152.
  • Pole MS, Douglas JG. 1999. Bennettitales, Cycadales and Ginkgoales from the mid Cretaceous of the Eromanga Basin, Queensland, Australia. Cretaceous Research 20: 523538.
  • Price C, Rind D. 1994. The impact of a 2 × CO2 climate on lightning-caused fires. Journal of Climate 7: 14841494.
  • Retallack GJ, Dilcher DL. 1986. Cretaceous angiosperm invasion of North America. Cretaceous Research 7: 227252.
  • Robinson JM. 1989. Phanerozoic O2 variation, fire, and terrestrial ecology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 75: 223240.
  • Robinson JM. 1994. Speculations on carbon-dioxide starvation, late tertiary evolution of stomatal regulation and floristic modernization. Plant, Cell & Environment 17: 345354.
  • Royer DL, Miller IM, Peppe DJ, Hickey LJ. 2010. Leaf economic traits from fossils support a weedy habit for early angiosperms. American Journal of Botany 97: 438445.
  • Sage RF. 2004. The evolution of C4 photosynthesis. New Phytologist 161: 341370.
  • Sage RF, McKown AD. 2006. Is C4 photosynthesis less phenotypically plastic than C3 photosynthesis? Journal of Experimental Botany 57: 303317.
  • Schneider H, Schuettpelz E, Pryer KM, Cranfill R, Magallon S, Lupia R. 2004. Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms. Nature 428: 553557.
  • Schönenberger J. 2005. Rise from the ashes – the reconstruction of charcoal fossil flowers. Trends in Plant Science 10: 436443.
  • Schuettpelz E, Pryer KM. 2009. Evidence for a Cenozoic radiation of ferns in an angiosperm-dominated canopy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 106: 11 20011 205.
  • Schwilk DW, Ackerly DD. 2001. Flammability and serotiny as strategies: correlated evolution in pines. Oikos 94: 326336.
  • Scott AC. 1989. Observations on the nature and origin of fusain. International Journal of Coal Geology 12: 443475.
  • Scott AC. 2000. The pre-Quaternary history of fire. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 164: 281329.
  • Scott AC. 2010. Charcoal recognition, taphonomy and uses in palaeoenvironmental analysis. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 291: 1139.
  • Scott AC, Cripps J, Nichols G, Collinson ME. 2000a. The taphonomy of charcoal following a recent heathland fire and some implications for the interpretation of fossil charcoal deposits. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 164: 131.
  • Scott AC, Glasspool I. 2006. The diversification of Paleozoic fire systems and fluctuation in atmospheric oxygen concentration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 103: 10 86110 865.
  • Scott AC, Glasspool I. 2007. Observations and experiments on the origin and formation of inertinite group macerals. International Journal of Coal Geology 70: 5366.
  • Scott AC, Jones TJ. 1994. The nature and influence of fires in Carboniferous ecosystems. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 106: 91112.
  • Scott AC, Lomax BH, Collinson ME, Upchurch GR, Beerling DJ. 2000b. Fire across the K/T boundary: initial results from the Sugarite Coal, New Mexico, U.S.A. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 164: 381395.
  • Sellwood BW, Valdes PJ. 2006. Mesozoic climates: general circulation models and the rock record. Sedimentary Geology 190: 269287.
  • Sender LM, Diez JB, Ferrer J, Pons D, Rubio C. 2005. Preliminary data on a new Albian flora from the Valle del Río Martín, Teruel, Spain. Cretaceous Research 26: 898905.
  • Simon MF, Grether R, de Queiroz LP, Skema C, Pennington RT, Hughes CE. 2009. Recent assembly of the Cerrado, a neotropical plant diversity hotspot, by in situ evolution of adaptations to fire. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 106: 20 35920 364.
  • Smith SA, Beaulieu JM, Donoghue MJ. 2010. An uncorrelated relaxed-clock analysis suggests an earlier origin for flowering plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 107: 58975902.
  • Spicer RA, Herman AB. 2001. The Albian–Cenomanian flora of the Kukpowruk River, western North Slope, Alaska: stratigraphy, palaeofloristics, and plant communities. Cretaceous Research 22: 140.
  • Spicer RA, Rees PMcA, Chapman JL. 1993. Cretaceous phytogeography and climate signals. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 341: 277286.
  • Stebbins GL. 1974. Flowering plants: evolution above the species level. Cambridge, MA, USA: Belknap Press.
  • Strömberg CAE. 2005. Decoupled taxonomic radiation and ecological expansion of open-habitat grasses in the Cenozoic of North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 102: 11 98011 984.
  • Takahashi M, Friis EM, Herendeen PS, Crane PR. 2008. Fossil flowers of Fagales from the Kamikitaba locality (early Coniacian; Late Cretaceous) of northeastern Japan. International Journal of Plant Sciences 169: 899907.
  • Taylor DW, Hickey LJ. 1996. Evidence for and implications of an herbaceous origin for angiosperms. In: TaylorDW, HickeyLJ, eds. Flowering plant origin, evolution and phylogeny. New York, NY, USA: Chapman and Hall, 232266.
  • Tiffney BH. 1984. Seed size, dispersal syndromes, and the rise of the angiosperms: evidence and hypothesis. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 71: 551576.
  • Upchurch GR, Dilcher DL. 1990. Cenomanian angiosperm leaf megafossils, Dakota Formation, Rose Creek locality, Jefferson County, southeastern Nebraska. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1915: 155.
  • Verdaguer D, Ojeda F. 2002. Root starch storage and allocation patterns in seeder and resprouter seedlings of two Cape Erica (Ericaceae) species. American Journal of Botany 89: 11891196.
  • Verdu M. 2002. Age at maturity and diversification in woody angiosperms. Evolution 56: 13521361.
  • Wang H, Moore MJ, Soltis PS, Belle CD, Brockington SF, Alexandre R, Davis CC, Latvis M, Manchester SR, Soltis DE. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 106: 38533858.
  • Wang X. 2004. Plant cytoplasm preserved by lightning. Tissue and Cell 36: 351360.
  • Watson AJ, Lovelock JE, Margulis L. 1978. Methanogenesis, fires, and the regulation of atmospheric oxygen. Biosystems 10: 293298.
  • Watson J, Alvin KL. 1996. An English Wealden floral list, with comments on possible environmental indicators. Cretaceous Research 17: 526.
  • Wheeler EA, Baas P. 1991. A survey of the fossil record for dicotyledonous wood and its significance for evolutionary and ecological wood anatomy. IAWA Bulletin New Series 12: 275332.
  • Wheeler EA, Lehman TM. 2009. New late Cretaceous and Paleocene dicot woods of Big Bend National Park, Texas and review of Cretaceous wood characteristics. IAWA Journal 30: 293318.
  • Wildman RA, Hickey LJ, Dickinson MB, Berner RA, Robinson JM, Dietrich M, Essenhigh RH, Wildman CB. 2004. Burning of forest materials under late Paleozoic high atmospheric oxygen levels. Geology 32: 457460.
  • Williams ER. 1992. The Schumann resonance: a global tropical thermometer. Science 256: 11841187.
  • Willis KJ, McElwain JC. 2002. The evolution of plants. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  • Wing SL, Boucher LD. 1998. Ecological aspects of the Cretaceous flowering plant radiation. Annual Review of Earth Planetary Science 26: 379421.
  • Wing SL, Herrera F, Jaramillo CA, Gomez-Navarro C, Wilf P, Labandeira CC. 2009. Late Paleocene fossils from the Cerrejon Formation, Colombia, are the earliest record of Neotropical rainforest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 106: 18 62718 632.
  • Wing SL, Hickey LJ, Swisher CC. 1993. Implications of an exceptional fossil flora for Late Cretaceous vegetation. Nature 363: 342344.
  • Wing SL, Sues H-D. 1992. Mesozoic and early Cenozoic terrestrial ecosystems. In: BehrensmeyerAK et al. , eds. Terrestrial ecosystems through time: evolutionary paleoecology of terrestrial plants and animals. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press, 327416.
  • Wing SL, Tiffney BH. 1987. The reciprocal interaction of angiosperm evolution and tetrapod herbivory. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 50: 179210.